Abstract

Target design study to improve the quality of an accelerated proton beam from the interaction of a high-intensity short pulse laser with an overdense plasma slab has been accomplished by using a two-dimensional, fully electromagnetic and relativistic particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. The target consists of a thin core part and a thick peripheral part of equivalent plasma densities, while the ratio of the radius of the core part to the laser spot size, and the position of the peripheral part relative to the fixed core part were varied. The positive effects of this core-peripheral target structure could be expected from the knowledge of the typical target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA) mechanism in a laser-plasma interaction, and were apparently evidenced from the comparison with the case of a conventional simple planar target and the case of the transversal size reduction of the simple planar target. Improvements of the beam qualities including the collimation, the forward directionality, and the beam divergence were verified by detailed analysis of relativistic momentum, angular directionality, and the spatial density map of the accelerated protons.

© 2009 Optical Society of Korea

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  1. Y. Izawa, N. Miyanaga, J. Kawanaka, and K. Yamakawa, "High power lasers and their new applications", J. Opt. Soc. Korea 12, 178-185 (2008)
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Denavit, "Absorption of high-intensity subpicosecond lasers on solid density targets," Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 3052-3055 (1992)
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. Malka and J. L. Miquel, "Experimental confirmation of ponderomotive-force electrons produced by an ultrarelativistic laser pulse on a solid target," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 75-78 (1996)
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Tabak, J. Hammer, M. E. Glinsky, W. L. Kruer, S. C. Wilks, J. Woodworth, E. M. Campbell, and M. D. Perry, "Ignition and high gain with ultrapowerful lasers," Phys. Plasmas 1, 1626-1634 (1994)
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. A. Norreys, M. Santala, E. Clark, M. Zepf, I. Watts, F. N. Beg, K. Krushelnick, M. Tatarakis, A. E. Dangor, X. Fang, et al., "Observation of a highly directional <TEX>$\gamma$</TEX>-ray beam from ultrashort, ultraintense laser pulse interactions with solids," Phys. Plasmas 6, 2150-2156 (1999)
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. E. Cowan, J. Fuchs, H. Ruhl, A. Kemp, P. Audebert, M. Roth, R. Stephens, I. Barton, A. Blazevic, E. Brambrink, et al., "Ultralow emittance, multi-MeV proton beams from a laser virtual-cathode plasma accelerator," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 204801-204804 (2004)
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. R. Farley, K. G. Estabrook, S. G. Glendinning, S. H. Glenzer, B. A. Remington, K. Shigemori, J. M. Stone, R. J. Wallace, G. B. Zimmerman, and J. A. Harte, "Radiative jet experiments of astrophysical interest using intense lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1982-1985 (1982)
    [CrossRef]
  9. E. Fourkal, J. S. Li, W. Xiong, A. Nahum, and C. M. Ma, "Intensity modulated radiation therapy using laseraccelerated protons: a monte carlo dosimetric study," Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 3977-4000 (2003)
    [CrossRef]
  10. E. L. Clark, K. Krushelnick, J. R. Davies, M. Zepf, M. Tatarakis, F. N. Beg, A. Machacek, P. A. Norreys, M. I. K. Santala, I. Watts, et al., "Measurements of energetic proton transport through magnetized plasma from intense laser interactions with solids," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 670-673 (2000)
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Maksimchuk, S. Gu, K. Flippo, and D. Umstadter, "Forward ion acceleration in thin films driven by a highintensity laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4108-4111 (2000)
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. A. Snavely, M. H. Key, S. P. Hatchett, T. E. Cowan, M. Roth, T. W. Phillips, M. A. Stoyer, E. A. Henry, T. C. Sangster, M. S. Singh, et al., "Intense high-energy proton beams from petawatt-laser irradiation of solids," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2945-2948 (2000)
