Abstract

Bit error rate (BER) monitoring is the ultimate goal of performance monitoring in all digital transmission systems as well as optical fiber transmission systems. To achieve this goal, optimization of the decision threshold must also be considered because BER is dependent on the level of decision threshold. In this paper, we analyze a pseudo-error counting scheme and propose an algorithm to achieve both BER monitoring and adaptive decision threshold optimization in optical fiber transmission systems. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, we conduct computer simulations in both Gaussian and non-Gaussian distribution cases. According to the simulation results, BER and the optimum decision threshold can be estimated with the errors of < 20% and < 10 mV, respectively, within 0.1-s processing time in > 40-Gb/s transmission systems.

© 2010 Optical Society of Korea

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  1. A. H. Gnauck, G. Charlet, P. Tran, P. J. Winzer, C. R. Doerr, J. C. Centanni, E. C. Burrows, T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, and K. Higuma, “25.6-Tb/s WDM transmission of polarization-multiplexed RZ-DQPSK signals,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 79-84 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Teshima, M. Koga, and K. Sato, “Performance of multiwavelength simultaneous monitoring circuit employing arrayed-waveguide grating,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2277-2285 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. J. Park, S. K. Shin, and Y. C. Chung, “Simple monitoring technique for WDM networks,” Electron. Lett. 35, 415-417 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. K. Jung, C. H. Kim, and Y. C. Chung, “OSNR monitoring technique using polarization-nulling method,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. 2000 (Baltimore, USA, Mar. 2000), paper WK4.
  5. Z. Pan, Q. Yu, Y. Xie, S. A. Havstad, A. E. Willner, D. S. Starodubov, and J. Feinberg, “Chromatic dispersion monitoring and automated compensation for NRZ and RZ data using clock regeneration and fading without adding signaling,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. 2001 (Anaheim, USA, Mar. 2001), paper WH5.
  6. S. Kuwahara, A. Sano, K. Yonenaga, Y. Miyamoto, and Y. Yamabayashi, “Adaptive dispersion equalization by detecting dispersion fluctuations using PM-AM conversion,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1956-1958 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Luo, Z. Pan, S. M. R. M. Nezam, L. S. Yan, A. B. Sahin, and A. E. Willner, “PMD monitoring by tracking the chromatic-dispersion-insensitive RF power of the vestigial sideband,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2177-2179 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S.-M. Kim and C.-H. Lee, “The efficient clock-extraction methods of NRZ signal for chromatic dispersion monitoring,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1100-1102 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S.-M. Kim and J.-Y. Park, “Chromatic dispersion monitoring of CSRZ signal for optimum compensation using extracted clock-frequency component,” ETRI Journal 30, 461-468 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K.-S. Kim, J. H. Lee, W. Z. Chung, and S. C. Kim, “An electronic domain chromatic dispersion monitoring scheme insensitive to OSNR using kurtosis,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 12, 249-254 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. I. Shake, E. Otani, H. Takara, K. Uchiyama, Y.Yamabayashi, and T. Morioka, “Bit rate flexible quality monitoring of 10 to 160 Gbit/s optical signals based on optical sampling technique,” Electron. Lett. 36, 2087-2088 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. Takeshita and N. Henmi, “A novel data format free bit-by-bit quasi-error monitoring method for optical transport network,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. "99 (Sam Diego, USA, Feb. 1999), paper FJ2.
