Abstract

In a laser-plasma wakefield accelerator, the ponderomotive force of an ultrashort high intensity laser pulse excites a longitudinal wave or plasma bubble in a way similar to the excitation of a wake wave behind a boat as it propagates on the water surface. Electric fields inside the plasma bubble can be several orders of magnitude higher than those available in conventional RF-based particle accelerator facilities which are limited by material breakdown. Therefore, if an electron bunch is properly phase-locked with the bubble's acceleration field, it can gain relativistic energies within an extremely short distance. Here, in the bubble regime we show the generation of stable and reproducible sub GeV, and GeV-class electron beams. Supported by three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, our experimental results show the highest acceleration gradients produced so far. Simulations suggested that the plasma bubble elongation should be minimized in order to achieve higher electron beam energies.

© 2009 Optical Society of Korea

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  1. M. D. Perry and G. Mourou, "Terawatt to petawatt subpicosecond lasers," Science 264, 917-924 (1994)
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. Mourou, T. Tajima, and S. V. Bulanov, "Optics in the relativistic regime," Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 309-371 (2006) and references therein
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Tajima and J. Dawson, "Laser electron accelerator," Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 267 (1979)
    [CrossRef]
  4. W. P. Leemans, B. Nagler, A. J. Gonsalves, Cs. Tith, K. Nakamura, C. G. R. Geddes, E. Esarey, C. B. Schroeder, and S. M. Hooker, "GeV electron beams from a centimetrescale accelerator," Nature Physics 2, 696-699 (2006)
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. G. R. Thomas, Z. Najmudin, S. P. D. Mangles, C. D. Murphy, A. E. Dangor, C. Kamperidis, K. L. Lancaster, W. B. Mori, P. A. Norreys, W. Rozmus, and K. Krushelnick, "Effect of laser-focusing conditions on propagation and monoenergetic electron production in laserwakefield accelerators," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 095004 (2007)
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Faure, Y. Glinec, A. Pukhov, S. Kiselev, S. Gordienko, E. Lefebvre, J.-P. Rousseau, F. Burgy, and V. Malka, "A laser-plasma accelerator producing monoenergetic electron beams," Nature 431, 541-544 (2004)
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. P. D. Mangles, C. D. Murphy, Z. Najmudin, A. G. R. Thomas, J. L. Collier, A. E. Dangor, E. J. Divall, P. S. Foster, J. G. Gallacher, C. J. Hooker, D. A. Jaroszynski, A. J. Langley, W. B. Mori, P. A. Norreys, F. S. Tsung, R. Viskup, B. R. Walton, and K. Krushelnick, "Monoenergetic beams of relativistic electrons from intense laser-plasma interactions," Nature 431, 535-538 (2004)
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. R. Geddes, Cs. Toth, J. van Tilborg, E. Esarey, C. B. Schroeder, D. Bruhwiler, C. Nieter, J. Cary, and W. P. Leemans, "High-quality electron beams from a laser wakefield accelerator using plasma-channel guiding," Nature 431, 538-541 (2004)
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Faure, C. Rechatin, A. Norlin, A. Lifschitz, Y. Glinec, and V. Malka,"Controlled injection and acceleration of electrons in plasma wakefields by colliding laser pulses," Nature 444, 737-739 (2006)
    [CrossRef]
  10. N. Hafz I. W. Choi, J. H. Sung, H. T. Kim, K.-H. Hong, T. M. Jeong, T. J. Yu, V. Kulagin, H. Suk, Y.-C. Noh, D.-K. Ko, and J. Lee, "Dependence of the electron beam parameters on the stability of laser propagation in a laser wakefield accelerator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151501 (2007)