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. Sentoku, T. V. Liseikina, T. Z. Esirkepov, F. Califano, N. M. Naumova, Y. Ueshima, V. A. Vshivkov, Y. Kato, K. Mima, K. Nishihara, et al., "High density collimated beams of relativistic ions produced by petawatt laser pulses in plasmas," Phys. Rev. E 62, 7271-7281 (2000)
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Pukhov, "Three-dimensional simulations of ion acceleration from a foil irradiated by a short-pulse laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3562-3565 (2001)
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. J. Mackinnon, M. Borghesi, S. Hatchett, M. H. Key, P. K. Patel, H. Campbell, A. Schiavi, R. Snavely, S. C. Wilks, and O. Willi, "Effect of plasma scale length on multi-MeV proton production by intense laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1769-1772 (2001)
    [CrossRef]
  16. K. Matsukado, T. Esirkepov, K. Kinoshita, H. Daido, T. Utsumi, Z. Li, A. Fukumi, Y. Hayashi, S. Orimo, M. Nishiuchi, et al., "Energetic protons from a few-micron metallic foil evaporated by an intense laser pulse," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 215001-215004 (2003)
    [CrossRef]
  17. Y. Sentoku, T. E. Cowan, A. Kemp, and H. Ruhl, "High energy proton acceleration in interaction of short laser pulse with dense plasma target," Phys. Plasmas 10, 2009-2015 (2003)
    [CrossRef]
  18. H. Habara, R. Kodama, Y. Sentoku, N. Izumi, Y. Kitagawa, K. A. Tanaka, K. Mima, and T. Yamanaka, "Fast ion acceleration in ultraintense laser interactions with an overdense plasma," Phys. Rev. E 69, 036407-036416 (2004)
    [CrossRef]
  19. E. d"Humieres, E. Lefebvre, L. Gremillet, and V. Malka, "Proton acceleration mechanisms in high-intensity laser interaction with thin foils," Phys. Plasmas 12, 062704-062715 (2005)
    [CrossRef]
  20. L. O. Silva, M. Marti, J. R. Davies, R. A. Fonseca, C. Ren, F. S. Tsung, and W. B. Mori, "Proton shock acceleration in laser-plasma interactions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 015002-015005 (2004)
    [CrossRef]
  21. H. J. Lee, K. H. Pae, H. Suk, and S. J. Hahn, "Enhancement of high-energy ion generation by preplasmas in the interaction of an intense laser pulse with overdense plasmas," Phys. Plasmas 11, 1726-1729, (2004)
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. T. Seo, S. H. Yoo, and S. J. Hahn, "Effects of underdense preplasma on the energetic proton generation in ultraintense short laser pulse interaction with an overdense plasma slab," J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 76, 114501-114505 (2007)
    [CrossRef]
  23. T. Esirkepov, M. Yamagiwa, and T. Tajima, "Laser ion-acceleration scaling laws seen in multiparametric particle-in-cell simulations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 105001-105004 (2006)
    [CrossRef]
  24. H. Schwoerer, S. Pfotenhauer, O. Jackel, K. U. Amthor, B. Liesfeld, W. Ziegler, R. Sauerbrey, K. W. D. Ledingham, and T. Esirkepov, "Laser-plasma acceleration of quasimonoenergetic protons from microstructured targets," Nature 439, 445-449 (2006)
    [CrossRef]
  25. T. Nakamura, H. Sakagami, T. Johzaki, H. Nagatomo, K. Mima, and J. Koga, "Optimization of cone target geometry for fast ignition," Phys. Plasmas 14, 103105-103111 (2007)
    [CrossRef]
  26. J. T. Seo, S. H. Yoo, and S. J. Hahn, "High-quality energetic proton beams from an intense laser-plasma interaction with a micro-structured slab target," J. Kor. Phys. Soc. 53, 3229-3235 (2008)
  27. J. P. Verboncoeur, A. B. Langdon, and N. T. Gladd, "An object-oriented electromagnetic PIC code," Comp. Phys. Comm. 87, 199-211 (1995)
    [CrossRef]
  28. T. Okada, A. A. Andreev, Y. Mikado, and K. Okubo, "Energetic proton acceleration and bunch generation by ultraintense laser pulses on the surface of thin plasma targets," Phys. Rev. E 74, 026401-026405 (2006)
    [CrossRef]
  29. B. M. Hegelich, B. J. Albright, J. Cobble, K. Flippo, S. Letzring, M. Paffett, H. Ruhl, J. Schreiber, R. K. Schulze, and J. C. Fernandez, "Laser acceleration of quasimonoenergetic MeV ion beams," Nature 439, 441-444 (2006)
    [CrossRef]
  30. M. Chen, Z.-M. Sheng, Q.-L. Dong, M.-Q. He, Y.-T. Li, M. A. Bari, and J. Zhang, "Collisionless electrostatic shock generation and ion acceleration by ultraintense laser pulses in overdense plasmas," Phys. Plasmas 14, 053102-053110 (2007)
    [CrossRef]

