Abstract

Following their applications in cardiology, ophthalmology and dentistry among others, the advent of lasers in dermatology and urology had become the success story of the past decade. Laser-assisted treatments in dermatology and urology are mainly based on the laser-induced tissue injury/coagulation and/or ablation, depending upon the desirable clinical endpoint. In this review, we discussed the underlying mechanisms of the laser induced tissue ablation. In any medical laser application, the controlled thermal injury and coagulation, and the extent of ablation, if required, are critical. The laser thermal mechanism of injury is intricately related to the selective absorption of light and its exposure duration, similarly to the laser induced ablation. The laser ablation mechanisms were categorized into four different categories (the photo-thermally induced ablation, the photo-mechanically induced ablation, the plasma induced ablation and the photoablation) and their fundamentals are herein described. The brief history of laser treatment modality in dermatology and urology are summarized.

© 2009 Optical Society of Korea

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2008

H. Lee, J.-W. Yoon, Y.-D. Jung, J.-H. Kim, T. R. Robert, M. H. J. Teichman, and A. J. Welch, "Comparison of sapphire and germanium fibers for erbium: YAG lithotripsy," J. Opt. Soc. Korea 12, 309-313 (2008)
[CrossRef]

2007

B. M. Hantash, V. P. Bedi, B. Kapadia, Z. Rahman, K. Jiang, H. Tanner, K. F. Chan, and C. B. Zachary, In vivo histological evaluation of a novel ablative " fractional resurfacing device," Lasers Surg. Med. 39, 96-107 (2007)
[CrossRef]

V. P. Bedi, K. F. Chan, R. K. Sink, B. M. Hantash, G. S. Herron, Z. Rahman, S. K. Struck, and C. B. Zachary, "The effects of pulse energy variations on the dimensions of microscopic thermal treatment zones in nonablative fractional resurfacing," Lasers Surg. Med. 39, 145-155 (2007)
[CrossRef]

B. M. Hantash, V. P. Bedi, K. F. Chan, and C. B. Zachary, "Ex vivo histological characterization of a novel ablative fractional resurfacing device," Lasers Surg. Med. 39, 87-95 (2007)
[CrossRef]

2006

B. M. Hantash, V. P. Bedi, V. Sudireddy, S. K. Struck, G. S. Herron, and K. F. Chan, "Laser-induced transepidermal elimination of dermal content by fractional photothermolysis," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 041115 (2006)
[CrossRef]

T. J. Polletto, A. K. Ngo, A. Tchapyjnikov, K. Levin, D. Tran, and N. M. Fried, "Comparison of germanium oxide fibers with silica and sapphire fiber tips for transmission of erbium:YAG laser radiation," Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 787-791 (2006)
[CrossRef]

H. Lee, H. W. Kang, J. M. Teichman, J. Oh, and A. J. Welch, "Urinary calculus fragmentation during Ho: YAG and Er:YAG lithotripsy," Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 39–51 (2006)
[CrossRef]

2005

N. M. Fried, "Thulium fiber laser lithotripsy: an in vitro analysis of stone fragmentation using a modulated 110-watt thulium fiber laser at 1.94 microm," Lasers Surg. Med. 37, 53-58 (2005)
[CrossRef]

2004

C. A. Chaney, Y. Yang, and M. Fried, "Hybrid germanium/ silica optical fibers for endoscopic delivery of erbium: YAG laser radiation," Lasers Surg. Med. 34, 5-11 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Y. Yang, C. A. Chaney, and N. M. Fried, "Erbium: YAG laser lithotripsy using hybrid germanium/silica optical fibers," J. Endourol. 18, 830-835 (2004)
[CrossRef]

N. J. Barber and G. H. Muir, "High-power KTP laser prostatectomy: the new challenge to transurethral resection of the prostate," Curr. Opin. Urol. 14, 21-25 (2004)
[CrossRef]