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. M. Jeong, I. W. Choi, N. Hafz, J. H. Sung, S. K. Lee, D.-K. Ko, and J. Lee, "Wavefront correction and customization of focal spot of 100TW Ti:Sapphire laser system," Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 7724-7730 (2007)
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. M. Jeong, C. M. Kim, D.-K. Ko, and J. Lee, "Reconstruction of wavefront aberration of 100–TW Ti: sapphire laser pulse using phase retrieval method," J. Opt. Soc. Korea 12, 186-191 (2008)
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. H. Lee, Y. C. Lee, and H. J. Cheon, "A circular bimorph deformable mirror for circular/annulus/square laser beam compensation," J. Opt. Soc. Korea 10, 23-27 (2006)
  14. T. Hosokai, K. Kinoshita, A. Zhidkov, K. Nakamura, T. Watanabe, T. Ueda, H. Kotaki, M. Kando, K. Nakajima, and M. Uesaka, "Effect of a laser prepulse on a narrow-cone ejection of MeV electrons from a gas jet irradiated by an ultrashort laser pulse," Phys. Rev. E 67, 036407 (2003)
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Kando, S. Masuda, A. Zhidkov, A. Yamazaki, H. Kotaki, S. Kondo, T. Homma, S. Kanazawa, K. Nakajima, Y. Hayashi, M. Mori, H. Kiriyama, Y. Akahane, N. Inoue, H. Ueda, Y. Nakai, K. Tsuji, Y. Yamamoto, K. Yamakawa, J. Koga, T. Hosokai, M. Uesaka, and T. Tajima, "Electron acceleration by a nonlinear wakefield generated by ultrashort (23-fs) high-peak-power laser pulses in plasma," Phys. Rev. E 71, 015403 (R) (2005)
    [CrossRef]
  16. T. Hosokai, K. Kinoshita, A. Zhidkov, A. Maekawa, A. Yamazaki, and M. Uesaka, "Effect of external static magnetic field on the emittance and total charge of electron beams generated by laser-wakefield acceleration," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 075004 (2006)
    [CrossRef]
  17. Y. Glinec, J. Faure, A. Guemnie-Tafo, V. Malka, H. Monard, J. P. Larbre, V. De Waele, J. L. Marignier, and M. Mostafavi, "Absolute calibration for a broad range single shot electron spectrometer," Rev. Sci. Inst. 77, 103301 (2006)
    [CrossRef]
  18. F. S. Tsung, W. Lu, M. Tzoufras, W. B. Mori, C. Joshi, J. M. Vieira, L. O. Silva, and R. A. Fonseca "Simulation of monoenergetic electron generation via laser wakefield accelerators for 5–25 TW lasers," Phys. Plasmas 13, 056708 (2006)
    [CrossRef]
  19. W. Lu, Tzoufras, C. Joshi, F. S. Tsung, W. B. Mori, J. Vieira, R. A. Fonseca, and L. O. Silva "Generating multi-GeV electron bunches using single stage laser wakefield acceleration in a 3D nonlinear regime," Phys. Rev. ST-AB 10, 061301 (2007)
  20. M. S. Hur, D. Nandan Gupta, and H. Suk, "Enhanced electron trapping by a static longitudinal magnetic field in laser wakefield acceleration," Phys. Lett. A 372, 2684-2687 (2008)
    [CrossRef]
  21. D. Umstadter, J.-K. Kim, and E. Dodd, "Laser injection of ultrashort electron pulses into wakefield plasma waves," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2073 (1996)
    [CrossRef]
  22. E. Esarey, R. F. Hubbard, W. P. Leemans, A. Ting, and P. Sprangle "Electron injection into plasma wake fields by colliding laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2682-2685 (1997)
    [CrossRef]
  23. S. Gordienko and A. Pukhov, "Scaling for ultrarelativistic laser plasmas and quasimonoenergetic electrons," Phys. Plasmas 12, 043109 (2005)
    [CrossRef]
  24. C. Nieter and J. R. Cary, "VORPAL : a versatile plasma simulation code," J. Compu. Phys. 196, 448-474 (2004)
    [CrossRef]
  25. A. Pukhov and J. ter. Vehn, "Laser wake field acceleration: the highly non-linear broken-wave regime," Appl. Phys. B. Lasers Opt. 74, 355-361 (2002)
    [CrossRef]
  26. N. A. M. Hafz, T. M. Jeong, I. W. Choi, S. K. Lee, K. H. Pae, V. V. Kulagin, J. H. Sung, T. J. Yu, K.-H. Hong, T. Hosokai, J. R. Cary, D.-K. Ko, and J. Lee "Stable generation of GeV-class electron beams from self-guided laser-plasma channels", Nature Photonics 2, 571-577 (2008)
    [CrossRef]

