Abstract

A photonic crystal fiber with two large air holes outside the holey cladding region is fabricated to induce an effective long periodic grating (LPG) in the core by an electric arc discharge. We believe that the two large air holes lead to the asymmetric perturbation in the core under the electric arc discharge, thereby introducing the coupling to the first higher-order mode. The transmission characteristics of the PCF with the LPG for the external perturbation such as strain, curvature, and temperature are also investigated. It was found that the shift of resonance peak in the transmission spectrum depends on the bending direction. The curvature of 8.55 m-1 results in the center wavelength shifts of 1.8, 4.3, and 11 nm for a vertical, diagonal, and horizontal direction of the curvature to the large air-hole alignment, respectively.

© 2009 Optical Society of Korea

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  1. A. M. Vengsarkar, J. R. Pedrazzani, J. B. Judkins, and P. J. Lemaire "Long-period fiber-grating-based gain equalizers," Opt. Lett. 21, 336-338 (1996)
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. K. Bae, J. H. Bae, S. H. Kim, N. K. Park, and S. B. Lee, "Dynamic EDFA gain-flattening filter using two LPFGs with divided coil heaters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1226-1228 (2005)
    [CrossRef]
  3. V. Bhatia and A. M. Vengsarkar, "Optical fiber long-period grating sensors," Opt. Lett. 21, 692-694 (1996)
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and D. M. Atkin, "All-silica single-mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding," Opt. Lett. 21, 1547-1549 (1996)
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Dobb, K. Kalli, and D. J. Webb, "Measured sensitivity of arc-induced long-period grating sensors in photonic crystal fibre," Opt. Comm. 260, 184-191 (2005)
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. Kakarantzas, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, "Structural long-period gratings in photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Lett. 27, 1013-1015 (2002)
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. Brambilla, A. A. Fotiadi, S. A. Slattery, and D. N. Nikogosyan, "Two-photon photochemical long-period grating fabrication in pure-fused-silica photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 31, 2675-2677 (2006)
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. H. Lim, K. S. Lee, J. C. Kim, and B. H. Lee, "Tunable fiber gratings fabricated in photonic crystal fiber by use of mechanical pressure," Opt. Lett. 29, 331-333 (2004)
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. Humbert, A. Malki, S. Fevrier, P. Roy, and D. Pagnoux, "Electric arc-induced long-period gratings in Ge-free air-silica microstructure fibres," Electron. Lett. 39, 349-350 (2003)
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. Cho, G. Kim, K. Lee, J. M. Jeong, and S. B. Lee, "Study on the fabrication process of polarization maintaining photonic crystal fibers and their optical properties," J. Opt. Soc. Korea 12, 19-24 (2008)
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. Kim, T. Cho, K. Hwang, K. Lee, K. S. Lee, and S. B. Lee, "Control of hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber ellipticity by induced lateral tension," Opt. Exp. 17, 1268-1273 (2009)
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. D. Lim, H. C. Park, I. K. Hwang, and B. Y. Kim, "Combined effects of optical and acoustic birefringence on acousto-optic mode coupling in photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Exp. 16, 6125-6133 (2008)
    [CrossRef]
  13. N. H. Vu, I. K. Hwang, and Y. H. Lee, "Bending loss analyses of photonic crystal fibers based on the finite-difference time-domain method," Opt. Lett. 33, 119-121 (2008)
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. G. Han, G. Kim, K. Lee, S. B. Lee, C. H. Jeong, C. H. Oh, and H. J. Kang, "Bending sensitivity of long-period fiber gratings inscribed in holey fibers depending on an axial rotation angle," Opt. Exp. 15, 12866-12871 (2007)
    [CrossRef]

2009 (1)

G. Kim, T. Cho, K. Hwang, K. Lee, K. S. Lee, and S. B. Lee, "Control of hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber ellipticity by induced lateral tension," Opt. Exp. 17, 1268-1273 (2009)
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

S. D. Lim, H. C. Park, I. K. Hwang, and B. Y. Kim, "Combined effects of optical and acoustic birefringence on acousto-optic mode coupling in photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Exp. 16, 6125-6133 (2008)
[CrossRef]

N. H. Vu, I. K. Hwang, and Y. H. Lee, "Bending loss analyses of photonic crystal fibers based on the finite-difference time-domain method," Opt. Lett. 33, 119-121 (2008)
[CrossRef]

T. Cho, G. Kim, K. Lee, J. M. Jeong, and S. B. Lee, "Study on the fabrication process of polarization maintaining photonic crystal fibers and their optical properties," J. Opt. Soc. Korea 12, 19-24 (2008)
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

Y. G. Han, G. Kim, K. Lee, S. B. Lee, C. H. Jeong, C. H. Oh, and H. J. Kang, "Bending sensitivity of long-period fiber gratings inscribed in holey fibers depending on an axial rotation angle," Opt. Exp. 15, 12866-12871 (2007)
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