R. Tooher, P. Sutherland, A. Costello, P. Gilling, G. Rees, and G. Maddern, "A systematic review of holmium laser prostatectomy for benign prostatic hyperplasia," J. Urol. 171, 1773-1781 (2004)
[CrossRef]

S. Dahan, J. M. Lagarde, V. Turlier, L. Courrech, and S. Mordon, "Treatment of neck lines and forehead rhytids clinical study combined with the measurement of the thickness and the mechanical properties of the skin," Dermatol. Surg. 30, 872-879 (2004)
[CrossRef]

D. Mains, G. S. Herron, R. K. Sink, H. Tanner, and R. R. Anderson, "Fractional photothermolysis: a new concept for cutaneous remodeling using microscopic patterns of thermal injury," Lasers Surg. Med. 34, 426-438 (2004)
[CrossRef]

2003

K. Iwai, Y. W. Shi, K. Nito, Y. Matsuura, T. Kasai, M. Miyagi, S. Saito, Y. Arai, N. Ioritani, Y. Okagami, M. Nemec, J. Sulc, H. Jelinkova, M. Zavoral, O. Kohler, and P. Drlik, "Erbium:YAG laser lithotripsy by use of a flexible hollow waveguide with an end-scaling cap," Appl. Opt. 42, 2431-2435 (2003)
[CrossRef]

2002

A. V. Rode, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, B. T. Taylor, J. Dawes, A. Chan, R. M. Lowe, and P. Hannaford, "Subpicosecond laser ablation of dental enamel," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 2153-2158 (2002)
[CrossRef]

A. Vogel, J. Noack, G. Huettmann, and G. Paltauf, "Femtosecond-laser-produced low-density plasmas in transparent biological media: a tool for the creation of chemical, thermal, and thermomechanical effects below the optical breakdown threshold," Proc. Soc. Photo. Opt. Instrum. Eng. 4633A, 23-37 (2002)

2001

M. Sato, M. Ishihara, T. Arai, T. Asazuma, T. Kikuchi, T. Hayashi, T. Yamada, M. Kikuchi, and K. Fujikawa, "Use of a new ICG-dye-enhanced diode laser for percutaneous laser disc decompression," Lasers Surg. Med. 29, 282-287 (2001)
[CrossRef]

B. M. Lippert, S. Gottschlich, C. Kulkens, B. J. Fol, H. Rudert, and J. A. Werner, "Experimental and clinical results of Er:YAG laser stapedotomy," Lasers Surg. Med. 28, 11-17 (2001)
[CrossRef]

P. Janda, R. Sroka, R. Baumgartner, G. Grevers, and A. Leunig, "Laser treatment of hyperplastic inferior nasal turbinates: a review," Lasers Surg. Med. 28, 404-413 (2001)
[CrossRef]

K. F. Chan, T. J. Pfefer, J. M. H. Teichman, and A. J. Welch, "A perspective on laser lithotripsy: the fragmentation processes," J. Endourol. 15, 257-273 (2001)
[CrossRef]

2000

T. J. Pfefer, B. Choi, G. Vargas, K. M. McNally, and A. J. Welch, "Pulsed laser-induced thermal damage in whole blood," T. ASME. J. Biomech. Eng. 122, 196-202 (2000)
[CrossRef]

J. G. Sulewski, "Historical survey of laser dentistry," Dent. Clin. North Am. 44, 717-752 (2000)

K. F. Chan, "Pulsed infrared laser ablation and clinical applications," Ph.D. Dissertation, Univ. Texas Austin (2000)

H. Lee, "Pulsed laser-induced material ablation and its clinical applications," Ph.D. Dissertation, Univ. Texas Austin (2000)

J. S. Nelson,"In this issue. Dermatologic laser surgery," Lasers Surg. Med. 26, 105-107 (2000)
[CrossRef]

M. B. T. Alora and R. R. Anderson, "Recent developments in cutaneous lasers," Lasers Surg. Med. 26, 108-118 (2000)
[CrossRef]