2008 (3)

T. M. Jeong, C. M. Kim, D.-K. Ko, and J. Lee, "Reconstruction of wavefront aberration of 100–TW Ti: sapphire laser pulse using phase retrieval method," J. Opt. Soc. Korea 12, 186-191 (2008)
[CrossRef]

M. S. Hur, D. Nandan Gupta, and H. Suk, "Enhanced electron trapping by a static longitudinal magnetic field in laser wakefield acceleration," Phys. Lett. A 372, 2684-2687 (2008)
[CrossRef]

N. A. M. Hafz, T. M. Jeong, I. W. Choi, S. K. Lee, K. H. Pae, V. V. Kulagin, J. H. Sung, T. J. Yu, K.-H. Hong, T. Hosokai, J. R. Cary, D.-K. Ko, and J. Lee "Stable generation of GeV-class electron beams from self-guided laser-plasma channels", Nature Photonics 2, 571-577 (2008)
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

W. Lu, Tzoufras, C. Joshi, F. S. Tsung, W. B. Mori, J. Vieira, R. A. Fonseca, and L. O. Silva "Generating multi-GeV electron bunches using single stage laser wakefield acceleration in a 3D nonlinear regime," Phys. Rev. ST-AB 10, 061301 (2007)

N. Hafz I. W. Choi, J. H. Sung, H. T. Kim, K.-H. Hong, T. M. Jeong, T. J. Yu, V. Kulagin, H. Suk, Y.-C. Noh, D.-K. Ko, and J. Lee, "Dependence of the electron beam parameters on the stability of laser propagation in a laser wakefield accelerator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151501 (2007)
[CrossRef]

T. M. Jeong, I. W. Choi, N. Hafz, J. H. Sung, S. K. Lee, D.-K. Ko, and J. Lee, "Wavefront correction and customization of focal spot of 100TW Ti:Sapphire laser system," Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 7724-7730 (2007)
[CrossRef]

A. G. R. Thomas, Z. Najmudin, S. P. D. Mangles, C. D. Murphy, A. E. Dangor, C. Kamperidis, K. L. Lancaster, W. B. Mori, P. A. Norreys, W. Rozmus, and K. Krushelnick, "Effect of laser-focusing conditions on propagation and monoenergetic electron production in laserwakefield accelerators," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 095004 (2007)
[CrossRef]

2006 (7)

G. Mourou, T. Tajima, and S. V. Bulanov, "Optics in the relativistic regime," Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 309-371 (2006) and references therein
[CrossRef]

W. P. Leemans, B. Nagler, A. J. Gonsalves, Cs. Tith, K. Nakamura, C. G. R. Geddes, E. Esarey, C. B. Schroeder, and S. M. Hooker, "GeV electron beams from a centimetrescale accelerator," Nature Physics 2, 696-699 (2006)
[CrossRef]

J. H. Lee, Y. C. Lee, and H. J. Cheon, "A circular bimorph deformable mirror for circular/annulus/square laser beam compensation," J. Opt. Soc. Korea 10, 23-27 (2006)

J. Faure, C. Rechatin, A. Norlin, A. Lifschitz, Y. Glinec, and V. Malka,"Controlled injection and acceleration of electrons in plasma wakefields by colliding laser pulses," Nature 444, 737-739 (2006)
[CrossRef]

