Abstract

We studied the sapphire and germanium fibers to determine which optical fiber best transmits Erbium:YAG laser for intracorporeal lithotripsy. Human calculi were ablated with an Erbium:YAG laser in contact mode using two fibers. Optical outputs at the distal end of fibers were measured before and after laser lithotripsy. Upon the irradiation on the calculus with the 50 mJ and 100 mJ pulse energy, the output energy at the distal end of germanium fiber declined to approximately 50% of the input energy. For the sapphire fiber, the output energy at the distal end remained unchanged with 100 mJ input energy; however the output energy had dropped to 50% for 200 mJ input energy. In order to examine how the types of target tissue affect the fiber damage, the sapphire fiber was tested for the irradiation on soft tissue and water as well. No energy decline was observed during soft tissue and water irradiation. We also characterized ablation craters with both optical fibers. Both fibers produced similar craters on calculi in terms of depth and diameter. Sapphire fibers are better suited than germanium fibers for Erbium:YAG lithotripsy in terms of the fiber damage.

© 2008 Optical Society of Korea

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  1. W. P. Mulvaney and C. W. Beck, “The laser beam in urology,” J. Urol., vol. 99, no. 1, pp. 112-115, 1968
  2. S. P. Dretler, “Laser lithotripsy: A review of 20 years of research and clinical applications,” Lasers Surg. Med., vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 341-356, 1988
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. F. Chan, T. J. Pfefer, J. M. H. Teichman and A. J. Welch, “A perspective on laser lithotripsy: The fragmentation processes,” J. Endourology, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 257-273, 2001
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. M. H. Teichman, G. J. Vassar, J. T. Bishoff and G. C. Bellman, “Holmium:YAG fragments are smaller than Lithoclast, pulsed dye, or electrohydraulic lithotripsy,” J. Urol., vol. 159, no. 1, pp. 17-23, 1998
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. J. Vassar, J. M. H. Teichman and R. D. Glickman, “Holmium:YAG lithotripsy efficiency varies with energy density,” J. Urol., vol. 160, no 2, pp. 471-476, 1998
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Sofer, J. D. Watterson, T. A. Wollin, L. Nott, H. Razvi and J. D. Denstedt, “Holmium:YAG laser lithotripsy for upper urinary tract calculi in 598 patients,” J. Urol., vol. 167, no 1, pp. 31-4, 2002
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. M. H. Teichman, K. F. Chan, P. P. Cecconi, N. S. Corbin, A. D. Kamerer, R. D. Glickman and A. J. Welch, “Er:YAG versus Ho:YAG lithotripsy,” J. Urol., vol. 165, no. 3, pp. 876-879, 2001
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Lee, H. W. Kang, J. M. H. Teichman, J. Oh and A. J. Welch, “Urinary calculus fragmentation during Ho:YAG and Er:YAG lithotripsy,” Lasers Surg. Med., vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 39-51, 2006
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. F. Chan, D. X. Hammer, B. Choi, A. J. Welch, J. M. H. Teichman, H. S. McGuff, H. Pratisto and E. D. Jansen, “Free electron laser lithotripsy threshold radiant exposures,” J. Endourology, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 161-167, 2000
  10. K. F. Chan, H. Lee, J. M. H. Teichman, A. Kamerer, H. S. McGuff, G. Vargas and A. J. Welch, “Erbium:YAG laser lithotripsy mechanism,” J. Urol., vol. 168, no. 2, pp. 436-441, 2002
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. M. Hale and M. R. Query, “Optical constants of water in the 200-nm to 200-um wavelength region,” Appl. Opt., vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 555-563, 1973
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. A. Chaney, Y. Yang and N. M. Fried, “Hybrid germanium/silica optical fibers for endoscopic delivery of Erbium:YAG laser radiation,” Lasers Surg. Med., vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 5-11, 2004
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. Yang, C. A. Chaney and N. M. Fried, “Erbium:YAG laser lithotripsy using hybrid germanium/silica optical fibers,” J. Endourology, vol. 18, no. 9, pp.830-835, 2004
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. J. Polletto, A. K. Ngo, A. Tchapyjnikov, K. Levin, D. Tran and N. M. Fried, “Comparison of germanium oxide fibers with silica and sapphire fiber tips for transmission of Erbium: YAG laser radiation,” Lasers Surg. Med., vol. 38, no. 8, pp. 787-791, 2006
    [CrossRef]
  15. K. Iwai, Y. W. Shi, K. Nito, Y. Matsuura, T. Kasai, M. Miyagi, S. Saito, Y. Arai, N. Ioritani, Y. Okagami, M. Nemec, J. Sulc, H. Jelinkova, M. Zavoral, O. Kohler and P. Drlik, “Erbium:YAG laser lithotripsy by use of a flexible hollow waveguide with an end-scaling cap,” Appl. Opt., vol. 42, no. 13, pp. 2431-2435, 2003
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. Lee, T. R. Ryan, A. Lee, J. H. Teichman, A. J. Welch, “Feasibility study of Er:YAG lithotripsy,” Lasers Surg. Med., vol. 15 (Suppl), pp. 12, 2003
  17. S. S. Spore, J. M. H. Teichman, N. S. Corbin, P. C. Champion, E. D. Williamson and R. D. Glickman, “Holmium:YAG lithotripsy: optimal power settings,” J. Endourol, vol. 13, no.8, pp. 559-566, 1999

