Abstract

We propose a simple in-line variable optical attenuator (VOA) based on the bending effect of tapered single mode fibers. The influence of the taper structure and the reflective index of the external medium surrounding the taper region on the bending loss of the tapered fiber have been investigated experimentally. An attenuation range exceeding 35 dB and a very low excess loss of < 0.2 dB at 1550 nm were achieved. The measured polarization dependent loss of the present VOA at the attenuation level of 10 dB, 20 dB, and 30 dB were 0.1 dB, 0.2 dB, and 0.5 dB, respectively.

© 2009 Optical Society of Korea

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  1. S. S. Lee, Y. S. Jin, and T. K. Yoo, "Polymeric tunable optical attenuator with an optical monitoring tap for WDM transmission network," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 590-592 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. O. Noh, C. L. Lee, J. M. Kim, W. Y. Hwang, Y. H. Won, H. J. Lee, S. G. Han, and M. C. Oh, "Polymer waveguide variable optical attenuator and its reliability," Opt. Comm. 242, 533-540 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Kawai, M. Koga, M. Okuno, and T. Kitoh, "PLC type compact variable optical attenuator for photonic transport network," Electron. Lett. 34, 264-265 (1998)
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. H. Lee, Y. Y. Kim, S. S. Yun, H. Kwon, Y. S. Hong, J. H. Lee, and S. C. Jung, "Design and characteristics of a micromachined variable optical attenuator with a silicon wedge," Opt. Comm. 221, 323-330 (2003)
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. Marxer, P. Ggriss, and N. F. de Rooij, "A variable optical attenuator based on silicon micromechanics," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 233-235 (1999)
    [CrossRef]
  6. N. A. Riza and S. Sumriddetechkajorn, "Digitally controlled fault-tolerant muliwavelength programmable fiber optic attenuator using a two dimensional digital micromirror devices," Opt. Lett. 24, 83-84 (1999)
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Villatoro, A. Diez, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andres, "In-line highly sensitive hydrogen sensor based on palladiumcoated single-mode tapered fibers," IEEE Sensors Journal 3, 533-537 (2003)
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. Bariain, I. R. Matas, F. J. Arregui, and M. Lopez-Amo, "Optical fiber humidity sensor based on a tapered fiber coated with agarose gel," Sens. and Actuators B: Chemical 69, 127-131 (2000)
    [CrossRef]
  9. V. Morozove, H. Fan, L. Eldada, L. Yang, and Y. Shi, "Fused fiber-optic variable attenuator," in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Baltimore, USA, Mar. 2000), pp. 22-24
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Diez, M. V. Andres, and D. O. Culverhouse, "In-line polarizers and filters made of metal-coated tapered fibers: resonant excitation of hybrid plasma modes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 833-835 (1998)
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Villatoro, D. Monzon-Hernandez, and D. Luna-Moreno, "In-line tunable band-edge filter based on a single-mode tapered fiber coated with a dispersive material," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1665-1667 (2005)
    [CrossRef]
  12. W. A. Gambling, H. Matsumura, and C. M. Ragdale, "Curvature and microbending losses in single mode optical fibers," Optical and Quantum Electronics 11, 43-59 (1979)
    [CrossRef]
  13. L. C. Bobb, P. M. Shanker, and H. D. Krumboltz, "Bending effects in biconically tapered single mode fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1084-1090 (1990)
    [CrossRef]
  14. P. M. Shankar, L. C. Bobb, and H. D. Krumboltz, “Coupling of modes in bent biconically tapered single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 832-837 (1991)
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. Bariain, I. R. Matias, and F. J. Francisco, "Tapered optical-fiber-based pressure sensor," Opt. Eng. 39, 2241-2247 (2000)
    [CrossRef]
  16. I. R. Matias, M. Lopez-Amo, and F. Mantero, "Low-cost optical amplitude modulator based on a tapered single-mode optical fiber," Appl. Opt. 40, 228-234 (2001)
    [CrossRef]
  17. D. H. Lee, K. H Kwon, J. W. Song, and J. H. Park, "Variable optical fiber attenuator using bending-sensitive fiber," J. Opt. Soc. Korea 8, 83-89 (2004)
    [CrossRef]
  18. T. A. Birks and Y. W. Li, "The shape of fiber tapers," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 432-438 (1992)
    [CrossRef]
  19. R. P. Kenny, T. A. Birks, and K. P. Oakley, "Control of optical fiber taper shape," Electron. Lett. 27, 1654-1656 (1991)
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. Villatoro, D. Monzon-Hernandez, and E. Mejia, "Fabrication and modeling of uniform waist single-mode tapered optical fiber sensor," Appl. Opt. 42, 2278-2283 (2003)
    [CrossRef]