  13. M. Fregolent, S. Herbst, H. Soehnle, and B. Wedding, “Adaptive optical receiver for performance monitoring and electronic mitigation of transmission impairments,” in Proc. European Conf. on Opt. Commun. 2000 (Munich, Germany, Sep. 2000), paper 2.1.2.
  14. M. Rohde, C. Caspar, F. Raub, G. Bramann, H. Louchet, K. Habel, and E.-J. Bachus, “Control modulation technique for client independent optical performance monitoring and transport of channel overhead,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. 2002 (Anaheim, USA, Mar. 2002), paper TuE2.
  15. M. Sherif and P. A. Davies, “Decision-point steering in optical fibre communication systems : theory,” IEE Proceedings 136, 169-176 (1989).
  16. R. Wiesmann, O. Bleck, and H. Heppner, “Cost effective performance monitoring in WDM systems,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. 2000 (Baltimore, USA, Mar. 2000), paper WK2.
  17. A. Richter, H. Bock, W. Fischler, J.-P. Elbers, C. Glingener, R. Bach, and W. Grupp, “Field trial of optical performance monitor in dynamically configurable DWDM network,” Electron. Lett. 37, 370-371 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. Bach, W. Moench, and G. Strohmaier, “In-service optical performance monitoring of high-speed transparent networks based on Q measurement,” in Proc. Intern. Conf. on Transparent Opt. Networks 2001 (Cracow, Poland, June 2001), paper We.B.4.
  19. L. Ding and W.-D. Zhong, “New bit-error-rate monitoring technique based on histograms and curve fitting,” Opt. Exp. 12, 2507-2511 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  20. F. Buchali, S. Lanne, J.-P. Thiery, W. Baumert, and H. Bulow, “Fast eye monitor for 10 Gbit/s and its application for optical PMD compensation,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. 2001 (Anaheim, USA, Mar. 2001), paper TuP5.
  21. A. Sano, T. Kataoka, M. Tomizawa, K. Hagimoto, K. Sato, K. Wakita, and K. Kato, “Automatic dispersion equalization by monitoring extracted-clock power level in a 40-Gbit/s, 200-km transmission line,” in Proc. European Conf. on Opt. Commun. "96 (Oslo, Norway, Sep. 1996), paper TuD.3.5.
  22. S. J. Park and B. K. Kim, “Performance analysis for optimizing threshold level control of a receiver in asynchronous 2.5 Gbps/1.2 Gbps optical subscriber network with inverse return to zero (RZ) coded downstream and NRZ upstream re-modulation,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 13, 361-366 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  23. Y. Matsumoto, T. Kuriyama, D. Inami, M. Ohta, and M. Shiraiwa, “An adaptive decision threshold control of the optical receiver for multi-gigabit terrestrial DWDM transmission systems,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. 2001 (Anaheim, USA, Mar. 2001), paper TuR2.
  24. S.-M. Kim, J.-S. Baik, K.-Y. Park, and C.-H. Lee, “Reduction of the power penalty induced by low-frequency tone using variable decision threshold technique,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 6, 105-107 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  25. S.-M. Kim, “A study on the BER monitoring and decision threshold optimization in optical fiber transmission systems,” in Proc. Korea Information and Commun. Society Annual Summer Meeting 2009 (Jeju, Korea, June 2009), paper 8C-92.
  26. S.-M. Kim, “BER monitoring and adaptive decision threshold optimization for non-gaussian noise case,” in Proc. Photonics Conf. 2009 (Pyeongchang, Korea, Dec. 2009), paper WP-1.
  27. D. Derickson, Fiber Optic Test and Measurement (Prentice-Hall Inc., New Jersey, USA, ISBN 0-13-534330-5, 1998).