2008

Y. Izawa, N. Miyanaga, J. Kawanaka, and K. Yamakawa, "High power lasers and their new applications", J. Opt. Soc. Korea 12, 178-185 (2008)
[CrossRef]

J. T. Seo, S. H. Yoo, and S. J. Hahn, "High-quality energetic proton beams from an intense laser-plasma interaction with a micro-structured slab target," J. Kor. Phys. Soc. 53, 3229-3235 (2008)

2007

J. T. Seo, S. H. Yoo, and S. J. Hahn, "Effects of underdense preplasma on the energetic proton generation in ultraintense short laser pulse interaction with an overdense plasma slab," J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 76, 114501-114505 (2007)
[CrossRef]

T. Nakamura, H. Sakagami, T. Johzaki, H. Nagatomo, K. Mima, and J. Koga, "Optimization of cone target geometry for fast ignition," Phys. Plasmas 14, 103105-103111 (2007)
[CrossRef]

M. Chen, Z.-M. Sheng, Q.-L. Dong, M.-Q. He, Y.-T. Li, M. A. Bari, and J. Zhang, "Collisionless electrostatic shock generation and ion acceleration by ultraintense laser pulses in overdense plasmas," Phys. Plasmas 14, 053102-053110 (2007)
[CrossRef]

2006

T. Esirkepov, M. Yamagiwa, and T. Tajima, "Laser ion-acceleration scaling laws seen in multiparametric particle-in-cell simulations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 105001-105004 (2006)
[CrossRef]

H. Schwoerer, S. Pfotenhauer, O. Jackel, K. U. Amthor, B. Liesfeld, W. Ziegler, R. Sauerbrey, K. W. D. Ledingham, and T. Esirkepov, "Laser-plasma acceleration of quasimonoenergetic protons from microstructured targets," Nature 439, 445-449 (2006)
[CrossRef]

T. Okada, A. A. Andreev, Y. Mikado, and K. Okubo, "Energetic proton acceleration and bunch generation by ultraintense laser pulses on the surface of thin plasma targets," Phys. Rev. E 74, 026401-026405 (2006)
[CrossRef]

B. M. Hegelich, B. J. Albright, J. Cobble, K. Flippo, S. Letzring, M. Paffett, H. Ruhl, J. Schreiber, R. K. Schulze, and J. C. Fernandez, "Laser acceleration of quasimonoenergetic MeV ion beams," Nature 439, 441-444 (2006)
[CrossRef]

2005

E. d"Humieres, E. Lefebvre, L. Gremillet, and V. Malka, "Proton acceleration mechanisms in high-intensity laser interaction with thin foils," Phys. Plasmas 12, 062704-062715 (2005)
[CrossRef]

2004

L. O. Silva, M. Marti, J. R. Davies, R. A. Fonseca, C. Ren, F. S. Tsung, and W. B. Mori, "Proton shock acceleration in laser-plasma interactions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 015002-015005 (2004)
[CrossRef]

H. J. Lee, K. H. Pae, H. Suk, and S. J. Hahn, "Enhancement of high-energy ion generation by preplasmas in the interaction of an intense laser pulse with overdense plasmas," Phys. Plasmas 11, 1726-1729, (2004)
[CrossRef]

T. E. Cowan, J. Fuchs, H. Ruhl, A. Kemp, P. Audebert, M. Roth, R. Stephens, I. Barton, A. Blazevic, E. Brambrink, et al., "Ultralow emittance, multi-MeV proton beams from a laser virtual-cathode plasma accelerator," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 204801-204804 (2004)
[CrossRef]

H. Habara, R. Kodama, Y. Sentoku, N. Izumi, Y. Kitagawa, K. A. Tanaka, K. Mima, and T. Yamanaka, "Fast ion acceleration in ultraintense laser interactions with an overdense plasma," Phys. Rev. E 69, 036407-036416 (2004)
[CrossRef]