G. J. R. Spooner, T. Juhasz, I. R. Traub, G. Djotyan, C. Horvath, Z. Sacks, G. Marre, D. Miller, A. R. Williams, and R. Kurtz, "Commercial and biomedical applications of ultrafast lasers," Proc. Soc. Photo. Opt. Instrum. Eng. 3934, 62-72 (2000)

1999

T. Szorenyi, E. Fogarassy, C. Fuchs, J. Hommet, and F. Le Normand, "Chemical analysis of <TEX>$a-CN_x$</TEX> thin films synthesized by nanosecond and femtosecond pulsed laser deposition," Appl. Phys. A 69, 941-944 (1999)
[CrossRef]

A. C. Tien, S. Bakus, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and G. Mourou, "Short-pulse laser damage in transparent materials as a function of pulse duration," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3883-3886 (1999)
[CrossRef]

D. L. Matthews, L. Da Silva, B. M. Kim, and J. Marion, "Surgical applications of ultrashort pulse laser technology," in Proc. Advanced Solid State Laser Annual Meeting (Boston, MA, USA, 1999), TuA1

K. F. Chan, G. J. Vassar, T. J. Pfefer, J. M. Teichman, R. D. Glickman, S. T. Weintraub, and A. J. Welch, "Holmium:YAG laser lithotripsy: a dominant photothermal ablative mechanism with chemical decomposition of urinary calculi," Lasers Surg. Med. 25, 22-37 (1999)
[CrossRef]

B. Majaron, P. Plestenjak, and M. Lukac, "Thermomechanical laser ablation of soft biological tissue: modeling the micro-explosions," Appl. Phys. B 69, 71-80 (1999)
[CrossRef]

E. E. B. Campbell, D. Ashkenasi, and A. Rosenfeld, "Ultra-short-pulse laser irradiation and ablation of dielectrics," Mater. Sci. Forum. 301, 123-144 (1999)
[CrossRef]

1998

P. P. Pronko, P. A. VanRompay, C. Horvath, T. Juhasz, X. Liu, and G. Mourou, "Avalanche ionization and dielectric breakdown in silicon with ultrafast laser pulses," Phys. Rev. B 58, 2387-2390 (1998)
[CrossRef]

M. Lenzner, J. Kruger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, C. Spielmann, G. Mourou, W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, "Femtosecond optical breakdown in dielectrics,"Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4076-4079 (1998)
[CrossRef]

1997

A. A. Oraevsky, S. L. Jacques, and F. K. Tittel, "Measurement of tissue optical properties by time-resolved detection of laser-induced transient stress," Appl. Opt. 36, 402-415 (1997)
[CrossRef]

1996

E. V. Ross, Y. Domankevitz, M. Skrobal, and R. R. Anderson, "Effects of <TEX>$CO_2$</TEX> laser pulse duration in ablation and residual thermal damage: implications for skin resurfacing," Lasers Surg. Med. 19, 123-129 (1996)
[CrossRef]

A. Vogel, K. Nahen, and D. Theisen, "Plasma formation in water by picosecond and nanosecond Nd:YAG laserpulses. I. Optical breakdown at threshold and superthreshold irradiance," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2, 847-860 (1996)
[CrossRef]

M. H. Niemz, Laser-tissue Interactions: Fundamental and Applications (Springer, Berlin, Germany, 1996)

R. Kelly and A. Miotello, "Comments on explosive mechanisms of laser sputtering," Appl. Surf. Sci. 96-98, 205-215 (1996)
[CrossRef]

D. Baurele, Laser Processing and Chemistry (Springer, Berlin, Germany, 1996), Chapter 6

J. Neev, L. B. Da Silva, M. D. Feit, M. D. Perry, A. M. Rubenchik, and B. C. Stuart, "Ultrashort pulse lasers for hard tissue ablation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2, 790-800 (1996)
[CrossRef]

1995

K. Rink, G. Delacretaz, and R. P. Salathe, "Fragmentation process of current laser lithotriptors," Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 134-146 (1995)
[CrossRef]