2009 (3)

S. J. Park and B. K. Kim, “Performance analysis for optimizing threshold level control of a receiver in asynchronous 2.5 Gbps/1.2 Gbps optical subscriber network with inverse return to zero (RZ) coded downstream and NRZ upstream re-modulation,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 13, 361-366 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S.-M. Kim, “A study on the BER monitoring and decision threshold optimization in optical fiber transmission systems,” in Proc. Korea Information and Commun. Society Annual Summer Meeting 2009 (Jeju, Korea, June 2009), paper 8C-92.

S.-M. Kim, “BER monitoring and adaptive decision threshold optimization for non-gaussian noise case,” in Proc. Photonics Conf. 2009 (Pyeongchang, Korea, Dec. 2009), paper WP-1.

2008 (3)

A. H. Gnauck, G. Charlet, P. Tran, P. J. Winzer, C. R. Doerr, J. C. Centanni, E. C. Burrows, T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, and K. Higuma, “25.6-Tb/s WDM transmission of polarization-multiplexed RZ-DQPSK signals,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 79-84 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S.-M. Kim and J.-Y. Park, “Chromatic dispersion monitoring of CSRZ signal for optimum compensation using extracted clock-frequency component,” ETRI Journal 30, 461-468 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K.-S. Kim, J. H. Lee, W. Z. Chung, and S. C. Kim, “An electronic domain chromatic dispersion monitoring scheme insensitive to OSNR using kurtosis,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 12, 249-254 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

S.-M. Kim and C.-H. Lee, “The efficient clock-extraction methods of NRZ signal for chromatic dispersion monitoring,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1100-1102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

T. Luo, Z. Pan, S. M. R. M. Nezam, L. S. Yan, A. B. Sahin, and A. E. Willner, “PMD monitoring by tracking the chromatic-dispersion-insensitive RF power of the vestigial sideband,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2177-2179 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Ding and W.-D. Zhong, “New bit-error-rate monitoring technique based on histograms and curve fitting,” Opt. Exp. 12, 2507-2511 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

S.-M. Kim, J.-S. Baik, K.-Y. Park, and C.-H. Lee, “Reduction of the power penalty induced by low-frequency tone using variable decision threshold technique,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 6, 105-107 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Rohde, C. Caspar, F. Raub, G. Bramann, H. Louchet, K. Habel, and E.-J. Bachus, “Control modulation technique for client independent optical performance monitoring and transport of channel overhead,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. 2002 (Anaheim, USA, Mar. 2002), paper TuE2.

2001 (5)

Z. Pan, Q. Yu, Y. Xie, S. A. Havstad, A. E. Willner, D. S. Starodubov, and J. Feinberg, “Chromatic dispersion monitoring and automated compensation for NRZ and RZ data using clock regeneration and fading without adding signaling,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. 2001 (Anaheim, USA, Mar. 2001), paper WH5.

F. Buchali, S. Lanne, J.-P. Thiery, W. Baumert, and H. Bulow, “Fast eye monitor for 10 Gbit/s and its application for optical PMD compensation,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. 2001 (Anaheim, USA, Mar. 2001), paper TuP5.

A. Richter, H. Bock, W. Fischler, J.-P. Elbers, C. Glingener, R. Bach, and W. Grupp, “Field trial of optical performance monitor in dynamically configurable DWDM network,” Electron. Lett. 37, 370-371 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Bach, W. Moench, and G. Strohmaier, “In-service optical performance monitoring of high-speed transparent networks based on Q measurement,” in Proc. Intern. Conf. on Transparent Opt. Networks 2001 (Cracow, Poland, June 2001), paper We.B.4.

Y. Matsumoto, T. Kuriyama, D. Inami, M. Ohta, and M. Shiraiwa, “An adaptive decision threshold control of the optical receiver for multi-gigabit terrestrial DWDM transmission systems,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. 2001 (Anaheim, USA, Mar. 2001), paper TuR2.

2000 (4)

D. K. Jung, C. H. Kim, and Y. C. Chung, “OSNR monitoring technique using polarization-nulling method,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. 2000 (Baltimore, USA, Mar. 2000), paper WK4.

M. Fregolent, S. Herbst, H. Soehnle, and B. Wedding, “Adaptive optical receiver for performance monitoring and electronic mitigation of transmission impairments,” in Proc. European Conf. on Opt. Commun. 2000 (Munich, Germany, Sep. 2000), paper 2.1.2.

R. Wiesmann, O. Bleck, and H. Heppner, “Cost effective performance monitoring in WDM systems,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. 2000 (Baltimore, USA, Mar. 2000), paper WK2.