2003

K. Matsukado, T. Esirkepov, K. Kinoshita, H. Daido, T. Utsumi, Z. Li, A. Fukumi, Y. Hayashi, S. Orimo, M. Nishiuchi, et al., "Energetic protons from a few-micron metallic foil evaporated by an intense laser pulse," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 215001-215004 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Y. Sentoku, T. E. Cowan, A. Kemp, and H. Ruhl, "High energy proton acceleration in interaction of short laser pulse with dense plasma target," Phys. Plasmas 10, 2009-2015 (2003)
[CrossRef]

E. Fourkal, J. S. Li, W. Xiong, A. Nahum, and C. M. Ma, "Intensity modulated radiation therapy using laseraccelerated protons: a monte carlo dosimetric study," Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 3977-4000 (2003)
[CrossRef]

2001

A. Pukhov, "Three-dimensional simulations of ion acceleration from a foil irradiated by a short-pulse laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3562-3565 (2001)
[CrossRef]

A. J. Mackinnon, M. Borghesi, S. Hatchett, M. H. Key, P. K. Patel, H. Campbell, A. Schiavi, R. Snavely, S. C. Wilks, and O. Willi, "Effect of plasma scale length on multi-MeV proton production by intense laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1769-1772 (2001)
[CrossRef]

2000

E. L. Clark, K. Krushelnick, J. R. Davies, M. Zepf, M. Tatarakis, F. N. Beg, A. Machacek, P. A. Norreys, M. I. K. Santala, I. Watts, et al., "Measurements of energetic proton transport through magnetized plasma from intense laser interactions with solids," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 670-673 (2000)
[CrossRef]

A. Maksimchuk, S. Gu, K. Flippo, and D. Umstadter, "Forward ion acceleration in thin films driven by a highintensity laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4108-4111 (2000)
[CrossRef]

R. A. Snavely, M. H. Key, S. P. Hatchett, T. E. Cowan, M. Roth, T. W. Phillips, M. A. Stoyer, E. A. Henry, T. C. Sangster, M. S. Singh, et al., "Intense high-energy proton beams from petawatt-laser irradiation of solids," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2945-2948 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Y. Sentoku, T. V. Liseikina, T. Z. Esirkepov, F. Califano, N. M. Naumova, Y. Ueshima, V. A. Vshivkov, Y. Kato, K. Mima, K. Nishihara, et al., "High density collimated beams of relativistic ions produced by petawatt laser pulses in plasmas," Phys. Rev. E 62, 7271-7281 (2000)
[CrossRef]

1999

P. A. Norreys, M. Santala, E. Clark, M. Zepf, I. Watts, F. N. Beg, K. Krushelnick, M. Tatarakis, A. E. Dangor, X. Fang, et al., "Observation of a highly directional <TEX>$\gamma$</TEX>-ray beam from ultrashort, ultraintense laser pulse interactions with solids," Phys. Plasmas 6, 2150-2156 (1999)
[CrossRef]

1996

G. Malka and J. L. Miquel, "Experimental confirmation of ponderomotive-force electrons produced by an ultrarelativistic laser pulse on a solid target," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 75-78 (1996)
[CrossRef]

1995

J. P. Verboncoeur, A. B. Langdon, and N. T. Gladd, "An object-oriented electromagnetic PIC code," Comp. Phys. Comm. 87, 199-211 (1995)
[CrossRef]

1994

M. Tabak, J. Hammer, M. E. Glinsky, W. L. Kruer, S. C. Wilks, J. Woodworth, E. M. Campbell, and M. D. Perry, "Ignition and high gain with ultrapowerful lasers," Phys. Plasmas 1, 1626-1634 (1994)
[CrossRef]

1992

S. C. Wilks, W. L. Kruer, M. Tabak, and A. B. Langdon, "Absorption of ultra-intense laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1383-1386 (1992)
[CrossRef]

J. Denavit, "Absorption of high-intensity subpicosecond lasers on solid density targets," Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 3052-3055 (1992)
[CrossRef]

1982

D. R. Farley, K. G. Estabrook, S. G. Glendinning, S. H. Glenzer, B. A. Remington, K. Shigemori, J. M. Stone, R. J. Wallace, G. B. Zimmerman, and J. A. Harte, "Radiative jet experiments of astrophysical interest using intense lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1982-1985 (1982)
[CrossRef]

Computer Physics Communications

J. P. Verboncoeur, A. B. Langdon, and N. T. Gladd, "An object-oriented electromagnetic PIC code," Comp. Phys. Comm. 87, 199-211 (1995)
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Soc. Jpn.