2006 (2)

H. Lee, H. W. Kang, J. M. H. Teichman, J. Oh and A. J. Welch, “Urinary calculus fragmentation during Ho:YAG and Er:YAG lithotripsy,” Lasers Surg. Med., vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 39-51, 2006
[CrossRef]

T. J. Polletto, A. K. Ngo, A. Tchapyjnikov, K. Levin, D. Tran and N. M. Fried, “Comparison of germanium oxide fibers with silica and sapphire fiber tips for transmission of Erbium: YAG laser radiation,” Lasers Surg. Med., vol. 38, no. 8, pp. 787-791, 2006
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

C. A. Chaney, Y. Yang and N. M. Fried, “Hybrid germanium/silica optical fibers for endoscopic delivery of Erbium:YAG laser radiation,” Lasers Surg. Med., vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 5-11, 2004
[CrossRef]

Y. Yang, C. A. Chaney and N. M. Fried, “Erbium:YAG laser lithotripsy using hybrid germanium/silica optical fibers,” J. Endourology, vol. 18, no. 9, pp.830-835, 2004
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

K. Iwai, Y. W. Shi, K. Nito, Y. Matsuura, T. Kasai, M. Miyagi, S. Saito, Y. Arai, N. Ioritani, Y. Okagami, M. Nemec, J. Sulc, H. Jelinkova, M. Zavoral, O. Kohler and P. Drlik, “Erbium:YAG laser lithotripsy by use of a flexible hollow waveguide with an end-scaling cap,” Appl. Opt., vol. 42, no. 13, pp. 2431-2435, 2003
[CrossRef]

H. Lee, T. R. Ryan, A. Lee, J. H. Teichman, A. J. Welch, “Feasibility study of Er:YAG lithotripsy,” Lasers Surg. Med., vol. 15 (Suppl), pp. 12, 2003

2002 (2)

K. F. Chan, H. Lee, J. M. H. Teichman, A. Kamerer, H. S. McGuff, G. Vargas and A. J. Welch, “Erbium:YAG laser lithotripsy mechanism,” J. Urol., vol. 168, no. 2, pp. 436-441, 2002
[CrossRef]

M. Sofer, J. D. Watterson, T. A. Wollin, L. Nott, H. Razvi and J. D. Denstedt, “Holmium:YAG laser lithotripsy for upper urinary tract calculi in 598 patients,” J. Urol., vol. 167, no 1, pp. 31-4, 2002
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

J. M. H. Teichman, K. F. Chan, P. P. Cecconi, N. S. Corbin, A. D. Kamerer, R. D. Glickman and A. J. Welch, “Er:YAG versus Ho:YAG lithotripsy,” J. Urol., vol. 165, no. 3, pp. 876-879, 2001
[CrossRef]

K. F. Chan, T. J. Pfefer, J. M. H. Teichman and A. J. Welch, “A perspective on laser lithotripsy: The fragmentation processes,” J. Endourology, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 257-273, 2001
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

K. F. Chan, D. X. Hammer, B. Choi, A. J. Welch, J. M. H. Teichman, H. S. McGuff, H. Pratisto and E. D. Jansen, “Free electron laser lithotripsy threshold radiant exposures,” J. Endourology, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 161-167, 2000

1999 (1)

S. S. Spore, J. M. H. Teichman, N. S. Corbin, P. C. Champion, E. D. Williamson and R. D. Glickman, “Holmium:YAG lithotripsy: optimal power settings,” J. Endourol, vol. 13, no.8, pp. 559-566, 1999

1998 (2)

J. M. H. Teichman, G. J. Vassar, J. T. Bishoff and G. C. Bellman, “Holmium:YAG fragments are smaller than Lithoclast, pulsed dye, or electrohydraulic lithotripsy,” J. Urol., vol. 159, no. 1, pp. 17-23, 1998
[CrossRef]

G. J. Vassar, J. M. H. Teichman and R. D. Glickman, “Holmium:YAG lithotripsy efficiency varies with energy density,” J. Urol., vol. 160, no 2, pp. 471-476, 1998
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

S. P. Dretler, “Laser lithotripsy: A review of 20 years of research and clinical applications,” Lasers Surg. Med., vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 341-356, 1988
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

G. M. Hale and M. R. Query, “Optical constants of water in the 200-nm to 200-um wavelength region,” Appl. Opt., vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 555-563, 1973
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