M. H. Niemz, "Cavity preparation with the Nd:YLF picosecond laser," J. Dent. Res. 74, 194-199 (1995)
[CrossRef]

A. A. Oraevsky, S. L. Jacques, and F. K. Tittel, "Mechanism of laser ablation for aqueous media irritated under confined-stress conditions," J. Appl. Phys. 78, 1281-1290 (1995)
[CrossRef]

I. Itzkan, D. Albagli, M. L. Dark, L. T. Perelman, C. von Rosenberg, and M. S. Feld, "The thermoelastic basis of short pulsed laser ablation of biological tissue," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92, 1960-1964 (1995)
[CrossRef]

A. J. Welch and M. J. C. van Gemert, Optical-thermal Response of Laser-irradiated Tissue (Plenum Press, New York, USA, 1995), Chapter 21-25

1993

V. E. Gusev and A. A. Karabutov, Laser Optoacoustics (AIP Press, New York, USA, 1993)

J. N. Kabalin, "Laser prostatectomy performed with a right angle firing neodymium:YAG laser fiber at 40 watts power setting," J. Urol. 150, 95-99 (1993)

1992

S. L. Jacques, "Laser-tissue interactions: photochemical, photothermal, and photo mechanical," Surg. Clin. North Am. 72, 531-558 (1992)

1990

A. Vogel, P. Schweiger, A. Frieser, M. N. Asiyo, and R. Birngruber, "Intraocular Nd:YAG laser surgery: lighttissue interaction, damage range, and reduction of collateral effects," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2240-2260 (1990)
[CrossRef]

1989

J. T. Walsh and T. F. Deutsch, "Pulsed <TEX>$CO_2$</TEX> laser ablation of tissue: effect of mechanical properties," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1195-1201 (1989)
[CrossRef]

1988

S. P. Dretler, "Laser lithotripsy: a review of 20 years of research and clinical applications," Lasers Surg. Med. 8, 341-356 (1988)
[CrossRef]

J. T. Walsh and T. F. Deutsch, "Pulsed <TEX>$CO_2$</TEX> laser tissue ablation: measurement of the ablation rate," Lasers Surg. Med. 8, 264-275 (1988)
[CrossRef]

S. P. Dretler, "Laser lithotripsy: a review of 20 years of research and clinical applications," Lasers Surg. Med. 8, 341–356 (1988)
[CrossRef]

1987

R. Srinivasan, P. E. Dyer, and B. Braren, "Far-ultraviolet laser ablation of the cornea: photoacoustic studies," Lasers Surg. Med. 6, 514-519 (1987)
[CrossRef]

C. A. Pxuliato, D. Stern, R. R. Kreuger, and E. R. Mandel, "High-speed photography of excimer laser ablation of the cornea," Arch. Ophthal. 105, 1255-1259 (1987)

1983

R. R. Anderson and J. A. Parrish, "Selective photothermolysis: precise microsurgery by selective absorption of pulsed radiation," Science 220, 524-527 (1983)
[CrossRef]

M. Bass and H. H. Barrett, "Avalanche breakdown and the probabilistic nature of laser-induced damage," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 338-343 (1983)

D. W. Fradin, E. Yablonovitch, and M. Bass, "Confirmation of an electron avalanche causing laser-induced bulk damage at 1.06 <TEX>$\mu$</TEX>m," Appl. Opt. 12, 700-709 (1983)
[CrossRef]

1973

D. W. Fradin, N. Bloembergen, and J. P. Letellier, "Dependence of laser-induced breakdown field strengthon pulse duration," Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 635-637 (1973)
[CrossRef]

1971

J. P. Ready, Effects of High-power Laser Radiation (Academic, New York, USA, 1971), pp. 133-143

J. P. Ready, Effects of High-power Laser Radiation (Academic, New York, USA, 1971), pp. 215-217

1964

P. Nelson, P. Veyrie, M. Berry, and Y. Durand, "Experimental and theoretical studies of air breakdown by intense pulse of light," Phys. Lett. 13, 226-228 (1964)
[CrossRef]