T. Hosokai, K. Kinoshita, A. Zhidkov, A. Maekawa, A. Yamazaki, and M. Uesaka, "Effect of external static magnetic field on the emittance and total charge of electron beams generated by laser-wakefield acceleration," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 075004 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Y. Glinec, J. Faure, A. Guemnie-Tafo, V. Malka, H. Monard, J. P. Larbre, V. De Waele, J. L. Marignier, and M. Mostafavi, "Absolute calibration for a broad range single shot electron spectrometer," Rev. Sci. Inst. 77, 103301 (2006)
[CrossRef]

F. S. Tsung, W. Lu, M. Tzoufras, W. B. Mori, C. Joshi, J. M. Vieira, L. O. Silva, and R. A. Fonseca "Simulation of monoenergetic electron generation via laser wakefield accelerators for 5–25 TW lasers," Phys. Plasmas 13, 056708 (2006)
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

M. Kando, S. Masuda, A. Zhidkov, A. Yamazaki, H. Kotaki, S. Kondo, T. Homma, S. Kanazawa, K. Nakajima, Y. Hayashi, M. Mori, H. Kiriyama, Y. Akahane, N. Inoue, H. Ueda, Y. Nakai, K. Tsuji, Y. Yamamoto, K. Yamakawa, J. Koga, T. Hosokai, M. Uesaka, and T. Tajima, "Electron acceleration by a nonlinear wakefield generated by ultrashort (23-fs) high-peak-power laser pulses in plasma," Phys. Rev. E 71, 015403 (R) (2005)
[CrossRef]

S. Gordienko and A. Pukhov, "Scaling for ultrarelativistic laser plasmas and quasimonoenergetic electrons," Phys. Plasmas 12, 043109 (2005)
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

C. Nieter and J. R. Cary, "VORPAL : a versatile plasma simulation code," J. Compu. Phys. 196, 448-474 (2004)
[CrossRef]

J. Faure, Y. Glinec, A. Pukhov, S. Kiselev, S. Gordienko, E. Lefebvre, J.-P. Rousseau, F. Burgy, and V. Malka, "A laser-plasma accelerator producing monoenergetic electron beams," Nature 431, 541-544 (2004)
[CrossRef]

S. P. D. Mangles, C. D. Murphy, Z. Najmudin, A. G. R. Thomas, J. L. Collier, A. E. Dangor, E. J. Divall, P. S. Foster, J. G. Gallacher, C. J. Hooker, D. A. Jaroszynski, A. J. Langley, W. B. Mori, P. A. Norreys, F. S. Tsung, R. Viskup, B. R. Walton, and K. Krushelnick, "Monoenergetic beams of relativistic electrons from intense laser-plasma interactions," Nature 431, 535-538 (2004)
[CrossRef]

G. R. Geddes, Cs. Toth, J. van Tilborg, E. Esarey, C. B. Schroeder, D. Bruhwiler, C. Nieter, J. Cary, and W. P. Leemans, "High-quality electron beams from a laser wakefield accelerator using plasma-channel guiding," Nature 431, 538-541 (2004)
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

T. Hosokai, K. Kinoshita, A. Zhidkov, K. Nakamura, T. Watanabe, T. Ueda, H. Kotaki, M. Kando, K. Nakajima, and M. Uesaka, "Effect of a laser prepulse on a narrow-cone ejection of MeV electrons from a gas jet irradiated by an ultrashort laser pulse," Phys. Rev. E 67, 036407 (2003)
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

A. Pukhov and J. ter. Vehn, "Laser wake field acceleration: the highly non-linear broken-wave regime," Appl. Phys. B. Lasers Opt. 74, 355-361 (2002)
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

E. Esarey, R. F. Hubbard, W. P. Leemans, A. Ting, and P. Sprangle "Electron injection into plasma wake fields by colliding laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2682-2685 (1997)
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

D. Umstadter, J.-K. Kim, and E. Dodd, "Laser injection of ultrashort electron pulses into wakefield plasma waves," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2073 (1996)
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

M. D. Perry and G. Mourou, "Terawatt to petawatt subpicosecond lasers," Science 264, 917-924 (1994)
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

