Abstract

Recently, there has been a growing interest in optical imaging of neural activity because the optical neuroimaging has considerable advantages over conventional imaging. Birefringence of the axon has been reported to change during neural activation, but the neurophysiological origin of the change is still unresolved. This study hypothesizes that the birefringence signal is at least partially attributed to the transient cellular volume change associated with nerve excitation. To examine this hypothesis, we investigated how the intensity of cross-polarized light transmitting through the axon would change as the size of the axon changes. For this purpose, a two-dimensional finite-difference time-domain program was developed with the improvement of the total-field/scattered-field method which reduces numerical noise. The results support our hypothesis in that the computed cross-polarized signals exhibit some agreement with previously-reported birefringence signals.

© 2009 Optical Society of Korea

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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2007

T. Akkin, C. Joo, and J. F. Boer, "Depth-resolved measurement of transient structural changes during action potential propagation," Biophys. J. 93, 1347-1353 (2007)
[CrossRef]

2004

K. M. Carter, J. S. George, and D. M. Rector, "Simultaneous birefringence and scattered light measurements reveal anatomical features in isolated crustacean nerve," J. Neurosci. Meth. 135, 9-16 (2004)
[CrossRef]

2000

R. Drezek, A. Dunn, and R. Richards-Kortum, "A pulsed finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method for calculating light scattering from biological cells over broad wavelength ranges," Opt. Exp. 6, 147-157 (2000)

1999

1996

J. Beuthan, O. Minet, J. Helfmann, M. Herrig, and G. Muller, "The spatial variation of the refractive index in biological cells," Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 369-382 (1996)
[CrossRef]

S. D. Gedney, "An anisotropic PML absorbing media for FDTD simulation of fields in lossy dispersive media," Electromagnetics 16, 399-415 (1996)
[CrossRef]

S. D. Gedney, "An anisotropic perfectly matched layer absorbing media for the truncation of FDTD lattices," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat. 44, 1630-1639 (1996)
[CrossRef]

1994

1991

R. Luebbers, S. Kunk, M. Schneider, and F. Hunsberger, "A finite-difference time-domain near zone to far zone transformation," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat. 39, 429-433 (1991)
[CrossRef]

1982

K. R. Umashankar and A. Taflove, "A novel method to analyze electromagnetic scattering of complex objects," IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat. 24, 397-405 (1982)
[CrossRef]

1980

D. E. Merewether, R. Fisher, and F. W. Smith, "On implementing a numeric Huygen"s source scheme in a finite difference program to illuminate scattering bodies," IEEE Trans. Nuclear Science 27, 1829-1833 (1980)
[CrossRef]

1975

A. Taflove and M. Brodwin, "Numerical solution of steadystate electromagnetic scattering problems using the timedependent Maxwell"s equations," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 23, 623-630 (1975)
[CrossRef]

1974

A. Brunsting and P. Mullaney, "Differential light scattering from spherical mammalian cells," Biophys. J. 14, 439-453 (1974)
[CrossRef]

1968

L. B. Cohen, R. D. Keynes, and B. Hille, "Light scattering and birefringence changes during nerve activity," Nature 218, 438-441 (1968)
[CrossRef]

I. Tasaki, A. Watanabe, R. Sandlin, and L. Carnay, "Changes in fluorescence, turbidity, and birefringence associated with nerve excitation," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 61, 883-888 (1968)
[CrossRef]

1966

K. S. Yee, "Numerical solution of initial boundary value problems involving Maxwell"s equations in isotropic media," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat. 14, 302-307 (1966)
[CrossRef]

Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on

R. Luebbers, S. Kunk, M. Schneider, and F. Hunsberger, "A finite-difference time-domain near zone to far zone transformation," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat. 39, 429-433 (1991)
[CrossRef]

K. S. Yee, "Numerical solution of initial boundary value problems involving Maxwell"s equations in isotropic media," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat. 14, 302-307 (1966)
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Biophysical Journal

T. Akkin, C. Joo, and J. F. Boer, "Depth-resolved measurement of transient structural changes during action potential propagation," Biophys. J. 93, 1347-1353 (2007)
[CrossRef]

A. Brunsting and P. Mullaney, "Differential light scattering from spherical mammalian cells," Biophys. J. 14, 439-453 (1974)
[CrossRef]

Electromagnetic Compatibility, IEEE Transactions on

K. R. Umashankar and A. Taflove, "A novel method to analyze electromagnetic scattering of complex objects," IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat. 24, 397-405 (1982)
[CrossRef]

Electromagnetics

S. D. Gedney, "An anisotropic PML absorbing media for FDTD simulation of fields in lossy dispersive media," Electromagnetics 16, 399-415 (1996)
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat.

S. D. Gedney, "An anisotropic perfectly matched layer absorbing media for the truncation of FDTD lattices," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat. 44, 1630-1639 (1996)
[CrossRef]

Journal of Computational Physics

J. P. Berenger, "A perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic waves," J. Computational Physics 114, 185-200 (1994)
[CrossRef]

Journal of Neuroscience Methods

K. M. Carter, J. S. George, and D. M. Rector, "Simultaneous birefringence and scattered light measurements reveal anatomical features in isolated crustacean nerve," J. Neurosci. Meth. 135, 9-16 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on

A. Taflove and M. Brodwin, "Numerical solution of steadystate electromagnetic scattering problems using the timedependent Maxwell"s equations," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 23, 623-630 (1975)
[CrossRef]

Nature

L. B. Cohen, R. D. Keynes, and B. Hille, "Light scattering and birefringence changes during nerve activity," Nature 218, 438-441 (1968)
[CrossRef]

Nuclear Science, IEEE Transactions on

D. E. Merewether, R. Fisher, and F. W. Smith, "On implementing a numeric Huygen"s source scheme in a finite difference program to illuminate scattering bodies," IEEE Trans. Nuclear Science 27, 1829-1833 (1980)
[CrossRef]

Opt. Exp.

R. Drezek, A. Dunn, and R. Richards-Kortum, "A pulsed finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method for calculating light scattering from biological cells over broad wavelength ranges," Opt. Exp. 6, 147-157 (2000)

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Med. Biol.

J. Beuthan, O. Minet, J. Helfmann, M. Herrig, and G. Muller, "The spatial variation of the refractive index in biological cells," Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 369-382 (1996)
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA.

I. Tasaki, A. Watanabe, R. Sandlin, and L. Carnay, "Changes in fluorescence, turbidity, and birefringence associated with nerve excitation," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 61, 883-888 (1968)
[CrossRef]

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