Abstract

Directional emission of light exiting a photonic crystal waveguide by a coherent action of radiative surface modes was recently demonstrated, and subsequently the substantial enhancement of the directional emission was achieved by engineering the surface and adjusting relevant parameters. Here we present the analysis of surface modes causing the enhanced emission by the plane wave expansion method and the finite-difference time-domain method. In particular, surface band structures are calculated for nonradiative and radiative surface modes, respectively, and intensity profiles of some representative modes for nonradiative and radiative cases are given.

© 2008 Optical Society of Korea

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    [CrossRef]
  2. W. M. Robertson, G. Arjavalingam, R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Observation of surface photons on periodic dielectric arrays,” Opt. Lett., vol. 18, no. 7, pp. 528-530, 1993
  3. F. Ramos-Mendieta and P. Halevi, “Surface electromagnetic waves in two-dimensional photonic crystals: Effect of the position of the surface plane,” Phys. Rev. B, vol. 59, no. 23, pp. 15112-15120, 1999
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Qiu and S. He, “Surface modes in two-dimensional dielectric and metallic photonic band gap structures: a FDTD study,” Phys. Lett. A, vol. 282, no. 1-2, pp. 85- 91, 2001
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Enoch, E. Popov, and N. Bonod, “Analysis of the physical origin of surface modes on finite-size photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B, vol. 72, no. 15, pp. 155101-1-155101-7, 2005
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. Wang, W. Dai, A. Fang, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Surface waves in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B, vol. 74, no. 19, pp. 195104-1-195104-4, 2006
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Foteinopoulou, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Backward surface waves at photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B, vol. 75, no. 24, pp. 245116-1-245116-6, 2007
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science, vol. 297, no. 5582, pp. 820-822, 2002
    [CrossRef]
  9. L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of highly directional emission from a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by surface corrugations,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 90, no. 16, pp. 167401-1167401-4, 2003
    [CrossRef]
  10. E. Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and L. Martin-Moreno, “Enhanced transmission and beaming of light via photonic crystal surface modes,” Phys. Rev. B, vol. 69, no. 12, pp. 121402-1-121402-4, 2004
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. Kramper, M. Agio, C. M. Soukoulis, A. Birner, F. Muller, R. B. Wehrspohn, U. Gosele, and V. Sandoghdar, “Highly directional emission from photonic crystal waveguides of subwavelength width,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 92, no. 11, pp. 113903-1-113903-4, 2004
    [CrossRef]
  12. E. Moreno, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Efficient coupling of light into and out of a photonic crystal waveguide via surface modes,” Photonics Nanostruc. - Fundamen. Appl., vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 97-102, 2004
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  18. R. D. Meade, A. M. Rappe, K. D. Brommer, J. D. Joannopoulos, and O. L. Alerhand, “Accurate theoretical analysis of photonic band-gap materials,” Phys. Rev. B, vol. 48, no. 11, pp. 8434-8437, 1993
    [CrossRef]
  19. K. S. Yee, “Numerical solution of initial boundary value problems involving Maxwell"s equations in isotropic media,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. AP-14, no. 3, pp. 32-307, 1966
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    [CrossRef]
  21. A. Taflove and S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method (Third Edition, Artech House, Boston, U.S.A., 2005) Chapter 16
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    [CrossRef]
  23. S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Large omnidirectional band gaps in metallodielectric photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B, vol. 54, no. 16, pp. 11245-11251, 1996
    [CrossRef]
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2007 (3)

S. Foteinopoulou, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Backward surface waves at photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B, vol. 75, no. 24, pp. 245116-1-245116-6, 2007
[CrossRef]

W. Smigaj, “Model of light collimation by photonic crystal surface modes,” Phys. Rev. B, vol. 75, no. 20, pp. 205430-1-205430-8, 2007
[CrossRef]

E. H. Khoo, T. H. Cheng, A. Q. Liu, J. Li, and D. Pinjala, “Transmitting light efficiency on photonic crystal surface waveguide bend,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 91, no. 17, pp. 171109-1-171109-3, 2007

2006 (3)

2005 (5)

S. Enoch, E. Popov, and N. Bonod, “Analysis of the physical origin of surface modes on finite-size photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B, vol. 72, no. 15, pp. 155101-1-155101-7, 2005
[CrossRef]

I. Bulu, H. Caglayan, and E. Ozbay, “Beaming of light and enhanced transmission via surface modes of photonic crystals,” Opt. Lett., vol. 30, no. 22, pp. 3078-3080, 2005
[CrossRef]

S. K. Morrison and Y. S. Kivshar, “Engineering of directional emission form photonic-crystal waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 86, no. 8, pp. 081110-1-081110-3, 2005

S. K. Morrison and Y. S. Kivshar, “Beaming effect and directional emission from photonic-crystal waveguides,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 5733, pp. 104-113, 2005
[CrossRef]

A. Taflove and S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method (Third Edition, Artech House, Boston, U.S.A., 2005) Chapter 16

2004 (3)

E. Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and L. Martin-Moreno, “Enhanced transmission and beaming of light via photonic crystal surface modes,” Phys. Rev. B, vol. 69, no. 12, pp. 121402-1-121402-4, 2004
[CrossRef]

P. Kramper, M. Agio, C. M. Soukoulis, A. Birner, F. Muller, R. B. Wehrspohn, U. Gosele, and V. Sandoghdar, “Highly directional emission from photonic crystal waveguides of subwavelength width,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 92, no. 11, pp. 113903-1-113903-4, 2004
[CrossRef]