W. P. Mulvaney and C. W. Beck, “The laser beam in urology,” J. Urol., vol. 99, no. 1, pp. 112-115, 1968

Applied Optics (2)

G. M. Hale and M. R. Query, “Optical constants of water in the 200-nm to 200-um wavelength region,” Appl. Opt., vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 555-563, 1973
[CrossRef]

K. Iwai, Y. W. Shi, K. Nito, Y. Matsuura, T. Kasai, M. Miyagi, S. Saito, Y. Arai, N. Ioritani, Y. Okagami, M. Nemec, J. Sulc, H. Jelinkova, M. Zavoral, O. Kohler and P. Drlik, “Erbium:YAG laser lithotripsy by use of a flexible hollow waveguide with an end-scaling cap,” Appl. Opt., vol. 42, no. 13, pp. 2431-2435, 2003
[CrossRef]

J. Endourol (1)

S. S. Spore, J. M. H. Teichman, N. S. Corbin, P. C. Champion, E. D. Williamson and R. D. Glickman, “Holmium:YAG lithotripsy: optimal power settings,” J. Endourol, vol. 13, no.8, pp. 559-566, 1999

J. Endourology (1)

K. F. Chan, D. X. Hammer, B. Choi, A. J. Welch, J. M. H. Teichman, H. S. McGuff, H. Pratisto and E. D. Jansen, “Free electron laser lithotripsy threshold radiant exposures,” J. Endourology, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 161-167, 2000

J. Urol. (1)

W. P. Mulvaney and C. W. Beck, “The laser beam in urology,” J. Urol., vol. 99, no. 1, pp. 112-115, 1968

Journal of Endourology (2)

K. F. Chan, T. J. Pfefer, J. M. H. Teichman and A. J. Welch, “A perspective on laser lithotripsy: The fragmentation processes,” J. Endourology, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 257-273, 2001
[CrossRef]

Y. Yang, C. A. Chaney and N. M. Fried, “Erbium:YAG laser lithotripsy using hybrid germanium/silica optical fibers,” J. Endourology, vol. 18, no. 9, pp.830-835, 2004
[CrossRef]

Lasers in Surgery and Medicine (4)

T. J. Polletto, A. K. Ngo, A. Tchapyjnikov, K. Levin, D. Tran and N. M. Fried, “Comparison of germanium oxide fibers with silica and sapphire fiber tips for transmission of Erbium: YAG laser radiation,” Lasers Surg. Med., vol. 38, no. 8, pp. 787-791, 2006
[CrossRef]

C. A. Chaney, Y. Yang and N. M. Fried, “Hybrid germanium/silica optical fibers for endoscopic delivery of Erbium:YAG laser radiation,” Lasers Surg. Med., vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 5-11, 2004
[CrossRef]

H. Lee, H. W. Kang, J. M. H. Teichman, J. Oh and A. J. Welch, “Urinary calculus fragmentation during Ho:YAG and Er:YAG lithotripsy,” Lasers Surg. Med., vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 39-51, 2006
[CrossRef]

S. P. Dretler, “Laser lithotripsy: A review of 20 years of research and clinical applications,” Lasers Surg. Med., vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 341-356, 1988
[CrossRef]

Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

H. Lee, T. R. Ryan, A. Lee, J. H. Teichman, A. J. Welch, “Feasibility study of Er:YAG lithotripsy,” Lasers Surg. Med., vol. 15 (Suppl), pp. 12, 2003

The Journal of Urology (5)

K. F. Chan, H. Lee, J. M. H. Teichman, A. Kamerer, H. S. McGuff, G. Vargas and A. J. Welch, “Erbium:YAG laser lithotripsy mechanism,” J. Urol., vol. 168, no. 2, pp. 436-441, 2002
[CrossRef]

J. M. H. Teichman, G. J. Vassar, J. T. Bishoff and G. C. Bellman, “Holmium:YAG fragments are smaller than Lithoclast, pulsed dye, or electrohydraulic lithotripsy,” J. Urol., vol. 159, no. 1, pp. 17-23, 1998
[CrossRef]

G. J. Vassar, J. M. H. Teichman and R. D. Glickman, “Holmium:YAG lithotripsy efficiency varies with energy density,” J. Urol., vol. 160, no 2, pp. 471-476, 1998
[CrossRef]

M. Sofer, J. D. Watterson, T. A. Wollin, L. Nott, H. Razvi and J. D. Denstedt, “Holmium:YAG laser lithotripsy for upper urinary tract calculi in 598 patients,” J. Urol., vol. 167, no 1, pp. 31-4, 2002
[CrossRef]

J. M. H. Teichman, K. F. Chan, P. P. Cecconi, N. S. Corbin, A. D. Kamerer, R. D. Glickman and A. J. Welch, “Er:YAG versus Ho:YAG lithotripsy,” J. Urol., vol. 165, no. 3, pp. 876-879, 2001
[CrossRef]

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