1933

J. P. Cummings and J. T. Walsh, "Tissue tearing caused by pulsed laser-induced ablation pressure," Appl. Opt. 32, 494-503 (1993)
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

D. W. Fradin, N. Bloembergen, and J. P. Letellier, "Dependence of laser-induced breakdown field strengthon pulse duration," Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 635-637 (1973)
[CrossRef]

Applied Optics

J. P. Cummings and J. T. Walsh, "Tissue tearing caused by pulsed laser-induced ablation pressure," Appl. Opt. 32, 494-503 (1993)
[CrossRef]

A. A. Oraevsky, S. L. Jacques, and F. K. Tittel, "Measurement of tissue optical properties by time-resolved detection of laser-induced transient stress," Appl. Opt. 36, 402-415 (1997)
[CrossRef]

D. W. Fradin, E. Yablonovitch, and M. Bass, "Confirmation of an electron avalanche causing laser-induced bulk damage at 1.06 <TEX>$\mu$</TEX>m," Appl. Opt. 12, 700-709 (1983)
[CrossRef]

K. Iwai, Y. W. Shi, K. Nito, Y. Matsuura, T. Kasai, M. Miyagi, S. Saito, Y. Arai, N. Ioritani, Y. Okagami, M. Nemec, J. Sulc, H. Jelinkova, M. Zavoral, O. Kohler, and P. Drlik, "Erbium:YAG laser lithotripsy by use of a flexible hollow waveguide with an end-scaling cap," Appl. Opt. 42, 2431-2435 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing

T. Szorenyi, E. Fogarassy, C. Fuchs, J. Hommet, and F. Le Normand, "Chemical analysis of <TEX>$a-CN_x$</TEX> thin films synthesized by nanosecond and femtosecond pulsed laser deposition," Appl. Phys. A 69, 941-944 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics

B. Majaron, P. Plestenjak, and M. Lukac, "Thermomechanical laser ablation of soft biological tissue: modeling the micro-explosions," Appl. Phys. B 69, 71-80 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Applied Surface Science

R. Kelly and A. Miotello, "Comments on explosive mechanisms of laser sputtering," Appl. Surf. Sci. 96-98, 205-215 (1996)
[CrossRef]

Arch Ophthalmol

C. A. Pxuliato, D. Stern, R. R. Kreuger, and E. R. Mandel, "High-speed photography of excimer laser ablation of the cornea," Arch. Ophthal. 105, 1255-1259 (1987)

Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on

J. T. Walsh and T. F. Deutsch, "Pulsed <TEX>$CO_2$</TEX> laser ablation of tissue: effect of mechanical properties," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1195-1201 (1989)
[CrossRef]

Current Opinion in Urology

N. J. Barber and G. H. Muir, "High-power KTP laser prostatectomy: the new challenge to transurethral resection of the prostate," Curr. Opin. Urol. 14, 21-25 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Dent. Clin. North Am.

J. G. Sulewski, "Historical survey of laser dentistry," Dent. Clin. North Am. 44, 717-752 (2000)

Dermatologic Surgery

S. Dahan, J. M. Lagarde, V. Turlier, L. Courrech, and S. Mordon, "Treatment of neck lines and forehead rhytids clinical study combined with the measurement of the thickness and the mechanical properties of the skin," Dermatol. Surg. 30, 872-879 (2004)
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J. Biomech. Eng.

