Abstract

At the time that the Keck-I 10m telescope was constructed in 1993, the era of Very Large Telescopes (VLTs) was opened. Now thirteen VLTs are in operation, and the largest of the monolithic mirrors is 8.4 m in diameter. Such monolithic mirrors are mostly aspheric and require high accuracies on the surface figures, reaching up to the diffraction limit. At present, next generation telescopes, Giant telescopes, are being developed. One is the GMT (Giant Magellan Telescope) whose size is 25.4 m in diameter. The primary mirror consists of seven segments figuring elliptical shapes on the surface. The surrounding six segments are off-axis and the edges are steep, as the fast focal ratio is adopted. It means that testing of the mirrors is a challenging task. In this paper, testing methods for the GMT primary mirror are reviewed, and accuracy of measuring devices is assessed. Results and discussions follow.

© 2009 Optical Society of Korea

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  2. F. Gillett and M. Mountain, "A scientific overview," The Gemini Newsletter 12, 10-18 (1996)
  3. Y.-S. Kim, "An improved geometric test for optical surfaces," Ph.D. Thesis, London University (1998)
  4. L. Furey, T. Dubos, D. Hansen, and J. Samuels-Schwarz, "Hubble Space Telescope primary-mirror characterization by measurement of the reflective null corrector," Appl. Opt. 32, 1703-1714 (1993)
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  15. J. H. Burge, P. Su, and C. Zhao, "Optical metrology for very large convex aspheres," Proc. SPIE 7018, 701818- 1-701818-12 (2008)
    [CrossRef]
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  17. GMTO, Giant Magellan Telescope Conceptual Design Review (Pasadena, CA, USA, 2006)
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  20. P. Puxley, "Classical and queue scheduling of the gemini telescopes," The Gemini Newsletter 13, 10-16 (1996)
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  27. D. Kim and Y. J. Cho, "3-D surface profile measurement using an acousto-optic tunable filter based spectral phase shifting technique," J. Opt. Soc. Korea 12, 281-287 (2008)
    [CrossRef]

2009

H.-J. Yang, J.-S. Cho, and Y.-H. Won, "Reduction of reconstruction errors in kinoform CGHs by modified simulated annealing algorithm," J. Opt. Soc. Korea 13, 92-97 (2009)
[CrossRef]

2008

D. Kim and Y. J. Cho, "3-D surface profile measurement using an acousto-optic tunable filter based spectral phase shifting technique," J. Opt. Soc. Korea 12, 281-287 (2008)
[CrossRef]

X. Hou, F. Wu, B. Lei, B. Fan, and Q. Chen, "Testing large aspheric surfaces with complementary annular subaperture interferometric method," Proc. SPIE 7018, 70183K- 1-70183K-8 (2008)
[CrossRef]

J. H. Burge, P. Su, and C. Zhao, "Optical metrology for very large convex aspheres," Proc. SPIE 7018, 701818- 1-701818-12 (2008)
[CrossRef]

2007

J. H. Lee, Y. Kim, J. Kim, and Y. Yoo, "Bare wafer inspection using a knife-edge test," J. Opt. Soc. Korea 11, 173-176 (2007)
[CrossRef]

2006

GMTO, Giant Magellan Telescope Conceptual Design Review (Pasadena, CA, USA, 2006)

2005

Y. Bitou, "Two-wavelength phase-shifting interferometry with a superimposed graing displayed on an electrically addressed spatial light modulator," Appl. Opt. 44, 1577- 1581 (2005)
[CrossRef]

D. S. Mehta, S. K. Dubey, M. M. Hossain, and C. Shakher, "Simple multifrequency and phase-shifting fringe-projection system based on two-wavelength lateral shearing interferometry for three-dimensional profilometry," Appl. Opt. 44, 7515-7521 (2005)
[CrossRef]

2004

J. Kandulla, B. Kemper, S. Knoche, and G. Bally, "Twowavelength method for endoscopic shape measurement by spatial phase-shifting speckle-interferometry," Appl. Opt. 43, 5429-5437 (2004)
[CrossRef]

2001

Y.-S. Kim, "Developing an optical testing method for space telescopes," J. Opt. Soc. Korea 5, 33-36 (2001)

1998

Y.-S. Kim, "An improved geometric test for optical surfaces," Ph.D. Thesis, London University (1998)

1997

J. H. Burge, "Measurement of large convex aspheres," Proc. SPIE 2871, 362-373 (1997)
[CrossRef]

M. Mountain, "What is beyond the current generation of groundbased 8m-10m class telescopes and the VLT-I?," Proc. SPIE 2871, 597-606 (1997)
[CrossRef]

1996

J. Oschmann and D. A. Simons, "Gemini 8 meter telescopes performance estimates update," Gemini Preprint 6, 1-12 (1996)

F. Gillett and M. Mountain, "A scientific overview," The Gemini Newsletter 12, 10-18 (1996)

P. Puxley, "Classical and queue scheduling of the gemini telescopes," The Gemini Newsletter 13, 10-16 (1996)

1994

A. Isaacs, E. Martin, J. Law, and F. Alexander, The Macmillan Compact Encyclopedia (Macmillan Publishers Ltd., London, UK, 1994)

E. Hansen, "Gemini telescopes f/16 optical design summary," in Gemini 8-M Telescopes Project Report, RPTO- G0047 (Gemini Project Office, Tucson, AZ, USA, 1994)

1993

M. Melozzi, L. Pezzati, and A. Mazzoni, "Testing aspheric surfaces using multiple annular interferograms," Opt. Eng. 32, 1073-1079 (1993)
[CrossRef]