I. Shake, E. Otani, H. Takara, K. Uchiyama, Y.Yamabayashi, and T. Morioka, “Bit rate flexible quality monitoring of 10 to 160 Gbit/s optical signals based on optical sampling technique,” Electron. Lett. 36, 2087-2088 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

H. Takeshita and N. Henmi, “A novel data format free bit-by-bit quasi-error monitoring method for optical transport network,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. "99 (Sam Diego, USA, Feb. 1999), paper FJ2.

K. J. Park, S. K. Shin, and Y. C. Chung, “Simple monitoring technique for WDM networks,” Electron. Lett. 35, 415-417 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

S. Kuwahara, A. Sano, K. Yonenaga, Y. Miyamoto, and Y. Yamabayashi, “Adaptive dispersion equalization by detecting dispersion fluctuations using PM-AM conversion,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1956-1958 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Derickson, Fiber Optic Test and Measurement (Prentice-Hall Inc., New Jersey, USA, ISBN 0-13-534330-5, 1998).

1996 (2)

A. Sano, T. Kataoka, M. Tomizawa, K. Hagimoto, K. Sato, K. Wakita, and K. Kato, “Automatic dispersion equalization by monitoring extracted-clock power level in a 40-Gbit/s, 200-km transmission line,” in Proc. European Conf. on Opt. Commun. "96 (Oslo, Norway, Sep. 1996), paper TuD.3.5.

M. Teshima, M. Koga, and K. Sato, “Performance of multiwavelength simultaneous monitoring circuit employing arrayed-waveguide grating,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2277-2285 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

M. Sherif and P. A. Davies, “Decision-point steering in optical fibre communication systems : theory,” IEE Proceedings 136, 169-176 (1989).

Electron. Lett (1)

A. Richter, H. Bock, W. Fischler, J.-P. Elbers, C. Glingener, R. Bach, and W. Grupp, “Field trial of optical performance monitor in dynamically configurable DWDM network,” Electron. Lett. 37, 370-371 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (3)

I. Shake, E. Otani, H. Takara, K. Uchiyama, Y.Yamabayashi, and T. Morioka, “Bit rate flexible quality monitoring of 10 to 160 Gbit/s optical signals based on optical sampling technique,” Electron. Lett. 36, 2087-2088 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Park, S. K. Shin, and Y. C. Chung, “Simple monitoring technique for WDM networks,” Electron. Lett. 35, 415-417 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Kuwahara, A. Sano, K. Yonenaga, Y. Miyamoto, and Y. Yamabayashi, “Adaptive dispersion equalization by detecting dispersion fluctuations using PM-AM conversion,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1956-1958 (1998).
[CrossRef]

ETRI Journal (1)

S.-M. Kim and J.-Y. Park, “Chromatic dispersion monitoring of CSRZ signal for optimum compensation using extracted clock-frequency component,” ETRI Journal 30, 461-468 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEE Proceedings (1)

M. Sherif and P. A. Davies, “Decision-point steering in optical fibre communication systems : theory,” IEE Proceedings 136, 169-176 (1989).

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

A. H. Gnauck, G. Charlet, P. Tran, P. J. Winzer, C. R. Doerr, J. C. Centanni, E. C. Burrows, T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, and K. Higuma, “25.6-Tb/s WDM transmission of polarization-multiplexed RZ-DQPSK signals,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 79-84 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Teshima, M. Koga, and K. Sato, “Performance of multiwavelength simultaneous monitoring circuit employing arrayed-waveguide grating,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2277-2285 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

T. Luo, Z. Pan, S. M. R. M. Nezam, L. S. Yan, A. B. Sahin, and A. E. Willner, “PMD monitoring by tracking the chromatic-dispersion-insensitive RF power of the vestigial sideband,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2177-2179 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S.-M. Kim and C.-H. Lee, “The efficient clock-extraction methods of NRZ signal for chromatic dispersion monitoring,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1100-1102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Korea (3)

Opt. Exp. (1)

L. Ding and W.-D. Zhong, “New bit-error-rate monitoring technique based on histograms and curve fitting,” Opt. Exp. 12, 2507-2511 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Proc. European Conf. on Opt. Commun (1)

M. Fregolent, S. Herbst, H. Soehnle, and B. Wedding, “Adaptive optical receiver for performance monitoring and electronic mitigation of transmission impairments,” in Proc. European Conf. on Opt. Commun. 2000 (Munich, Germany, Sep. 2000), paper 2.1.2.