T. J. Pfefer, B. Choi, G. Vargas, K. M. McNally, and A. J. Welch, "Pulsed laser-induced thermal damage in whole blood," T. ASME. J. Biomech. Eng. 122, 196-202 (2000)
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

B. M. Hantash, V. P. Bedi, V. Sudireddy, S. K. Struck, G. S. Herron, and K. F. Chan, "Laser-induced transepidermal elimination of dermal content by fractional photothermolysis," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 041115 (2006)
[CrossRef]

J. Urol.

J. N. Kabalin, "Laser prostatectomy performed with a right angle firing neodymium:YAG laser fiber at 40 watts power setting," J. Urol. 150, 95-99 (1993)

Journal of Applied Physics

A. V. Rode, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, B. T. Taylor, J. Dawes, A. Chan, R. M. Lowe, and P. Hannaford, "Subpicosecond laser ablation of dental enamel," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 2153-2158 (2002)
[CrossRef]

A. A. Oraevsky, S. L. Jacques, and F. K. Tittel, "Mechanism of laser ablation for aqueous media irritated under confined-stress conditions," J. Appl. Phys. 78, 1281-1290 (1995)
[CrossRef]

Journal of Dental Research

M. H. Niemz, "Cavity preparation with the Nd:YLF picosecond laser," J. Dent. Res. 74, 194-199 (1995)
[CrossRef]

Journal of Endourology

Y. Yang, C. A. Chaney, and N. M. Fried, "Erbium: YAG laser lithotripsy using hybrid germanium/silica optical fibers," J. Endourol. 18, 830-835 (2004)
[CrossRef]

K. F. Chan, T. J. Pfefer, J. M. H. Teichman, and A. J. Welch, "A perspective on laser lithotripsy: the fragmentation processes," J. Endourol. 15, 257-273 (2001)
[CrossRef]

Journal of the Optical Society of Korea

H. Lee, J.-W. Yoon, Y.-D. Jung, J.-H. Kim, T. R. Robert, M. H. J. Teichman, and A. J. Welch, "Comparison of sapphire and germanium fibers for erbium: YAG lithotripsy," J. Opt. Soc. Korea 12, 309-313 (2008)
[CrossRef]

Lasers in Surgery and Medicine

C. A. Chaney, Y. Yang, and M. Fried, "Hybrid germanium/ silica optical fibers for endoscopic delivery of erbium: YAG laser radiation," Lasers Surg. Med. 34, 5-11 (2004)
[CrossRef]

S. P. Dretler, "Laser lithotripsy: a review of 20 years of research and clinical applications," Lasers Surg. Med. 8, 341–356 (1988)
[CrossRef]

K. F. Chan, G. J. Vassar, T. J. Pfefer, J. M. Teichman, R. D. Glickman, S. T. Weintraub, and A. J. Welch, "Holmium:YAG laser lithotripsy: a dominant photothermal ablative mechanism with chemical decomposition of urinary calculi," Lasers Surg. Med. 25, 22-37 (1999)
[CrossRef]

N. M. Fried, "Thulium fiber laser lithotripsy: an in vitro analysis of stone fragmentation using a modulated 110-watt thulium fiber laser at 1.94 microm," Lasers Surg. Med. 37, 53-58 (2005)
[CrossRef]

H. Lee, H. W. Kang, J. M. Teichman, J. Oh, and A. J. Welch, "Urinary calculus fragmentation during Ho: YAG and Er:YAG lithotripsy," Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 39–51 (2006)
[CrossRef]

T. J. Polletto, A. K. Ngo, A. Tchapyjnikov, K. Levin, D. Tran, and N. M. Fried, "Comparison of germanium oxide fibers with silica and sapphire fiber tips for transmission of erbium:YAG laser radiation," Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 787-791 (2006)
[CrossRef]

R. Srinivasan, P. E. Dyer, and B. Braren, "Far-ultraviolet laser ablation of the cornea: photoacoustic studies," Lasers Surg. Med. 6, 514-519 (1987)
[CrossRef]

B. M. Hantash, V. P. Bedi, B. Kapadia, Z. Rahman, K. Jiang, H. Tanner, K. F. Chan, and C. B. Zachary, In vivo histological evaluation of a novel ablative " fractional resurfacing device," Lasers Surg. Med. 39, 96-107 (2007)
[CrossRef]

