Abstract

In this paper, we report the optical and structural properties of a bilayer circular filter fabricated by a glancing angle deposition technique. The bilayer circular filter is realized by a two-layer <TEX>$TiO_2$</TEX> helical film with layers of opposite structural handedness. It is found that the bilayer circular filter reflects both right and left circularly polarized light with wavelength lying in the Bragg regime. The microstructure of the bilayer circular filter is also investigated using a scanning electron microscope.

© 2009 Optical Society of Korea

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  1. A. Lakhtakia and R. Messier, Sculptured Thin Films: Nanoengineered Morphology and Optics (SPIE Press, Bellingham, WA, USA, 2005)
  2. N. O. Young and J. Kowal, "Optically active fluorite films," Nature (London) 183, 104-105 (1959)
    [CrossRef]
  3. I. Hodgkinson and Q. H. Wu, "Inorganic chiral optical materials," Adv. Mater. 13, 889-897 (2001)
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. M. Pursel, M. W. Horn, M. C. Demirel, and A. Lakhtakia, "Growth of sculptured polymer submicronwire assemblies by vapor deposition," Polymer Com. 46, 9544-9548 (2005)
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Messier, V. C. Venugopal, and P. D. Sunal, "Origin and evolution of sculptured thin films," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 1538-1545 (2000)
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. Dick, M. J. Brett, and T. Smy, "Controlled growth of periodic pillars by glancing angle deposition," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 23-28 (2003)
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Robbie, M. J. Brett, and A. Lakhtakia, "First thin film realization of a helicoidal bianisotropic medium," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 13, 2991-2993 (1995)
    [CrossRef]
  8. S.-H. Woo and C. K. Hwangbo, "Optical anisotropy of microstructure-controlled TiO2 films fabricated by glancing-angle deposition (GLAD)," J. Korean Phys. Soc. 48, 1199-1204 (2006)
  9. S. R. Kennedy, M. J. Brett, O. Toader, and S. John, "Fabrication of tetragonal square spiral photonic crystal," Nano Lett. 2, 59-62 (2002)
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. R. Kennedy and M. J. Brett, "Advanced techniques for the fabrication of square spiral photonic crystals by glancing angle deposition," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 1184-1190 (2004)
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. P. Zhao, D. X. Ye, P. I. Wang, G. C. Wang, and T. M. Lu, "Fabrication of Si nanocolumns and Si square spirals on self-assembled monolayer colloid substrates," Int. J. Nanosci. 1, 87-97 (2002)
  12. I. Hodgkinson and Q. H. Wu, "Birefringent thin-film polarizers for use at normal incidence and with planar technologies," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1794-1796 (1999)
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. C. van Popta, M. H. Hawkeye, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, "Gradient-index narrow-bandpass filter fabricated with glancing-angle deposition," Opt. Lett. 29, 2545-2547 (2004)
    [CrossRef]
  14. K. Kaminska, T. Brown, G. Beydaghyan, and K. Robbie, "Vacuum evaporated porous silicon photonic interference filters," Appl. Opt. 42, 4212-4219 (2003)
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. R. Kennedy and M. J. Brett, "Porous broadband antireflection coating by glancing angle deposition," Appl. Opt. 42, 4573-4579 (2003)
    [CrossRef]
  16. S.-H. Woo, Y. J. Park, D. H. Chang, K. A. Sobahan, and C. K. Hwangbo, "Wideband antireflection coatings of porous MgF2 films by using glancing angle deposition," J. Korean Phys. Soc. 51, 1501-1506 (2007)
    [CrossRef]
  17. Q. H. Wu, L. D. Silva, M. Arnold, I. J. Hodgkinson, and E. Takeuchi, "All-silicon polarizing filters for nearinfrared wavelengths," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 402-404 (2004)
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. J. Steel, J. P. Gospodyn, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, "Impact of morphology on high-speed humidity sensor performance," IEEE Sensors J. 6, 24-27 (2006)
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. J. Steel, A. C. van Popta, M. M. Hawkeye, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, "Nanostructured gradient index optical filter for high-speed humidity sensing," Sensors and Actuators B 120, 213-219 (2006)
    [CrossRef]
  20. A. Lakhtakia and M. W. McCall, "Simple expressions for Bragg reflection from axially excited chiral sculptured thin films," J. Mod. Opt. 49, 1525-1535 (2002)
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. Adams, W. Haas, and J. Dailey, "Cholesteric films as optical filters," J. Appl. Phys. 42, 4096-4098 (1971)
    [CrossRef]
  22. A. Lakhtakia, "Axial excitation of tightly interlaced chiral sculptured thin films: "averaged" circular Bragg phenomenon," Optik 112, 119-124 (2001)
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. B. Sorage, A. C. van Popta, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, "Circular birefringence dependence on chiral film porosity," Opt. Exp. 14, 10550-10557 (2006)
    [CrossRef]
  24. K. Robbie, L. J. Friedrich, S. K. Dew, T. Smy, and M. J. Brett, "Fabrication of thin films with highly porous microstructures," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 13, 1032-1035 (1995)
    [CrossRef]
  25. K. Robbie and M. Brett, "Sculptured thin films and glancing angle deposition: growth mechanics and applications," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15, 1460-1465 (1997)
    [CrossRef]
  26. A. C. van Popta, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, "Optical properties of porous helical thin films," Appl. Opt. 43, 3632-3639 (2004)
    [CrossRef]
  27. I. Hodgkinson, Q. H. Wu, B. Knight, A. Lakhtakia, and K. Robbie, "Vacuum deposition of chiral sculptured thin films with high optical activity," Appl. Opt. 39, 642-649 (2000)
    [CrossRef]
  28. K. Kaminska and K. Robbie, "Birefringent omnidirectional reflector," Appl. Opt. 43, 1570-1576 (2004)
    [CrossRef]
  29. Y. J. Park, K. A. Sobahan, and C. K. Hwangbo, "Wideband circular polarization reflector fabricated by glancing angle deposition," Opt. Exp. 16, 5186-5192 (2008)
    [CrossRef]
  30. Y. J. Park, K. A. Sobahan, and C. K. Hwangbo, "Optical and structural properties of helical TiO2 films deposited by glancing angle deposition technique," J. Korean Phys. Soc. 52, S8-S12 (2008)
    [CrossRef]