T. Tajima and J. Dawson, "Laser electron accelerator," Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 267 (1979)
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

N. Hafz I. W. Choi, J. H. Sung, H. T. Kim, K.-H. Hong, T. M. Jeong, T. J. Yu, V. Kulagin, H. Suk, Y.-C. Noh, D.-K. Ko, and J. Lee, "Dependence of the electron beam parameters on the stability of laser propagation in a laser wakefield accelerator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151501 (2007)
[CrossRef]

Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics (1)

A. Pukhov and J. ter. Vehn, "Laser wake field acceleration: the highly non-linear broken-wave regime," Appl. Phys. B. Lasers Opt. 74, 355-361 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Journal of Computational Physics (1)

C. Nieter and J. R. Cary, "VORPAL : a versatile plasma simulation code," J. Compu. Phys. 196, 448-474 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Journal of the Optical Society of Korea (2)

T. M. Jeong, C. M. Kim, D.-K. Ko, and J. Lee, "Reconstruction of wavefront aberration of 100–TW Ti: sapphire laser pulse using phase retrieval method," J. Opt. Soc. Korea 12, 186-191 (2008)
[CrossRef]

J. H. Lee, Y. C. Lee, and H. J. Cheon, "A circular bimorph deformable mirror for circular/annulus/square laser beam compensation," J. Opt. Soc. Korea 10, 23-27 (2006)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. M. Jeong, I. W. Choi, N. Hafz, J. H. Sung, S. K. Lee, D.-K. Ko, and J. Lee, "Wavefront correction and customization of focal spot of 100TW Ti:Sapphire laser system," Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 7724-7730 (2007)
[CrossRef]

Nature (4)

J. Faure, Y. Glinec, A. Pukhov, S. Kiselev, S. Gordienko, E. Lefebvre, J.-P. Rousseau, F. Burgy, and V. Malka, "A laser-plasma accelerator producing monoenergetic electron beams," Nature 431, 541-544 (2004)
[CrossRef]

S. P. D. Mangles, C. D. Murphy, Z. Najmudin, A. G. R. Thomas, J. L. Collier, A. E. Dangor, E. J. Divall, P. S. Foster, J. G. Gallacher, C. J. Hooker, D. A. Jaroszynski, A. J. Langley, W. B. Mori, P. A. Norreys, F. S. Tsung, R. Viskup, B. R. Walton, and K. Krushelnick, "Monoenergetic beams of relativistic electrons from intense laser-plasma interactions," Nature 431, 535-538 (2004)
[CrossRef]

G. R. Geddes, Cs. Toth, J. van Tilborg, E. Esarey, C. B. Schroeder, D. Bruhwiler, C. Nieter, J. Cary, and W. P. Leemans, "High-quality electron beams from a laser wakefield accelerator using plasma-channel guiding," Nature 431, 538-541 (2004)
[CrossRef]

J. Faure, C. Rechatin, A. Norlin, A. Lifschitz, Y. Glinec, and V. Malka,"Controlled injection and acceleration of electrons in plasma wakefields by colliding laser pulses," Nature 444, 737-739 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Nature Photonics (1)

N. A. M. Hafz, T. M. Jeong, I. W. Choi, S. K. Lee, K. H. Pae, V. V. Kulagin, J. H. Sung, T. J. Yu, K.-H. Hong, T. Hosokai, J. R. Cary, D.-K. Ko, and J. Lee "Stable generation of GeV-class electron beams from self-guided laser-plasma channels", Nature Photonics 2, 571-577 (2008)
[CrossRef]

Nature Physics (1)

W. P. Leemans, B. Nagler, A. J. Gonsalves, Cs. Tith, K. Nakamura, C. G. R. Geddes, E. Esarey, C. B. Schroeder, and S. M. Hooker, "GeV electron beams from a centimetrescale accelerator," Nature Physics 2, 696-699 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Phys. Plasmas (1)

