Abstract

Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is an important noninvasive medical imaging technique that can reveal subsurface structures of biological tissue. OCT has demonstrated a good correlation with histology in sufficient resolution to identify morphological changes in articular cartilage to differentiate normal through progressive stages of degenerative joint disease. Current OCT systems provide individual cross-sectional images that are representative of the tissue directly under the scanning beam, but they may not fully demonstrate the degree of degeneration occurring within a region of a joint surface. For a full understanding of the nature and degree of cartilage degeneration within a joint, multiple OCT images must be obtained and an overall assessment of the joint surmised from multiple individual images. This study presents frequency domain three-dimensional (3-D) OCT imaging of degenerative joint cartilage extracted from bovine knees. The 3-D OCT imaging of articular cartilage enables the assembly of 126 individual, adjacent, rapid scanned OCT images into a full 3-D image representation of the tissue scanned, or these may be viewed in a progression of successive individual two-dimensional (2-D) OCT images arranged in 3-D orientation. A fiber-based frequency domain OCT system that provides cross-sectional images was used to acquire 126 successive adjacent images for a sample volume of <TEX>$6{\times}3.2{\times}2.5\;mm^3$</TEX>. The axial resolution was <TEX>$8\;{\mu}m$</TEX> in air. The 3-D OCT was able to demonstrate surface topography and subsurface disruption of articular cartilage consistent with the gross image as well as with histological cross-sections of the specimen. The 3-D OCT volumetric imaging of articular cartilage provides an enhanced appreciation and better understanding of regional degenerative joint disease than may be realized by individual 2-D OCT sectional images.

© 2008 Optical Society of Korea

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  1. V. C. Mow, Injury and repair of the musculoskeletal soft tissues, (American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, 1988.)
  2. H. J. Mankin, H. Dorfman, L. Lippiello, and A. Zarins, “Biochemical and metabolic abnormalities in articular cartilage from osteo-arthritic human hips. II. Correlation of morphology with biochemical and metabolic data,” J. Bone Jt. Surg. Am.. vol. 53, pp. 523-537, 1971
  3. J. M. Herrmann, C. Pitris, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. A. Jesser, D. L. Stamper, et al., “High resolution imaging of normal and osteoarthritic cartilage with optical coherence tomography,” J. Rheumatol. vol. 26, pp. 627-635, 1999
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    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Rogowska, C. M. Bryant, and M. E. Brezinski, “Cartilage thickness measurements from optical coherence tomorgraphy,” Opt. Soc. Am. A, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 357-367, 2003
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Pan, Z. Li, T. Xie, and C. R. Chu, “Hand-held arthroscopic optical coherence tomography for in-vivo high-resolution imaging of articular cartilage,” J. Biomed. Opt., vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 648-654, 2003
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. R. Chu, D. Lin, J. L. Geisler, C. T. Chu, F. H. Fu, and Y. Pan, “Arthroscopic microscopy of articular cartilage using optical coherence tomography,” Am. Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine., vol.32, no.3, pp. 699-709, 2004
  9. X. D. Li, S. Martin, C. Pitris, R. Ghanta, D. L. Stamper, M. Harman, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “High-resolution optical coherence tomographic imaging of osteoarthritic cartilage during open knee surgery,” Arthritis Res. & Ther., vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 318-323, 2005
    [CrossRef]

2005 (1)

X. D. Li, S. Martin, C. Pitris, R. Ghanta, D. L. Stamper, M. Harman, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “High-resolution optical coherence tomographic imaging of osteoarthritic cartilage during open knee surgery,” Arthritis Res. & Ther., vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 318-323, 2005
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

C. R. Chu, D. Lin, J. L. Geisler, C. T. Chu, F. H. Fu, and Y. Pan, “Arthroscopic microscopy of articular cartilage using optical coherence tomography,” Am. Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine., vol.32, no.3, pp. 699-709, 2004

2003 (4)

C. W. Han, C. R. Chu, N. Adachi, A. Usas, F. H. Fu, J. Huard, et al., “Analysis of rabbit articular cartilage repair after chondrocyte implantation using optical coherence tomography,” Osteoarthritis and Cartilage, vol. 11, pp. 111-121, 2003
[CrossRef]