D. Mains, G. S. Herron, R. K. Sink, H. Tanner, and R. R. Anderson, "Fractional photothermolysis: a new concept for cutaneous remodeling using microscopic patterns of thermal injury," Lasers Surg. Med. 34, 426-438 (2004)
[CrossRef]

V. P. Bedi, K. F. Chan, R. K. Sink, B. M. Hantash, G. S. Herron, Z. Rahman, S. K. Struck, and C. B. Zachary, "The effects of pulse energy variations on the dimensions of microscopic thermal treatment zones in nonablative fractional resurfacing," Lasers Surg. Med. 39, 145-155 (2007)
[CrossRef]

B. M. Hantash, V. P. Bedi, K. F. Chan, and C. B. Zachary, "Ex vivo histological characterization of a novel ablative fractional resurfacing device," Lasers Surg. Med. 39, 87-95 (2007)
[CrossRef]

E. V. Ross, Y. Domankevitz, M. Skrobal, and R. R. Anderson, "Effects of <TEX>$CO_2$</TEX> laser pulse duration in ablation and residual thermal damage: implications for skin resurfacing," Lasers Surg. Med. 19, 123-129 (1996)
[CrossRef]

J. T. Walsh and T. F. Deutsch, "Pulsed <TEX>$CO_2$</TEX> laser tissue ablation: measurement of the ablation rate," Lasers Surg. Med. 8, 264-275 (1988)
[CrossRef]

B. M. Lippert, S. Gottschlich, C. Kulkens, B. J. Fol, H. Rudert, and J. A. Werner, "Experimental and clinical results of Er:YAG laser stapedotomy," Lasers Surg. Med. 28, 11-17 (2001)
[CrossRef]

P. Janda, R. Sroka, R. Baumgartner, G. Grevers, and A. Leunig, "Laser treatment of hyperplastic inferior nasal turbinates: a review," Lasers Surg. Med. 28, 404-413 (2001)
[CrossRef]

J. S. Nelson,"In this issue. Dermatologic laser surgery," Lasers Surg. Med. 26, 105-107 (2000)
[CrossRef]

M. B. T. Alora and R. R. Anderson, "Recent developments in cutaneous lasers," Lasers Surg. Med. 26, 108-118 (2000)
[CrossRef]

M. Sato, M. Ishihara, T. Arai, T. Asazuma, T. Kikuchi, T. Hayashi, T. Yamada, M. Kikuchi, and K. Fujikawa, "Use of a new ICG-dye-enhanced diode laser for percutaneous laser disc decompression," Lasers Surg. Med. 29, 282-287 (2001)
[CrossRef]

S. P. Dretler, "Laser lithotripsy: a review of 20 years of research and clinical applications," Lasers Surg. Med. 8, 341-356 (1988)
[CrossRef]

K. Rink, G. Delacretaz, and R. P. Salathe, "Fragmentation process of current laser lithotriptors," Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 134-146 (1995)
[CrossRef]

Materials Science Forum

E. E. B. Campbell, D. Ashkenasi, and A. Rosenfeld, "Ultra-short-pulse laser irradiation and ablation of dielectrics," Mater. Sci. Forum. 301, 123-144 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

P. P. Pronko, P. A. VanRompay, C. Horvath, T. Juhasz, X. Liu, and G. Mourou, "Avalanche ionization and dielectric breakdown in silicon with ultrafast laser pulses," Phys. Rev. B 58, 2387-2390 (1998)
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

M. Lenzner, J. Kruger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, C. Spielmann, G. Mourou, W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, "Femtosecond optical breakdown in dielectrics,"Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4076-4079 (1998)
[CrossRef]

A. C. Tien, S. Bakus, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and G. Mourou, "Short-pulse laser damage in transparent materials as a function of pulse duration," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3883-3886 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Physics Letters

P. Nelson, P. Veyrie, M. Berry, and Y. Durand, "Experimental and theoretical studies of air breakdown by intense pulse of light," Phys. Lett. 13, 226-228 (1964)
[CrossRef]