G. Brambilla, A. A. Fotiadi, S. A. Slattery, and D. N. Nikogosyan, "Two-photon photochemical long-period grating fabrication in pure-fused-silica photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 31, 2675-2677 (2006)
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

J. K. Bae, J. H. Bae, S. H. Kim, N. K. Park, and S. B. Lee, "Dynamic EDFA gain-flattening filter using two LPFGs with divided coil heaters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1226-1228 (2005)
[CrossRef]

H. Dobb, K. Kalli, and D. J. Webb, "Measured sensitivity of arc-induced long-period grating sensors in photonic crystal fibre," Opt. Comm. 260, 184-191 (2005)
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

J. H. Lim, K. S. Lee, J. C. Kim, and B. H. Lee, "Tunable fiber gratings fabricated in photonic crystal fiber by use of mechanical pressure," Opt. Lett. 29, 331-333 (2004)
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

G. Humbert, A. Malki, S. Fevrier, P. Roy, and D. Pagnoux, "Electric arc-induced long-period gratings in Ge-free air-silica microstructure fibres," Electron. Lett. 39, 349-350 (2003)
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

G. Kakarantzas, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, "Structural long-period gratings in photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Lett. 27, 1013-1015 (2002)
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

V. Bhatia and A. M. Vengsarkar, "Optical fiber long-period grating sensors," Opt. Lett. 21, 692-694 (1996)
[CrossRef]

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and D. M. Atkin, "All-silica single-mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding," Opt. Lett. 21, 1547-1549 (1996)
[CrossRef]

A. M. Vengsarkar, J. R. Pedrazzani, J. B. Judkins, and P. J. Lemaire "Long-period fiber-grating-based gain equalizers," Opt. Lett. 21, 336-338 (1996)
[CrossRef]

Electronics Letters (1)

G. Humbert, A. Malki, S. Fevrier, P. Roy, and D. Pagnoux, "Electric arc-induced long-period gratings in Ge-free air-silica microstructure fibres," Electron. Lett. 39, 349-350 (2003)
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technology Letters (1)

J. K. Bae, J. H. Bae, S. H. Kim, N. K. Park, and S. B. Lee, "Dynamic EDFA gain-flattening filter using two LPFGs with divided coil heaters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1226-1228 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Journal of the Optical Society of Korea (1)

T. Cho, G. Kim, K. Lee, J. M. Jeong, and S. B. Lee, "Study on the fabrication process of polarization maintaining photonic crystal fibers and their optical properties," J. Opt. Soc. Korea 12, 19-24 (2008)
[CrossRef]

Optics communications (1)

H. Dobb, K. Kalli, and D. J. Webb, "Measured sensitivity of arc-induced long-period grating sensors in photonic crystal fibre," Opt. Comm. 260, 184-191 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Optics Express (3)

G. Kim, T. Cho, K. Hwang, K. Lee, K. S. Lee, and S. B. Lee, "Control of hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber ellipticity by induced lateral tension," Opt. Exp. 17, 1268-1273 (2009)
[CrossRef]

S. D. Lim, H. C. Park, I. K. Hwang, and B. Y. Kim, "Combined effects of optical and acoustic birefringence on acousto-optic mode coupling in photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Exp. 16, 6125-6133 (2008)
[CrossRef]

Y. G. Han, G. Kim, K. Lee, S. B. Lee, C. H. Jeong, C. H. Oh, and H. J. Kang, "Bending sensitivity of long-period fiber gratings inscribed in holey fibers depending on an axial rotation angle," Opt. Exp. 15, 12866-12871 (2007)
[CrossRef]

Optics Letters (7)

A. M. Vengsarkar, J. R. Pedrazzani, J. B. Judkins, and P. J. Lemaire "Long-period fiber-grating-based gain equalizers," Opt. Lett. 21, 336-338 (1996)
[CrossRef]

V. Bhatia and A. M. Vengsarkar, "Optical fiber long-period grating sensors," Opt. Lett. 21, 692-694 (1996)
[CrossRef]

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and D. M. Atkin, "All-silica single-mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding," Opt. Lett. 21, 1547-1549 (1996)
[CrossRef]

N. H. Vu, I. K. Hwang, and Y. H. Lee, "Bending loss analyses of photonic crystal fibers based on the finite-difference time-domain method," Opt. Lett. 33, 119-121 (2008)
[CrossRef]

G. Kakarantzas, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, "Structural long-period gratings in photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Lett. 27, 1013-1015 (2002)
[CrossRef]

G. Brambilla, A. A. Fotiadi, S. A. Slattery, and D. N. Nikogosyan, "Two-photon photochemical long-period grating fabrication in pure-fused-silica photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 31, 2675-2677 (2006)
[CrossRef]

J. H. Lim, K. S. Lee, J. C. Kim, and B. H. Lee, "Tunable fiber gratings fabricated in photonic crystal fiber by use of mechanical pressure," Opt. Lett. 29, 331-333 (2004)
[CrossRef]

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