Abstract

We proposed an adaptive steganography of an optical image using bit-planes and multichannel characteristics. The experiment's purpose was to compare the most popular methods used in optical steganography and to examine their advantages and disadvantages. In this paper we describe two digital methods: the first uses less significant bits(LSB) to encode hidden data, and in the other all blocks of <TEX>$n{\times}n$</TEX> pixels are coded by using DCT(Digital Cosine Transformation), and two optical methods: double phase encoding and digital hologram watermarking with double binary phase encoding by using IFTA(Iterative Fourier Transform Algorithm) with phase quantization. Therefore, we investigated the complexity on bit plane and data, similarity insert information into bit planes. As a result, the proposed method increased the insertion capacity and improved the optical image quality as compared to fixing threshold and variable length method.

© 2008 Optical Society of Korea

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  1. B. Javidi and J. L. Horner, "Optical pattern recognition for validation and security verification," Optical Engineering, vol. 33, pp. 1752-1756, 1994
    [CrossRef]
  2. B. Javidi, G. S. Zhang, and J. Li, "Experimental demonstration of the random phase encoding technique for image encryption and security verification," Optical Engineering, vol. 35, pp. 2506-2512, 1996
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. Javidi and E. Ahouzi, "Optical security system with Fourier plane encoding," Optical Engineering, vol. 37, pp. 6247-6255, 1998
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. K. Wang, I. A. Watson, and C. Chatwin, “Random phase encoding for optical security,” Optical Engineering, vol. 35, pp. 2464-2469, 1996
    [CrossRef]
  5. N. F. Johnson, Z. Duric, and S. Jajodia, "Information Hiding- Steganography and Watermarking Attacks and Countermeasures," Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 18-44, 2001
  6. M. Niimi, H. Noda, and E. Kawaguchi, "Steganography Based on Region Segmentation with a Complexity Measure," Systems and Computers in Japan, vol. 30, issue. 3, pp. 1132-1140, 1999
  7. H. Wang and S. Wang, "Cyber warfare: Steganography vs steganalysis," Communications of the ACM, vol. 47, no. 10, 2004
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. K. Wallace, "The jpeg still picture compression standard," Communications of the ACM, vol. 34, issue. 4, pp. 30-44, 1991
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. Sherif and J. Bahram, "Information hiding technique with double phase encoding," Appl. Opt., vol. 41, no. 26, pp. 5462-5470, 2002
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. Philippe and J. Bahram, "Optical image encryption using input plane and Fourier plane random encoding," Proceeding of SPIE, Vol. 2565, pp. 767-769, 1995
  11. T. Nomura and B. Javidi, "Information security using digital holography," Opt. Lett., vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 28-30, 2000
    [CrossRef]
  12. X. Zhou, L. Chen, and J. Shao, "Investigation of digital hologram watermarking with double binary phase encoding," Optical Engineering, vol. 44, 2005
  13. R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, "A practical algorithm for the determination of phase from image and diffraction plane pictures," Optik, vol. 35, pp. 237-246, 1972
  14. E. Kawaguchi and R.. Taniguchi, "Complexity of binary pictures and image thresholding – An application of DF-Expression to the thresholding problem", Proceedings of 8th International Conference on Pattern Recognition, vol. 2, pp. 1221-1225, 1986
  15. E. Kawaguchi and R.. Taniguchi, "The DF-Expression as an image thresholding strategy", IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 1321-1328, 1989
    [CrossRef]
  16. E. Kawaguchi and R.. Taniguchi, "Depth-First Coding for multi-valued figures using bit-plane decomposition", IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 43, no. 5, pp. 1961-1995
  17. J. Fridrich, "A New Steganographic Method for Palette Based Images," Proceeding of the IS&T PICS conference, pp. 285-289, 1988
  18. L. M. Marvel, C. G. Boncelet, Jr., and C. T. Retter, "Spread Spectrum Image Steganography,"IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, vol. 8, no. 8, pp. 1075-1083, 1999
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. Niimi, H. Noda, and E. Kawaguchi, "An Image Embedding in Image Complexity based Region Segmentation Method," Proceeding of International Conference on Image Processing, vol. 3, pp. 77-77, 1977
  20. N. F. Johnson, Z. Duric, and S. Jajodia, "Information Hiding Steganography and Watermarking Attacks and Countermeasures," Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp.18-44, 2001
  21. A. Westfeld and A. Pfitzmann, "Attacks on Steganographic systems," Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 1768, Springer-Verlag, pp. 61-75, 2000
  22. Sin-Joo Lee, Jae-Min Bae, and Sung-Hwan Jung, "High Capacity Image Steganography using Complexity Measure," Proceeding of East-Asia Language Processing and Internet Information Technology, pp. 349-352, 2002
  23. http://funet.fi/pub/crypt/steganography/jpeg-jsteg-v4.diff.gz