2008

Y. J. Park, K. A. Sobahan, and C. K. Hwangbo, "Wideband circular polarization reflector fabricated by glancing angle deposition," Opt. Exp. 16, 5186-5192 (2008)
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Park, K. A. Sobahan, and C. K. Hwangbo, "Optical and structural properties of helical TiO2 films deposited by glancing angle deposition technique," J. Korean Phys. Soc. 52, S8-S12 (2008)
[CrossRef]

2007

S.-H. Woo, Y. J. Park, D. H. Chang, K. A. Sobahan, and C. K. Hwangbo, "Wideband antireflection coatings of porous MgF2 films by using glancing angle deposition," J. Korean Phys. Soc. 51, 1501-1506 (2007)
[CrossRef]

2006

J. B. Sorage, A. C. van Popta, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, "Circular birefringence dependence on chiral film porosity," Opt. Exp. 14, 10550-10557 (2006)
[CrossRef]

S.-H. Woo and C. K. Hwangbo, "Optical anisotropy of microstructure-controlled TiO2 films fabricated by glancing-angle deposition (GLAD)," J. Korean Phys. Soc. 48, 1199-1204 (2006)

J. J. Steel, J. P. Gospodyn, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, "Impact of morphology on high-speed humidity sensor performance," IEEE Sensors J. 6, 24-27 (2006)
[CrossRef]

J. J. Steel, A. C. van Popta, M. M. Hawkeye, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, "Nanostructured gradient index optical filter for high-speed humidity sensing," Sensors and Actuators B 120, 213-219 (2006)
[CrossRef]

2005

A. Lakhtakia and R. Messier, Sculptured Thin Films: Nanoengineered Morphology and Optics (SPIE Press, Bellingham, WA, USA, 2005)

S. M. Pursel, M. W. Horn, M. C. Demirel, and A. Lakhtakia, "Growth of sculptured polymer submicronwire assemblies by vapor deposition," Polymer Com. 46, 9544-9548 (2005)
[CrossRef]

2004

S. R. Kennedy and M. J. Brett, "Advanced techniques for the fabrication of square spiral photonic crystals by glancing angle deposition," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 1184-1190 (2004)
[CrossRef]

A. C. van Popta, M. H. Hawkeye, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, "Gradient-index narrow-bandpass filter fabricated with glancing-angle deposition," Opt. Lett. 29, 2545-2547 (2004)
[CrossRef]

A. C. van Popta, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, "Optical properties of porous helical thin films," Appl. Opt. 43, 3632-3639 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Q. H. Wu, L. D. Silva, M. Arnold, I. J. Hodgkinson, and E. Takeuchi, "All-silicon polarizing filters for nearinfrared wavelengths," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 402-404 (2004)
[CrossRef]