Proc. Advanced Solid State Laser Annual Meeting

D. L. Matthews, L. Da Silva, B. M. Kim, and J. Marion, "Surgical applications of ultrashort pulse laser technology," in Proc. Advanced Solid State Laser Annual Meeting (Boston, MA, USA, 1999), TuA1

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA

I. Itzkan, D. Albagli, M. L. Dark, L. T. Perelman, C. von Rosenberg, and M. S. Feld, "The thermoelastic basis of short pulsed laser ablation of biological tissue," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92, 1960-1964 (1995)
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo. Opt. Instrum. Eng.

A. Vogel, J. Noack, G. Huettmann, and G. Paltauf, "Femtosecond-laser-produced low-density plasmas in transparent biological media: a tool for the creation of chemical, thermal, and thermomechanical effects below the optical breakdown threshold," Proc. Soc. Photo. Opt. Instrum. Eng. 4633A, 23-37 (2002)

G. J. R. Spooner, T. Juhasz, I. R. Traub, G. Djotyan, C. Horvath, Z. Sacks, G. Marre, D. Miller, A. R. Williams, and R. Kurtz, "Commercial and biomedical applications of ultrafast lasers," Proc. Soc. Photo. Opt. Instrum. Eng. 3934, 62-72 (2000)

Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of

M. Bass and H. H. Barrett, "Avalanche breakdown and the probabilistic nature of laser-induced damage," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 338-343 (1983)

A. Vogel, P. Schweiger, A. Frieser, M. N. Asiyo, and R. Birngruber, "Intraocular Nd:YAG laser surgery: lighttissue interaction, damage range, and reduction of collateral effects," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2240-2260 (1990)
[CrossRef]

Science

R. R. Anderson and J. A. Parrish, "Selective photothermolysis: precise microsurgery by selective absorption of pulsed radiation," Science 220, 524-527 (1983)
[CrossRef]

Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of

J. Neev, L. B. Da Silva, M. D. Feit, M. D. Perry, A. M. Rubenchik, and B. C. Stuart, "Ultrashort pulse lasers for hard tissue ablation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2, 790-800 (1996)
[CrossRef]

A. Vogel, K. Nahen, and D. Theisen, "Plasma formation in water by picosecond and nanosecond Nd:YAG laserpulses. I. Optical breakdown at threshold and superthreshold irradiance," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2, 847-860 (1996)
[CrossRef]

Surg. Clin. North Am.

S. L. Jacques, "Laser-tissue interactions: photochemical, photothermal, and photo mechanical," Surg. Clin. North Am. 72, 531-558 (1992)

The Journal of Urology

R. Tooher, P. Sutherland, A. Costello, P. Gilling, G. Rees, and G. Maddern, "A systematic review of holmium laser prostatectomy for benign prostatic hyperplasia," J. Urol. 171, 1773-1781 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Other

A. J. Welch and M. J. C. van Gemert, Optical-thermal Response of Laser-irradiated Tissue (Plenum Press, New York, USA, 1995), Chapter 21-25

M. H. Niemz, Laser-tissue Interactions: Fundamental and Applications (Springer, Berlin, Germany, 1996)

K. F. Chan, "Pulsed infrared laser ablation and clinical applications," Ph.D. Dissertation, Univ. Texas Austin (2000)

H. Lee, "Pulsed laser-induced material ablation and its clinical applications," Ph.D. Dissertation, Univ. Texas Austin (2000)

J. P. Ready, Effects of High-power Laser Radiation (Academic, New York, USA, 1971), pp. 133-143

J. P. Ready, Effects of High-power Laser Radiation (Academic, New York, USA, 1971), pp. 215-217

D. Baurele, Laser Processing and Chemistry (Springer, Berlin, Germany, 1996), Chapter 6

V. E. Gusev and A. A. Karabutov, Laser Optoacoustics (AIP Press, New York, USA, 1993)

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