F. S. Tsung, W. Lu, M. Tzoufras, W. B. Mori, C. Joshi, J. M. Vieira, L. O. Silva, and R. A. Fonseca "Simulation of monoenergetic electron generation via laser wakefield accelerators for 5–25 TW lasers," Phys. Plasmas 13, 056708 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (2)

T. Hosokai, K. Kinoshita, A. Zhidkov, K. Nakamura, T. Watanabe, T. Ueda, H. Kotaki, M. Kando, K. Nakajima, and M. Uesaka, "Effect of a laser prepulse on a narrow-cone ejection of MeV electrons from a gas jet irradiated by an ultrashort laser pulse," Phys. Rev. E 67, 036407 (2003)
[CrossRef]

M. Kando, S. Masuda, A. Zhidkov, A. Yamazaki, H. Kotaki, S. Kondo, T. Homma, S. Kanazawa, K. Nakajima, Y. Hayashi, M. Mori, H. Kiriyama, Y. Akahane, N. Inoue, H. Ueda, Y. Nakai, K. Tsuji, Y. Yamamoto, K. Yamakawa, J. Koga, T. Hosokai, M. Uesaka, and T. Tajima, "Electron acceleration by a nonlinear wakefield generated by ultrashort (23-fs) high-peak-power laser pulses in plasma," Phys. Rev. E 71, 015403 (R) (2005)
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

T. Hosokai, K. Kinoshita, A. Zhidkov, A. Maekawa, A. Yamazaki, and M. Uesaka, "Effect of external static magnetic field on the emittance and total charge of electron beams generated by laser-wakefield acceleration," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 075004 (2006)
[CrossRef]

A. G. R. Thomas, Z. Najmudin, S. P. D. Mangles, C. D. Murphy, A. E. Dangor, C. Kamperidis, K. L. Lancaster, W. B. Mori, P. A. Norreys, W. Rozmus, and K. Krushelnick, "Effect of laser-focusing conditions on propagation and monoenergetic electron production in laserwakefield accelerators," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 095004 (2007)
[CrossRef]

T. Tajima and J. Dawson, "Laser electron accelerator," Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 267 (1979)
[CrossRef]

D. Umstadter, J.-K. Kim, and E. Dodd, "Laser injection of ultrashort electron pulses into wakefield plasma waves," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2073 (1996)
[CrossRef]

E. Esarey, R. F. Hubbard, W. P. Leemans, A. Ting, and P. Sprangle "Electron injection into plasma wake fields by colliding laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2682-2685 (1997)
[CrossRef]

Physical Review Special Topics-Accelerators and Beams (1)

W. Lu, Tzoufras, C. Joshi, F. S. Tsung, W. B. Mori, J. Vieira, R. A. Fonseca, and L. O. Silva "Generating multi-GeV electron bunches using single stage laser wakefield acceleration in a 3D nonlinear regime," Phys. Rev. ST-AB 10, 061301 (2007)

Physics Letters A (1)

M. S. Hur, D. Nandan Gupta, and H. Suk, "Enhanced electron trapping by a static longitudinal magnetic field in laser wakefield acceleration," Phys. Lett. A 372, 2684-2687 (2008)
[CrossRef]

Physics of Plasmas (1)

S. Gordienko and A. Pukhov, "Scaling for ultrarelativistic laser plasmas and quasimonoenergetic electrons," Phys. Plasmas 12, 043109 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

G. Mourou, T. Tajima, and S. V. Bulanov, "Optics in the relativistic regime," Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 309-371 (2006) and references therein
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

Y. Glinec, J. Faure, A. Guemnie-Tafo, V. Malka, H. Monard, J. P. Larbre, V. De Waele, J. L. Marignier, and M. Mostafavi, "Absolute calibration for a broad range single shot electron spectrometer," Rev. Sci. Inst. 77, 103301 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

M. D. Perry and G. Mourou, "Terawatt to petawatt subpicosecond lasers," Science 264, 917-924 (1994)
[CrossRef]

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