2005

J. Villatoro, D. Monzon-Hernandez, and D. Luna-Moreno, "In-line tunable band-edge filter based on a single-mode tapered fiber coated with a dispersive material," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1665-1667 (2005)
[CrossRef]

2004

D. H. Lee, K. H Kwon, J. W. Song, and J. H. Park, "Variable optical fiber attenuator using bending-sensitive fiber," J. Opt. Soc. Korea 8, 83-89 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Y. O. Noh, C. L. Lee, J. M. Kim, W. Y. Hwang, Y. H. Won, H. J. Lee, S. G. Han, and M. C. Oh, "Polymer waveguide variable optical attenuator and its reliability," Opt. Comm. 242, 533-540 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

J. H. Lee, Y. Y. Kim, S. S. Yun, H. Kwon, Y. S. Hong, J. H. Lee, and S. C. Jung, "Design and characteristics of a micromachined variable optical attenuator with a silicon wedge," Opt. Comm. 221, 323-330 (2003)
[CrossRef]

J. Villatoro, A. Diez, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andres, "In-line highly sensitive hydrogen sensor based on palladiumcoated single-mode tapered fibers," IEEE Sensors Journal 3, 533-537 (2003)
[CrossRef]

J. Villatoro, D. Monzon-Hernandez, and E. Mejia, "Fabrication and modeling of uniform waist single-mode tapered optical fiber sensor," Appl. Opt. 42, 2278-2283 (2003)
[CrossRef]

2001

I. R. Matias, M. Lopez-Amo, and F. Mantero, "Low-cost optical amplitude modulator based on a tapered single-mode optical fiber," Appl. Opt. 40, 228-234 (2001)
[CrossRef]

2000

C. Bariain, I. R. Matas, F. J. Arregui, and M. Lopez-Amo, "Optical fiber humidity sensor based on a tapered fiber coated with agarose gel," Sens. and Actuators B: Chemical 69, 127-131 (2000)
[CrossRef]

V. Morozove, H. Fan, L. Eldada, L. Yang, and Y. Shi, "Fused fiber-optic variable attenuator," in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Baltimore, USA, Mar. 2000), pp. 22-24
[CrossRef]

C. Bariain, I. R. Matias, and F. J. Francisco, "Tapered optical-fiber-based pressure sensor," Opt. Eng. 39, 2241-2247 (2000)
[CrossRef]

1999

S. S. Lee, Y. S. Jin, and T. K. Yoo, "Polymeric tunable optical attenuator with an optical monitoring tap for WDM transmission network," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 590-592 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Marxer, P. Ggriss, and N. F. de Rooij, "A variable optical attenuator based on silicon micromechanics," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 233-235 (1999)
[CrossRef]

N. A. Riza and S. Sumriddetechkajorn, "Digitally controlled fault-tolerant muliwavelength programmable fiber optic attenuator using a two dimensional digital micromirror devices," Opt. Lett. 24, 83-84 (1999)
[CrossRef]

1998

T. Kawai, M. Koga, M. Okuno, and T. Kitoh, "PLC type compact variable optical attenuator for photonic transport network," Electron. Lett. 34, 264-265 (1998)
[CrossRef]

A. Diez, M. V. Andres, and D. O. Culverhouse, "In-line polarizers and filters made of metal-coated tapered fibers: resonant excitation of hybrid plasma modes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 833-835 (1998)
[CrossRef]

1992

T. A. Birks and Y. W. Li, "The shape of fiber tapers," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 432-438 (1992)
[CrossRef]

1991

R. P. Kenny, T. A. Birks, and K. P. Oakley, "Control of optical fiber taper shape," Electron. Lett. 27, 1654-1656 (1991)
[CrossRef]

P. M. Shankar, L. C. Bobb, and H. D. Krumboltz, “Coupling of modes in bent biconically tapered single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 832-837 (1991)
[CrossRef]

1990

L. C. Bobb, P. M. Shanker, and H. D. Krumboltz, "Bending effects in biconically tapered single mode fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1084-1090 (1990)
[CrossRef]