Proc. European Conf. on Opt. Commun. ’96 (1)

A. Sano, T. Kataoka, M. Tomizawa, K. Hagimoto, K. Sato, K. Wakita, and K. Kato, “Automatic dispersion equalization by monitoring extracted-clock power level in a 40-Gbit/s, 200-km transmission line,” in Proc. European Conf. on Opt. Commun. "96 (Oslo, Norway, Sep. 1996), paper TuD.3.5.

Proc. Intern. Conf. on Transparent Opt. Networks 2001 (1)

R. Bach, W. Moench, and G. Strohmaier, “In-service optical performance monitoring of high-speed transparent networks based on Q measurement,” in Proc. Intern. Conf. on Transparent Opt. Networks 2001 (Cracow, Poland, June 2001), paper We.B.4.

Proc. Korea Information and Commun. Society Annual Summer Meeting 2009 (1)

S.-M. Kim, “A study on the BER monitoring and decision threshold optimization in optical fiber transmission systems,” in Proc. Korea Information and Commun. Society Annual Summer Meeting 2009 (Jeju, Korea, June 2009), paper 8C-92.

Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (1)

Z. Pan, Q. Yu, Y. Xie, S. A. Havstad, A. E. Willner, D. S. Starodubov, and J. Feinberg, “Chromatic dispersion monitoring and automated compensation for NRZ and RZ data using clock regeneration and fading without adding signaling,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. 2001 (Anaheim, USA, Mar. 2001), paper WH5.

Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. ’99 (1)

H. Takeshita and N. Henmi, “A novel data format free bit-by-bit quasi-error monitoring method for optical transport network,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. "99 (Sam Diego, USA, Feb. 1999), paper FJ2.

Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. 2000 (2)

R. Wiesmann, O. Bleck, and H. Heppner, “Cost effective performance monitoring in WDM systems,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. 2000 (Baltimore, USA, Mar. 2000), paper WK2.

D. K. Jung, C. H. Kim, and Y. C. Chung, “OSNR monitoring technique using polarization-nulling method,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. 2000 (Baltimore, USA, Mar. 2000), paper WK4.

Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. 2001 (2)

F. Buchali, S. Lanne, J.-P. Thiery, W. Baumert, and H. Bulow, “Fast eye monitor for 10 Gbit/s and its application for optical PMD compensation,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. 2001 (Anaheim, USA, Mar. 2001), paper TuP5.

Y. Matsumoto, T. Kuriyama, D. Inami, M. Ohta, and M. Shiraiwa, “An adaptive decision threshold control of the optical receiver for multi-gigabit terrestrial DWDM transmission systems,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. 2001 (Anaheim, USA, Mar. 2001), paper TuR2.

Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. 2002 (1)

M. Rohde, C. Caspar, F. Raub, G. Bramann, H. Louchet, K. Habel, and E.-J. Bachus, “Control modulation technique for client independent optical performance monitoring and transport of channel overhead,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. 2002 (Anaheim, USA, Mar. 2002), paper TuE2.

Proc. Photonics Conf. 2009 (1)

S.-M. Kim, “BER monitoring and adaptive decision threshold optimization for non-gaussian noise case,” in Proc. Photonics Conf. 2009 (Pyeongchang, Korea, Dec. 2009), paper WP-1.

Other (1)

D. Derickson, Fiber Optic Test and Measurement (Prentice-Hall Inc., New Jersey, USA, ISBN 0-13-534330-5, 1998).

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