K. Kaminska and K. Robbie, "Birefringent omnidirectional reflector," Appl. Opt. 43, 1570-1576 (2004)
[CrossRef]

2003

S. R. Kennedy and M. J. Brett, "Porous broadband antireflection coating by glancing angle deposition," Appl. Opt. 42, 4573-4579 (2003)
[CrossRef]

K. Kaminska, T. Brown, G. Beydaghyan, and K. Robbie, "Vacuum evaporated porous silicon photonic interference filters," Appl. Opt. 42, 4212-4219 (2003)
[CrossRef]

B. Dick, M. J. Brett, and T. Smy, "Controlled growth of periodic pillars by glancing angle deposition," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 23-28 (2003)
[CrossRef]

2002

S. R. Kennedy, M. J. Brett, O. Toader, and S. John, "Fabrication of tetragonal square spiral photonic crystal," Nano Lett. 2, 59-62 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Y. P. Zhao, D. X. Ye, P. I. Wang, G. C. Wang, and T. M. Lu, "Fabrication of Si nanocolumns and Si square spirals on self-assembled monolayer colloid substrates," Int. J. Nanosci. 1, 87-97 (2002)

A. Lakhtakia and M. W. McCall, "Simple expressions for Bragg reflection from axially excited chiral sculptured thin films," J. Mod. Opt. 49, 1525-1535 (2002)
[CrossRef]

2001

I. Hodgkinson and Q. H. Wu, "Inorganic chiral optical materials," Adv. Mater. 13, 889-897 (2001)
[CrossRef]

A. Lakhtakia, "Axial excitation of tightly interlaced chiral sculptured thin films: "averaged" circular Bragg phenomenon," Optik 112, 119-124 (2001)
[CrossRef]

2000

I. Hodgkinson, Q. H. Wu, B. Knight, A. Lakhtakia, and K. Robbie, "Vacuum deposition of chiral sculptured thin films with high optical activity," Appl. Opt. 39, 642-649 (2000)
[CrossRef]

R. Messier, V. C. Venugopal, and P. D. Sunal, "Origin and evolution of sculptured thin films," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 1538-1545 (2000)
[CrossRef]

1999

I. Hodgkinson and Q. H. Wu, "Birefringent thin-film polarizers for use at normal incidence and with planar technologies," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1794-1796 (1999)
[CrossRef]

1997

K. Robbie and M. Brett, "Sculptured thin films and glancing angle deposition: growth mechanics and applications," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15, 1460-1465 (1997)
[CrossRef]

1995

K. Robbie, L. J. Friedrich, S. K. Dew, T. Smy, and M. J. Brett, "Fabrication of thin films with highly porous microstructures," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 13, 1032-1035 (1995)
[CrossRef]

K. Robbie, M. J. Brett, and A. Lakhtakia, "First thin film realization of a helicoidal bianisotropic medium," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 13, 2991-2993 (1995)
[CrossRef]

1971

J. Adams, W. Haas, and J. Dailey, "Cholesteric films as optical filters," J. Appl. Phys. 42, 4096-4098 (1971)
[CrossRef]

1959

N. O. Young and J. Kowal, "Optically active fluorite films," Nature (London) 183, 104-105 (1959)
[CrossRef]

Advanced Materials

I. Hodgkinson and Q. H. Wu, "Inorganic chiral optical materials," Adv. Mater. 13, 889-897 (2001)
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

I. Hodgkinson and Q. H. Wu, "Birefringent thin-film polarizers for use at normal incidence and with planar technologies," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1794-1796 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Applied Optics

K. Kaminska, T. Brown, G. Beydaghyan, and K. Robbie, "Vacuum evaporated porous silicon photonic interference filters," Appl. Opt. 42, 4212-4219 (2003)
[CrossRef]

A. C. van Popta, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, "Optical properties of porous helical thin films," Appl. Opt. 43, 3632-3639 (2004)
[CrossRef]

I. Hodgkinson, Q. H. Wu, B. Knight, A. Lakhtakia, and K. Robbie, "Vacuum deposition of chiral sculptured thin films with high optical activity," Appl. Opt. 39, 642-649 (2000)
[CrossRef]

K. Kaminska and K. Robbie, "Birefringent omnidirectional reflector," Appl. Opt. 43, 1570-1576 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Nanosci.