L. Furey, T. Dubos, D. Hansen, and J. Samuels-Schwarz, "Hubble Space Telescope primary-mirror characterization by measurement of the reflective null corrector," Appl. Opt. 32, 1703-1714 (1993)
[CrossRef]

L. Feinberg and M. Wilson, "Hubble Space Telescope COSTAR asphere verification with a modified computergenerated hologram interferometer," Appl. Opt. 32, 1786-1788 (1993)
[CrossRef]

1992

P. S. Osmer, Gemini science requirements, version 1.1 (1992)

1990

W. J. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering (McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, USA, 1990)

1985

K. Creath, Y.-Y. Cheng, and J. C. Wyant, "Contouring aspheric surfaces using two-wavelength phase-shifting interferometry," Optica Acta 32, 1455-1464 (1985)
[CrossRef]

1984

Y.-Y. Cheng and J. C. Wyant, "Two-wavelength phase shifting interferometry," Appl. Opt. 23, 4539-4543 (1984)
[CrossRef]

1980

J. G. Dil, W. Mesman, and J. C. Driessen, "High-precision measurement of aspheric surfaces," Proc. SPIE 235, 85- 90 (1980)

1975

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 5th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, UK, 1975)

Appl. Opt.

Applied Optics

L. Furey, T. Dubos, D. Hansen, and J. Samuels-Schwarz, "Hubble Space Telescope primary-mirror characterization by measurement of the reflective null corrector," Appl. Opt. 32, 1703-1714 (1993)
[CrossRef]

J. Kandulla, B. Kemper, S. Knoche, and G. Bally, "Twowavelength method for endoscopic shape measurement by spatial phase-shifting speckle-interferometry," Appl. Opt. 43, 5429-5437 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Y. Bitou, "Two-wavelength phase-shifting interferometry with a superimposed graing displayed on an electrically addressed spatial light modulator," Appl. Opt. 44, 1577- 1581 (2005)
[CrossRef]

D. S. Mehta, S. K. Dubey, M. M. Hossain, and C. Shakher, "Simple multifrequency and phase-shifting fringe-projection system based on two-wavelength lateral shearing interferometry for three-dimensional profilometry," Appl. Opt. 44, 7515-7521 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Y.-Y. Cheng and J. C. Wyant, "Two-wavelength phase shifting interferometry," Appl. Opt. 23, 4539-4543 (1984)
[CrossRef]

Gemini Preprint

J. Oschmann and D. A. Simons, "Gemini 8 meter telescopes performance estimates update," Gemini Preprint 6, 1-12 (1996)

Journal of Modern Optics

K. Creath, Y.-Y. Cheng, and J. C. Wyant, "Contouring aspheric surfaces using two-wavelength phase-shifting interferometry," Optica Acta 32, 1455-1464 (1985)
[CrossRef]

Journal of the Optical Society of Korea

Y.-S. Kim, "Developing an optical testing method for space telescopes," J. Opt. Soc. Korea 5, 33-36 (2001)

J. H. Lee, Y. Kim, J. Kim, and Y. Yoo, "Bare wafer inspection using a knife-edge test," J. Opt. Soc. Korea 11, 173-176 (2007)
[CrossRef]

H.-J. Yang, J.-S. Cho, and Y.-H. Won, "Reduction of reconstruction errors in kinoform CGHs by modified simulated annealing algorithm," J. Opt. Soc. Korea 13, 92-97 (2009)
[CrossRef]

D. Kim and Y. J. Cho, "3-D surface profile measurement using an acousto-optic tunable filter based spectral phase shifting technique," J. Opt. Soc. Korea 12, 281-287 (2008)
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

M. Melozzi, L. Pezzati, and A. Mazzoni, "Testing aspheric surfaces using multiple annular interferograms," Opt. Eng. 32, 1073-1079 (1993)
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

X. Hou, F. Wu, B. Lei, B. Fan, and Q. Chen, "Testing large aspheric surfaces with complementary annular subaperture interferometric method," Proc. SPIE 7018, 70183K- 1-70183K-8 (2008)
[CrossRef]

J. H. Burge, P. Su, and C. Zhao, "Optical metrology for very large convex aspheres," Proc. SPIE 7018, 701818- 1-701818-12 (2008)
[CrossRef]

J. G. Dil, W. Mesman, and J. C. Driessen, "High-precision measurement of aspheric surfaces," Proc. SPIE 235, 85- 90 (1980)

J. H. Burge, "Measurement of large convex aspheres," Proc. SPIE 2871, 362-373 (1997)
[CrossRef]

M. Mountain, "What is beyond the current generation of groundbased 8m-10m class telescopes and the VLT-I?," Proc. SPIE 2871, 597-606 (1997)
[CrossRef]

The Gemini Newsletter

P. Puxley, "Classical and queue scheduling of the gemini telescopes," The Gemini Newsletter 13, 10-16 (1996)

F. Gillett and M. Mountain, "A scientific overview," The Gemini Newsletter 12, 10-18 (1996)

Other

Y.-S. Kim, "An improved geometric test for optical surfaces," Ph.D. Thesis, London University (1998)

W. J. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering (McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, USA, 1990)

A. Isaacs, E. Martin, J. Law, and F. Alexander, The Macmillan Compact Encyclopedia (Macmillan Publishers Ltd., London, UK, 1994)

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 5th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, UK, 1975)

GMTO, Giant Magellan Telescope Conceptual Design Review (Pasadena, CA, USA, 2006)

P. S. Osmer, Gemini science requirements, version 1.1 (1992)

E. Hansen, "Gemini telescopes f/16 optical design summary," in Gemini 8-M Telescopes Project Report, RPTO- G0047 (Gemini Project Office, Tucson, AZ, USA, 1994)

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