Abstract

Fiber ring laser based intra-cavity absorption spectroscopic sensor has great potential for high sensitivity gas detection. Using the rate equations and propagation equations, we investigated theoretically factors that affect the sensitivity of such fiber ring laser sensors and determined the optimal design parameters and conditions for significant enhancement of the system sensitivity. Experiments have been conducted to determine the sensitivity enhancement performance. The results showed a factor of 25 ~ 30 in sensitivity enhancement in the experimental system, agreeing well with the theoretical expectations. Experiments on acetylene detection have also been carried out and the results showed that the ring cavity significantly increases the signal absorption and that high sensitivity can be obtained for gas detection.

© 2010 Optical Society of Korea

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  1. G. Stewart, K Atherton, H. B. Yu, and B. Culshaw, “An investigation of an optical fibre amplifier loop for intra-cavity and ring-down cavity loss measurements,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 843-849 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. Zhang, M. Zhang, and W. Jin, “Multi-point, fiber-optic gas detection with intra-cavity spectroscopy,” Opt. Comm. 220, 361-364 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Zhang, D. N. Wang, W. Jin, and Y. B. Liao, “Wavelength modulation technique for intra-cavity absorption gas sensor,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 53, 136-139 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Y. Ryu, W. K. Lee, H. S. Moon, and H. S. Suh, “Tunable Erbium-doped fiber ring laser for applications of infrared absorption spectroscopy,” Opt. Comm. 275, 379-384 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Liu, W. C. Jing, G. D. Peng, J. Z. Zhang, Y. Wang, T. G. Liu, D. Jia, H. Zhang, and Y. Zhang, “Wavelength sweep of intra-cavity fiber laser for low concentration gas detection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1515-1517 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. Zhang, M. Zhang, and W. Jin, “Sensitivity enhancement in Erbiumdoped fiber laser intra-cavity absorption sensor,” Sens. Actuators A 104, 183-187 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. X. Dong, P. Shum, N. Q. Ngo, H.-Y. Tam, and X. Dong, “Output power characteristics of tunable Erbium-doped fiber ring lasers,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 1334-1341 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Bellemare. M. Karbsek, C. Riviere, F. Babin, G. He, V. Roy, and G. W. Schinn, “A broadly tunable Erbium-doped fiber ring laser: experimentation and modeling,” IEEE. J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 7, 22-29 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Pfeiffer, H. Schmuck, and H. Bulow, “Output power characterisitics of Erbium-doped fiber ring lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 847-849 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Selvakennedy, M. A. Mahdi, M. K. Abdullah, P. Poopalan, and H. Ahmad, “Design optimisation of Erbium-doped fiber ring laser through numerical simulation,” Opt. Comm. 170, 247-253 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Selvakennedy, M. A. Mahdi, M. K. Abdullah, P. Poopalan, and H. Ahmad, “Behavioral investigaions of an Erbiumdoped fiber ring laser through numerical simulations,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 6, 155-163 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Karasek and J. A. Valles, “Analysis of channel addition/removal response in all-optical gain-controlled cascade of Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1795-1803 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. R. Giles and E. Desurvire, “Modeling Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 271-283 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  14. V. M. Baev, T. Latz, and P. E. Toschek, “Laser intracavity absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 171-202 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Y. Zhang, M. Zhang, W. Jin, H. L. Ho, M. S. Demokan, X. H. Fang, B. Culshaw, and G. Stewart, “Investigation of Erbium-doped fiber laser intracavity absorption sensor for gas detection,” Opt. Comm. 234, 435-441 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  16. HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database 2004.

2008 (1)

K. Liu, W. C. Jing, G. D. Peng, J. Z. Zhang, Y. Wang, T. G. Liu, D. Jia, H. Zhang, and Y. Zhang, “Wavelength sweep of intra-cavity fiber laser for low concentration gas detection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1515-1517 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

H. Y. Ryu, W. K. Lee, H. S. Moon, and H. S. Suh, “Tunable Erbium-doped fiber ring laser for applications of infrared absorption spectroscopy,” Opt. Comm. 275, 379-384 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

X. Dong, P. Shum, N. Q. Ngo, H.-Y. Tam, and X. Dong, “Output power characteristics of tunable Erbium-doped fiber ring lasers,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 1334-1341 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

M. Zhang, D. N. Wang, W. Jin, and Y. B. Liao, “Wavelength modulation technique for intra-cavity absorption gas sensor,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 53, 136-139 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, M. Zhang, W. Jin, H. L. Ho, M. S. Demokan, X. H. Fang, B. Culshaw, and G. Stewart, “Investigation of Erbium-doped fiber laser intracavity absorption sensor for gas detection,” Opt. Comm. 234, 435-441 (2004).
[CrossRef]

HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database 2004.