2005 (1)

X. Zhou, L. Chen, and J. Shao, "Investigation of digital hologram watermarking with double binary phase encoding," Optical Engineering, vol. 44, 2005

2004 (1)

H. Wang and S. Wang, "Cyber warfare: Steganography vs steganalysis," Communications of the ACM, vol. 47, no. 10, 2004
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

K. Sherif and J. Bahram, "Information hiding technique with double phase encoding," Appl. Opt., vol. 41, no. 26, pp. 5462-5470, 2002
[CrossRef]

Sin-Joo Lee, Jae-Min Bae, and Sung-Hwan Jung, "High Capacity Image Steganography using Complexity Measure," Proceeding of East-Asia Language Processing and Internet Information Technology, pp. 349-352, 2002

2001 (2)

N. F. Johnson, Z. Duric, and S. Jajodia, "Information Hiding Steganography and Watermarking Attacks and Countermeasures," Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp.18-44, 2001

N. F. Johnson, Z. Duric, and S. Jajodia, "Information Hiding- Steganography and Watermarking Attacks and Countermeasures," Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 18-44, 2001

2000 (2)

T. Nomura and B. Javidi, "Information security using digital holography," Opt. Lett., vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 28-30, 2000
[CrossRef]

A. Westfeld and A. Pfitzmann, "Attacks on Steganographic systems," Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 1768, Springer-Verlag, pp. 61-75, 2000

1999 (2)

L. M. Marvel, C. G. Boncelet, Jr., and C. T. Retter, "Spread Spectrum Image Steganography,"IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, vol. 8, no. 8, pp. 1075-1083, 1999
[CrossRef]

M. Niimi, H. Noda, and E. Kawaguchi, "Steganography Based on Region Segmentation with a Complexity Measure," Systems and Computers in Japan, vol. 30, issue. 3, pp. 1132-1140, 1999

1998 (1)

B. Javidi and E. Ahouzi, "Optical security system with Fourier plane encoding," Optical Engineering, vol. 37, pp. 6247-6255, 1998
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

R. K. Wang, I. A. Watson, and C. Chatwin, “Random phase encoding for optical security,” Optical Engineering, vol. 35, pp. 2464-2469, 1996
[CrossRef]

B. Javidi, G. S. Zhang, and J. Li, "Experimental demonstration of the random phase encoding technique for image encryption and security verification," Optical Engineering, vol. 35, pp. 2506-2512, 1996
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

R. Philippe and J. Bahram, "Optical image encryption using input plane and Fourier plane random encoding," Proceeding of SPIE, Vol. 2565, pp. 767-769, 1995

1994 (1)

B. Javidi and J. L. Horner, "Optical pattern recognition for validation and security verification," Optical Engineering, vol. 33, pp. 1752-1756, 1994
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

G. K. Wallace, "The jpeg still picture compression standard," Communications of the ACM, vol. 34, issue. 4, pp. 30-44, 1991
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

E. Kawaguchi and R.. Taniguchi, "The DF-Expression as an image thresholding strategy", IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 1321-1328, 1989
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

J. Fridrich, "A New Steganographic Method for Palette Based Images," Proceeding of the IS&T PICS conference, pp. 285-289, 1988

1986 (1)

E. Kawaguchi and R.. Taniguchi, "Complexity of binary pictures and image thresholding – An application of DF-Expression to the thresholding problem", Proceedings of 8th International Conference on Pattern Recognition, vol. 2, pp. 1221-1225, 1986

1977 (1)

M. Niimi, H. Noda, and E. Kawaguchi, "An Image Embedding in Image Complexity based Region Segmentation Method," Proceeding of International Conference on Image Processing, vol. 3, pp. 77-77, 1977

1972 (1)

R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, "A practical algorithm for the determination of phase from image and diffraction plane pictures," Optik, vol. 35, pp. 237-246, 1972

Applied Optics (1)

K. Sherif and J. Bahram, "Information hiding technique with double phase encoding," Appl. Opt., vol. 41, no. 26, pp. 5462-5470, 2002
[CrossRef]