1979

W. A. Gambling, H. Matsumura, and C. M. Ragdale, "Curvature and microbending losses in single mode optical fibers," Optical and Quantum Electronics 11, 43-59 (1979)
[CrossRef]

Applied Optics

I. R. Matias, M. Lopez-Amo, and F. Mantero, "Low-cost optical amplitude modulator based on a tapered single-mode optical fiber," Appl. Opt. 40, 228-234 (2001)
[CrossRef]

J. Villatoro, D. Monzon-Hernandez, and E. Mejia, "Fabrication and modeling of uniform waist single-mode tapered optical fiber sensor," Appl. Opt. 42, 2278-2283 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Electronics Letters

R. P. Kenny, T. A. Birks, and K. P. Oakley, "Control of optical fiber taper shape," Electron. Lett. 27, 1654-1656 (1991)
[CrossRef]

T. Kawai, M. Koga, M. Okuno, and T. Kitoh, "PLC type compact variable optical attenuator for photonic transport network," Electron. Lett. 34, 264-265 (1998)
[CrossRef]

Journal of the Optical Society of Korea

D. H. Lee, K. H Kwon, J. W. Song, and J. H. Park, "Variable optical fiber attenuator using bending-sensitive fiber," J. Opt. Soc. Korea 8, 83-89 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Lightwave Technology, Journal of

T. A. Birks and Y. W. Li, "The shape of fiber tapers," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 432-438 (1992)
[CrossRef]

L. C. Bobb, P. M. Shanker, and H. D. Krumboltz, "Bending effects in biconically tapered single mode fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1084-1090 (1990)
[CrossRef]

P. M. Shankar, L. C. Bobb, and H. D. Krumboltz, “Coupling of modes in bent biconically tapered single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 832-837 (1991)
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

C. Bariain, I. R. Matias, and F. J. Francisco, "Tapered optical-fiber-based pressure sensor," Opt. Eng. 39, 2241-2247 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Optical and Quantum Electronics

W. A. Gambling, H. Matsumura, and C. M. Ragdale, "Curvature and microbending losses in single mode optical fibers," Optical and Quantum Electronics 11, 43-59 (1979)
[CrossRef]

Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 2000

V. Morozove, H. Fan, L. Eldada, L. Yang, and Y. Shi, "Fused fiber-optic variable attenuator," in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Baltimore, USA, Mar. 2000), pp. 22-24
[CrossRef]

Optics Communications

J. H. Lee, Y. Y. Kim, S. S. Yun, H. Kwon, Y. S. Hong, J. H. Lee, and S. C. Jung, "Design and characteristics of a micromachined variable optical attenuator with a silicon wedge," Opt. Comm. 221, 323-330 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Y. O. Noh, C. L. Lee, J. M. Kim, W. Y. Hwang, Y. H. Won, H. J. Lee, S. G. Han, and M. C. Oh, "Polymer waveguide variable optical attenuator and its reliability," Opt. Comm. 242, 533-540 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Optics Letters

N. A. Riza and S. Sumriddetechkajorn, "Digitally controlled fault-tolerant muliwavelength programmable fiber optic attenuator using a two dimensional digital micromirror devices," Opt. Lett. 24, 83-84 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Photonics Technology Letters, IEEE

A. Diez, M. V. Andres, and D. O. Culverhouse, "In-line polarizers and filters made of metal-coated tapered fibers: resonant excitation of hybrid plasma modes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 833-835 (1998)
[CrossRef]

J. Villatoro, D. Monzon-Hernandez, and D. Luna-Moreno, "In-line tunable band-edge filter based on a single-mode tapered fiber coated with a dispersive material," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1665-1667 (2005)
[CrossRef]

S. S. Lee, Y. S. Jin, and T. K. Yoo, "Polymeric tunable optical attenuator with an optical monitoring tap for WDM transmission network," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 590-592 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Marxer, P. Ggriss, and N. F. de Rooij, "A variable optical attenuator based on silicon micromechanics," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 233-235 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical

C. Bariain, I. R. Matas, F. J. Arregui, and M. Lopez-Amo, "Optical fiber humidity sensor based on a tapered fiber coated with agarose gel," Sens. and Actuators B: Chemical 69, 127-131 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Sensors Journal, IEEE

J. Villatoro, A. Diez, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andres, "In-line highly sensitive hydrogen sensor based on palladiumcoated single-mode tapered fibers," IEEE Sensors Journal 3, 533-537 (2003)
[CrossRef]

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