Y. P. Zhao, D. X. Ye, P. I. Wang, G. C. Wang, and T. M. Lu, "Fabrication of Si nanocolumns and Si square spirals on self-assembled monolayer colloid substrates," Int. J. Nanosci. 1, 87-97 (2002)

J. Appl. Phys.

J. Adams, W. Haas, and J. Dailey, "Cholesteric films as optical filters," J. Appl. Phys. 42, 4096-4098 (1971)
[CrossRef]

Q. H. Wu, L. D. Silva, M. Arnold, I. J. Hodgkinson, and E. Takeuchi, "All-silicon polarizing filters for nearinfrared wavelengths," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 402-404 (2004)
[CrossRef]

J. Korean Phys. Soc.

S.-H. Woo, Y. J. Park, D. H. Chang, K. A. Sobahan, and C. K. Hwangbo, "Wideband antireflection coatings of porous MgF2 films by using glancing angle deposition," J. Korean Phys. Soc. 51, 1501-1506 (2007)
[CrossRef]

S.-H. Woo and C. K. Hwangbo, "Optical anisotropy of microstructure-controlled TiO2 films fabricated by glancing-angle deposition (GLAD)," J. Korean Phys. Soc. 48, 1199-1204 (2006)

J. Korean Phys.Soc.

Y. J. Park, K. A. Sobahan, and C. K. Hwangbo, "Optical and structural properties of helical TiO2 films deposited by glancing angle deposition technique," J. Korean Phys. Soc. 52, S8-S12 (2008)
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A

K. Robbie, L. J. Friedrich, S. K. Dew, T. Smy, and M. J. Brett, "Fabrication of thin films with highly porous microstructures," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 13, 1032-1035 (1995)
[CrossRef]

K. Robbie and M. Brett, "Sculptured thin films and glancing angle deposition: growth mechanics and applications," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15, 1460-1465 (1997)
[CrossRef]

R. Messier, V. C. Venugopal, and P. D. Sunal, "Origin and evolution of sculptured thin films," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 1538-1545 (2000)
[CrossRef]

K. Robbie, M. J. Brett, and A. Lakhtakia, "First thin film realization of a helicoidal bianisotropic medium," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 13, 2991-2993 (1995)
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B

S. R. Kennedy and M. J. Brett, "Advanced techniques for the fabrication of square spiral photonic crystals by glancing angle deposition," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 1184-1190 (2004)
[CrossRef]

B. Dick, M. J. Brett, and T. Smy, "Controlled growth of periodic pillars by glancing angle deposition," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 23-28 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Journal of Modern Optics

A. Lakhtakia and M. W. McCall, "Simple expressions for Bragg reflection from axially excited chiral sculptured thin films," J. Mod. Opt. 49, 1525-1535 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Nano Letters

S. R. Kennedy, M. J. Brett, O. Toader, and S. John, "Fabrication of tetragonal square spiral photonic crystal," Nano Lett. 2, 59-62 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Nature

N. O. Young and J. Kowal, "Optically active fluorite films," Nature (London) 183, 104-105 (1959)
[CrossRef]

Optics Express

J. B. Sorage, A. C. van Popta, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, "Circular birefringence dependence on chiral film porosity," Opt. Exp. 14, 10550-10557 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Park, K. A. Sobahan, and C. K. Hwangbo, "Wideband circular polarization reflector fabricated by glancing angle deposition," Opt. Exp. 16, 5186-5192 (2008)
[CrossRef]

Optics Letters

A. C. van Popta, M. H. Hawkeye, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, "Gradient-index narrow-bandpass filter fabricated with glancing-angle deposition," Opt. Lett. 29, 2545-2547 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Optik – International Journal for Light and Electron Optics

A. Lakhtakia, "Axial excitation of tightly interlaced chiral sculptured thin films: "averaged" circular Bragg phenomenon," Optik 112, 119-124 (2001)
[CrossRef]

Polymer Com.

S. M. Pursel, M. W. Horn, M. C. Demirel, and A. Lakhtakia, "Growth of sculptured polymer submicronwire assemblies by vapor deposition," Polymer Com. 46, 9544-9548 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical

J. J. Steel, A. C. van Popta, M. M. Hawkeye, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, "Nanostructured gradient index optical filter for high-speed humidity sensing," Sensors and Actuators B 120, 213-219 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Sensors Journal, IEEE

J. J. Steel, J. P. Gospodyn, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, "Impact of morphology on high-speed humidity sensor performance," IEEE Sensors J. 6, 24-27 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Other

A. Lakhtakia and R. Messier, Sculptured Thin Films: Nanoengineered Morphology and Optics (SPIE Press, Bellingham, WA, USA, 2005)

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