J. T. Seo, S. H. Yoo, and S. J. Hahn, "Effects of underdense preplasma on the energetic proton generation in ultraintense short laser pulse interaction with an overdense plasma slab," J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 76, 114501-114505 (2007)
[CrossRef]

Journal of the Korean Physical Society

J. T. Seo, S. H. Yoo, and S. J. Hahn, "High-quality energetic proton beams from an intense laser-plasma interaction with a micro-structured slab target," J. Kor. Phys. Soc. 53, 3229-3235 (2008)

Journal of the Optical Society of Korea

Y. Izawa, N. Miyanaga, J. Kawanaka, and K. Yamakawa, "High power lasers and their new applications", J. Opt. Soc. Korea 12, 178-185 (2008)
[CrossRef]

Nature

B. M. Hegelich, B. J. Albright, J. Cobble, K. Flippo, S. Letzring, M. Paffett, H. Ruhl, J. Schreiber, R. K. Schulze, and J. C. Fernandez, "Laser acceleration of quasimonoenergetic MeV ion beams," Nature 439, 441-444 (2006)
[CrossRef]

H. Schwoerer, S. Pfotenhauer, O. Jackel, K. U. Amthor, B. Liesfeld, W. Ziegler, R. Sauerbrey, K. W. D. Ledingham, and T. Esirkepov, "Laser-plasma acceleration of quasimonoenergetic protons from microstructured targets," Nature 439, 445-449 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Phys. Med. Biol.

E. Fourkal, J. S. Li, W. Xiong, A. Nahum, and C. M. Ma, "Intensity modulated radiation therapy using laseraccelerated protons: a monte carlo dosimetric study," Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 3977-4000 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Phys. Plasmas

M. Tabak, J. Hammer, M. E. Glinsky, W. L. Kruer, S. C. Wilks, J. Woodworth, E. M. Campbell, and M. D. Perry, "Ignition and high gain with ultrapowerful lasers," Phys. Plasmas 1, 1626-1634 (1994)
[CrossRef]

P. A. Norreys, M. Santala, E. Clark, M. Zepf, I. Watts, F. N. Beg, K. Krushelnick, M. Tatarakis, A. E. Dangor, X. Fang, et al., "Observation of a highly directional <TEX>$\gamma$</TEX>-ray beam from ultrashort, ultraintense laser pulse interactions with solids," Phys. Plasmas 6, 2150-2156 (1999)
[CrossRef]

T. Nakamura, H. Sakagami, T. Johzaki, H. Nagatomo, K. Mima, and J. Koga, "Optimization of cone target geometry for fast ignition," Phys. Plasmas 14, 103105-103111 (2007)
[CrossRef]

Y. Sentoku, T. E. Cowan, A. Kemp, and H. Ruhl, "High energy proton acceleration in interaction of short laser pulse with dense plasma target," Phys. Plasmas 10, 2009-2015 (2003)
[CrossRef]

E. d"Humieres, E. Lefebvre, L. Gremillet, and V. Malka, "Proton acceleration mechanisms in high-intensity laser interaction with thin foils," Phys. Plasmas 12, 062704-062715 (2005)
[CrossRef]

M. Chen, Z.-M. Sheng, Q.-L. Dong, M.-Q. He, Y.-T. Li, M. A. Bari, and J. Zhang, "Collisionless electrostatic shock generation and ion acceleration by ultraintense laser pulses in overdense plasmas," Phys. Plasmas 14, 053102-053110 (2007)
[CrossRef]

H. J. Lee, K. H. Pae, H. Suk, and S. J. Hahn, "Enhancement of high-energy ion generation by preplasmas in the interaction of an intense laser pulse with overdense plasmas," Phys. Plasmas 11, 1726-1729, (2004)
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E