Communications of the ACM (2)

H. Wang and S. Wang, "Cyber warfare: Steganography vs steganalysis," Communications of the ACM, vol. 47, no. 10, 2004
[CrossRef]

G. K. Wallace, "The jpeg still picture compression standard," Communications of the ACM, vol. 34, issue. 4, pp. 30-44, 1991
[CrossRef]

IEEE Transactions on Communications (1)

E. Kawaguchi and R.. Taniguchi, "Depth-First Coding for multi-valued figures using bit-plane decomposition", IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 43, no. 5, pp. 1961-1995

Image Processing, IEEE Transactions on (1)

L. M. Marvel, C. G. Boncelet, Jr., and C. T. Retter, "Spread Spectrum Image Steganography,"IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, vol. 8, no. 8, pp. 1075-1083, 1999
[CrossRef]

Lecture Notes in Computer Science (1)

A. Westfeld and A. Pfitzmann, "Attacks on Steganographic systems," Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 1768, Springer-Verlag, pp. 61-75, 2000

Optical Engineering (5)

X. Zhou, L. Chen, and J. Shao, "Investigation of digital hologram watermarking with double binary phase encoding," Optical Engineering, vol. 44, 2005

B. Javidi and J. L. Horner, "Optical pattern recognition for validation and security verification," Optical Engineering, vol. 33, pp. 1752-1756, 1994
[CrossRef]

B. Javidi, G. S. Zhang, and J. Li, "Experimental demonstration of the random phase encoding technique for image encryption and security verification," Optical Engineering, vol. 35, pp. 2506-2512, 1996
[CrossRef]

B. Javidi and E. Ahouzi, "Optical security system with Fourier plane encoding," Optical Engineering, vol. 37, pp. 6247-6255, 1998
[CrossRef]

R. K. Wang, I. A. Watson, and C. Chatwin, “Random phase encoding for optical security,” Optical Engineering, vol. 35, pp. 2464-2469, 1996
[CrossRef]

Optics Letters (1)

T. Nomura and B. Javidi, "Information security using digital holography," Opt. Lett., vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 28-30, 2000
[CrossRef]

Optik (1)

R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, "A practical algorithm for the determination of phase from image and diffraction plane pictures," Optik, vol. 35, pp. 237-246, 1972

Proceeding of East-Asia Language Processing and Internet Information Technology (1)

Sin-Joo Lee, Jae-Min Bae, and Sung-Hwan Jung, "High Capacity Image Steganography using Complexity Measure," Proceeding of East-Asia Language Processing and Internet Information Technology, pp. 349-352, 2002

Proceeding of International Conference on Image Processing (1)

M. Niimi, H. Noda, and E. Kawaguchi, "An Image Embedding in Image Complexity based Region Segmentation Method," Proceeding of International Conference on Image Processing, vol. 3, pp. 77-77, 1977

Proceeding of SPIE (1)

R. Philippe and J. Bahram, "Optical image encryption using input plane and Fourier plane random encoding," Proceeding of SPIE, Vol. 2565, pp. 767-769, 1995

Proceeding of the IS&T PICS conference (1)

J. Fridrich, "A New Steganographic Method for Palette Based Images," Proceeding of the IS&T PICS conference, pp. 285-289, 1988

Proceedings of 8th International Conference on Pattern Recognition (1)

E. Kawaguchi and R.. Taniguchi, "Complexity of binary pictures and image thresholding – An application of DF-Expression to the thresholding problem", Proceedings of 8th International Conference on Pattern Recognition, vol. 2, pp. 1221-1225, 1986

Systems and Computers in Japan (1)

M. Niimi, H. Noda, and E. Kawaguchi, "Steganography Based on Region Segmentation with a Complexity Measure," Systems and Computers in Japan, vol. 30, issue. 3, pp. 1132-1140, 1999

Systems, Man and Cybernetics, IEEE Transactions on (1)

E. Kawaguchi and R.. Taniguchi, "The DF-Expression as an image thresholding strategy", IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 1321-1328, 1989
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

N. F. Johnson, Z. Duric, and S. Jajodia, "Information Hiding- Steganography and Watermarking Attacks and Countermeasures," Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 18-44, 2001

N. F. Johnson, Z. Duric, and S. Jajodia, "Information Hiding Steganography and Watermarking Attacks and Countermeasures," Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp.18-44, 2001

http://funet.fi/pub/crypt/steganography/jpeg-jsteg-v4.diff.gz

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