2003 (2)

Y. Zhang, M. Zhang, and W. Jin, “Multi-point, fiber-optic gas detection with intra-cavity spectroscopy,” Opt. Comm. 220, 361-364 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, M. Zhang, and W. Jin, “Sensitivity enhancement in Erbiumdoped fiber laser intra-cavity absorption sensor,” Sens. Actuators A 104, 183-187 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

A. Bellemare. M. Karbsek, C. Riviere, F. Babin, G. He, V. Roy, and G. W. Schinn, “A broadly tunable Erbium-doped fiber ring laser: experimentation and modeling,” IEEE. J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 7, 22-29 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Stewart, K Atherton, H. B. Yu, and B. Culshaw, “An investigation of an optical fibre amplifier loop for intra-cavity and ring-down cavity loss measurements,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 843-849 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

S. Selvakennedy, M. A. Mahdi, M. K. Abdullah, P. Poopalan, and H. Ahmad, “Behavioral investigaions of an Erbiumdoped fiber ring laser through numerical simulations,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 6, 155-163 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

S. Selvakennedy, M. A. Mahdi, M. K. Abdullah, P. Poopalan, and H. Ahmad, “Design optimisation of Erbium-doped fiber ring laser through numerical simulation,” Opt. Comm. 170, 247-253 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Baev, T. Latz, and P. E. Toschek, “Laser intracavity absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 171-202 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

M. Karasek and J. A. Valles, “Analysis of channel addition/removal response in all-optical gain-controlled cascade of Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1795-1803 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

T. Pfeiffer, H. Schmuck, and H. Bulow, “Output power characterisitics of Erbium-doped fiber ring lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 847-849 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

C. R. Giles and E. Desurvire, “Modeling Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 271-283 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

V. M. Baev, T. Latz, and P. E. Toschek, “Laser intracavity absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 171-202 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

M. Karasek and J. A. Valles, “Analysis of channel addition/removal response in all-optical gain-controlled cascade of Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1795-1803 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Giles and E. Desurvire, “Modeling Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 271-283 (1991).
[CrossRef]

X. Dong, P. Shum, N. Q. Ngo, H.-Y. Tam, and X. Dong, “Output power characteristics of tunable Erbium-doped fiber ring lasers,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 1334-1341 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

K. Liu, W. C. Jing, G. D. Peng, J. Z. Zhang, Y. Wang, T. G. Liu, D. Jia, H. Zhang, and Y. Zhang, “Wavelength sweep of intra-cavity fiber laser for low concentration gas detection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1515-1517 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Pfeiffer, H. Schmuck, and H. Bulow, “Output power characterisitics of Erbium-doped fiber ring lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 847-849 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (1)

M. Zhang, D. N. Wang, W. Jin, and Y. B. Liao, “Wavelength modulation technique for intra-cavity absorption gas sensor,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 53, 136-139 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE. J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron (1)

A. Bellemare. M. Karbsek, C. Riviere, F. Babin, G. He, V. Roy, and G. W. Schinn, “A broadly tunable Erbium-doped fiber ring laser: experimentation and modeling,” IEEE. J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 7, 22-29 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

G. Stewart, K Atherton, H. B. Yu, and B. Culshaw, “An investigation of an optical fibre amplifier loop for intra-cavity and ring-down cavity loss measurements,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 843-849 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Comm. (4)

Y. Zhang, M. Zhang, and W. Jin, “Multi-point, fiber-optic gas detection with intra-cavity spectroscopy,” Opt. Comm. 220, 361-364 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Ryu, W. K. Lee, H. S. Moon, and H. S. Suh, “Tunable Erbium-doped fiber ring laser for applications of infrared absorption spectroscopy,” Opt. Comm. 275, 379-384 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Selvakennedy, M. A. Mahdi, M. K. Abdullah, P. Poopalan, and H. Ahmad, “Design optimisation of Erbium-doped fiber ring laser through numerical simulation,” Opt. Comm. 170, 247-253 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, M. Zhang, W. Jin, H. L. Ho, M. S. Demokan, X. H. Fang, B. Culshaw, and G. Stewart, “Investigation of Erbium-doped fiber laser intracavity absorption sensor for gas detection,” Opt. Comm. 234, 435-441 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

S. Selvakennedy, M. A. Mahdi, M. K. Abdullah, P. Poopalan, and H. Ahmad, “Behavioral investigaions of an Erbiumdoped fiber ring laser through numerical simulations,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 6, 155-163 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators A (1)

Y. Zhang, M. Zhang, and W. Jin, “Sensitivity enhancement in Erbiumdoped fiber laser intra-cavity absorption sensor,” Sens. Actuators A 104, 183-187 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database 2004.

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