T. Okada, A. A. Andreev, Y. Mikado, and K. Okubo, "Energetic proton acceleration and bunch generation by ultraintense laser pulses on the surface of thin plasma targets," Phys. Rev. E 74, 026401-026405 (2006)
[CrossRef]

H. Habara, R. Kodama, Y. Sentoku, N. Izumi, Y. Kitagawa, K. A. Tanaka, K. Mima, and T. Yamanaka, "Fast ion acceleration in ultraintense laser interactions with an overdense plasma," Phys. Rev. E 69, 036407-036416 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Y. Sentoku, T. V. Liseikina, T. Z. Esirkepov, F. Califano, N. M. Naumova, Y. Ueshima, V. A. Vshivkov, Y. Kato, K. Mima, K. Nishihara, et al., "High density collimated beams of relativistic ions produced by petawatt laser pulses in plasmas," Phys. Rev. E 62, 7271-7281 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

A. Pukhov, "Three-dimensional simulations of ion acceleration from a foil irradiated by a short-pulse laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3562-3565 (2001)
[CrossRef]

A. J. Mackinnon, M. Borghesi, S. Hatchett, M. H. Key, P. K. Patel, H. Campbell, A. Schiavi, R. Snavely, S. C. Wilks, and O. Willi, "Effect of plasma scale length on multi-MeV proton production by intense laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1769-1772 (2001)
[CrossRef]

K. Matsukado, T. Esirkepov, K. Kinoshita, H. Daido, T. Utsumi, Z. Li, A. Fukumi, Y. Hayashi, S. Orimo, M. Nishiuchi, et al., "Energetic protons from a few-micron metallic foil evaporated by an intense laser pulse," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 215001-215004 (2003)
[CrossRef]

E. L. Clark, K. Krushelnick, J. R. Davies, M. Zepf, M. Tatarakis, F. N. Beg, A. Machacek, P. A. Norreys, M. I. K. Santala, I. Watts, et al., "Measurements of energetic proton transport through magnetized plasma from intense laser interactions with solids," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 670-673 (2000)
[CrossRef]

A. Maksimchuk, S. Gu, K. Flippo, and D. Umstadter, "Forward ion acceleration in thin films driven by a highintensity laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4108-4111 (2000)
[CrossRef]

R. A. Snavely, M. H. Key, S. P. Hatchett, T. E. Cowan, M. Roth, T. W. Phillips, M. A. Stoyer, E. A. Henry, T. C. Sangster, M. S. Singh, et al., "Intense high-energy proton beams from petawatt-laser irradiation of solids," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2945-2948 (2000)
[CrossRef]

T. E. Cowan, J. Fuchs, H. Ruhl, A. Kemp, P. Audebert, M. Roth, R. Stephens, I. Barton, A. Blazevic, E. Brambrink, et al., "Ultralow emittance, multi-MeV proton beams from a laser virtual-cathode plasma accelerator," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 204801-204804 (2004)
[CrossRef]

D. R. Farley, K. G. Estabrook, S. G. Glendinning, S. H. Glenzer, B. A. Remington, K. Shigemori, J. M. Stone, R. J. Wallace, G. B. Zimmerman, and J. A. Harte, "Radiative jet experiments of astrophysical interest using intense lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1982-1985 (1982)
[CrossRef]

S. C. Wilks, W. L. Kruer, M. Tabak, and A. B. Langdon, "Absorption of ultra-intense laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1383-1386 (1992)
[CrossRef]

J. Denavit, "Absorption of high-intensity subpicosecond lasers on solid density targets," Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 3052-3055 (1992)
[CrossRef]

G. Malka and J. L. Miquel, "Experimental confirmation of ponderomotive-force electrons produced by an ultrarelativistic laser pulse on a solid target," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 75-78 (1996)
[CrossRef]

L. O. Silva, M. Marti, J. R. Davies, R. A. Fonseca, C. Ren, F. S. Tsung, and W. B. Mori, "Proton shock acceleration in laser-plasma interactions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 015002-015005 (2004)
[CrossRef]

T. Esirkepov, M. Yamagiwa, and T. Tajima, "Laser ion-acceleration scaling laws seen in multiparametric particle-in-cell simulations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 105001-105004 (2006)
[CrossRef]

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