J. Rogowska, C. M. Bryant, and M. E. Brezinski, “Cartilage thickness measurements from optical coherence tomorgraphy,” Opt. Soc. Am. A, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 357-367, 2003
[CrossRef]

M. J. Roberts, S. B. Adams, N. A. Patel, D. L. Stampler, M. S. Westmore, S. D. Martin, et al., “A new approach for assessing early osteoarthiritis in the rat,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem., vol. 377, pp. 1003-1006, 2003
[CrossRef]

Y. Pan, Z. Li, T. Xie, and C. R. Chu, “Hand-held arthroscopic optical coherence tomography for in-vivo high-resolution imaging of articular cartilage,” J. Biomed. Opt., vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 648-654, 2003
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. M. Herrmann, C. Pitris, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. A. Jesser, D. L. Stamper, et al., “High resolution imaging of normal and osteoarthritic cartilage with optical coherence tomography,” J. Rheumatol. vol. 26, pp. 627-635, 1999

1988 (1)

V. C. Mow, Injury and repair of the musculoskeletal soft tissues, (American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, 1988.)

1971 (1)

H. J. Mankin, H. Dorfman, L. Lippiello, and A. Zarins, “Biochemical and metabolic abnormalities in articular cartilage from osteo-arthritic human hips. II. Correlation of morphology with biochemical and metabolic data,” J. Bone Jt. Surg. Am.. vol. 53, pp. 523-537, 1971

Am. Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine. (1)

C. R. Chu, D. Lin, J. L. Geisler, C. T. Chu, F. H. Fu, and Y. Pan, “Arthroscopic microscopy of articular cartilage using optical coherence tomography,” Am. Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine., vol.32, no.3, pp. 699-709, 2004

Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry (1)

M. J. Roberts, S. B. Adams, N. A. Patel, D. L. Stampler, M. S. Westmore, S. D. Martin, et al., “A new approach for assessing early osteoarthiritis in the rat,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem., vol. 377, pp. 1003-1006, 2003
[CrossRef]

Arthritis Res Ther (1)

X. D. Li, S. Martin, C. Pitris, R. Ghanta, D. L. Stamper, M. Harman, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “High-resolution optical coherence tomographic imaging of osteoarthritic cartilage during open knee surgery,” Arthritis Res. & Ther., vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 318-323, 2005
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

Y. Pan, Z. Li, T. Xie, and C. R. Chu, “Hand-held arthroscopic optical coherence tomography for in-vivo high-resolution imaging of articular cartilage,” J. Biomed. Opt., vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 648-654, 2003
[CrossRef]

J. Bone Jt. Surg. Am. (1)

H. J. Mankin, H. Dorfman, L. Lippiello, and A. Zarins, “Biochemical and metabolic abnormalities in articular cartilage from osteo-arthritic human hips. II. Correlation of morphology with biochemical and metabolic data,” J. Bone Jt. Surg. Am.. vol. 53, pp. 523-537, 1971

J. Rheumatol. (1)

J. M. Herrmann, C. Pitris, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. A. Jesser, D. L. Stamper, et al., “High resolution imaging of normal and osteoarthritic cartilage with optical coherence tomography,” J. Rheumatol. vol. 26, pp. 627-635, 1999

JOSA A (1)

J. Rogowska, C. M. Bryant, and M. E. Brezinski, “Cartilage thickness measurements from optical coherence tomorgraphy,” Opt. Soc. Am. A, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 357-367, 2003
[CrossRef]

Osteoarthritis and Cartilage (1)

C. W. Han, C. R. Chu, N. Adachi, A. Usas, F. H. Fu, J. Huard, et al., “Analysis of rabbit articular cartilage repair after chondrocyte implantation using optical coherence tomography,” Osteoarthritis and Cartilage, vol. 11, pp. 111-121, 2003
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

V. C. Mow, Injury and repair of the musculoskeletal soft tissues, (American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, 1988.)

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