E. Moreno, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Efficient coupling of light into and out of a photonic crystal waveguide via surface modes,” Photonics Nanostruc. - Fundamen. Appl., vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 97-102, 2004
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of highly directional emission from a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by surface corrugations,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 90, no. 16, pp. 167401-1167401-4, 2003
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science, vol. 297, no. 5582, pp. 820-822, 2002
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. Qiu and S. He, “Surface modes in two-dimensional dielectric and metallic photonic band gap structures: a FDTD study,” Phys. Lett. A, vol. 282, no. 1-2, pp. 85- 91, 2001
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

F. Ramos-Mendieta and P. Halevi, “Surface electromagnetic waves in two-dimensional photonic crystals: Effect of the position of the surface plane,” Phys. Rev. B, vol. 59, no. 23, pp. 15112-15120, 1999
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Large omnidirectional band gaps in metallodielectric photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B, vol. 54, no. 16, pp. 11245-11251, 1996
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

C. T. Chan, Q. L. Yu, and K. M. Ho, “Order-N spectral method for electromagnetic waves,” Phys. Rev. B, vol. 51, no. 23, pp. 16635-16642, 1995
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

J. P. Berenger, “A perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic waves,” J. Comput. Phys., vol. 114, no. 2, pp. 185-200, 1994
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

W. M. Robertson, G. Arjavalingam, R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Observation of surface photons on periodic dielectric arrays,” Opt. Lett., vol. 18, no. 7, pp. 528-530, 1993

R. D. Meade, A. M. Rappe, K. D. Brommer, J. D. Joannopoulos, and O. L. Alerhand, “Accurate theoretical analysis of photonic band-gap materials,” Phys. Rev. B, vol. 48, no. 11, pp. 8434-8437, 1993
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Electromagnetic Bloch waves at the surface of a photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. B, vol. 44, no. 19, pp. 10961-10964, 1991
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Existence of a photonic gap in periodic dielectric structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 65, no. 25, pp. 3152-3154, 1990
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

K. S. Yee, “Numerical solution of initial boundary value problems involving Maxwell"s equations in isotropic media,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. AP-14, no. 3, pp. 32-307, 1966

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

S. K. Morrison and Y. S. Kivshar, “Engineering of directional emission form photonic-crystal waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 86, no. 8, pp. 081110-1-081110-3, 2005

E. H. Khoo, T. H. Cheng, A. Q. Liu, J. Li, and D. Pinjala, “Transmitting light efficiency on photonic crystal surface waveguide bend,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 91, no. 17, pp. 171109-1-171109-3, 2007

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. (1)

K. S. Yee, “Numerical solution of initial boundary value problems involving Maxwell"s equations in isotropic media,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. AP-14, no. 3, pp. 32-307, 1966

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Journal of Computational Physics (1)

J. P. Berenger, “A perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic waves,” J. Comput. Phys., vol. 114, no. 2, pp. 185-200, 1994
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Photonics and Nanostructures - Fundamentals and Applications (1)

E. Moreno, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Efficient coupling of light into and out of a photonic crystal waveguide via surface modes,” Photonics Nanostruc. - Fundamen. Appl., vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 97-102, 2004
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (10)

E. Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and L. Martin-Moreno, “Enhanced transmission and beaming of light via photonic crystal surface modes,” Phys. Rev. B, vol. 69, no. 12, pp. 121402-1-121402-4, 2004
[CrossRef]

W. Smigaj, “Model of light collimation by photonic crystal surface modes,” Phys. Rev. B, vol. 75, no. 20, pp. 205430-1-205430-8, 2007
[CrossRef]

F. Ramos-Mendieta and P. Halevi, “Surface electromagnetic waves in two-dimensional photonic crystals: Effect of the position of the surface plane,” Phys. Rev. B, vol. 59, no. 23, pp. 15112-15120, 1999
[CrossRef]

R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Electromagnetic Bloch waves at the surface of a photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. B, vol. 44, no. 19, pp. 10961-10964, 1991
[CrossRef]

S. Enoch, E. Popov, and N. Bonod, “Analysis of the physical origin of surface modes on finite-size photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B, vol. 72, no. 15, pp. 155101-1-155101-7, 2005
[CrossRef]

B. Wang, W. Dai, A. Fang, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Surface waves in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B, vol. 74, no. 19, pp. 195104-1-195104-4, 2006
[CrossRef]

S. Foteinopoulou, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Backward surface waves at photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B, vol. 75, no. 24, pp. 245116-1-245116-6, 2007
[CrossRef]

R. D. Meade, A. M. Rappe, K. D. Brommer, J. D. Joannopoulos, and O. L. Alerhand, “Accurate theoretical analysis of photonic band-gap materials,” Phys. Rev. B, vol. 48, no. 11, pp. 8434-8437, 1993
[CrossRef]

C. T. Chan, Q. L. Yu, and K. M. Ho, “Order-N spectral method for electromagnetic waves,” Phys. Rev. B, vol. 51, no. 23, pp. 16635-16642, 1995
[CrossRef]

S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Large omnidirectional band gaps in metallodielectric photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B, vol. 54, no. 16, pp. 11245-11251, 1996
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of highly directional emission from a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by surface corrugations,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 90, no. 16, pp. 167401-1167401-4, 2003
[CrossRef]

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Existence of a photonic gap in periodic dielectric structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 65, no. 25, pp. 3152-3154, 1990
[CrossRef]

P. Kramper, M. Agio, C. M. Soukoulis, A. Birner, F. Muller, R. B. Wehrspohn, U. Gosele, and V. Sandoghdar, “Highly directional emission from photonic crystal waveguides of subwavelength width,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 92, no. 11, pp. 113903-1-113903-4, 2004
[CrossRef]

Physics Letters A (1)

M. Qiu and S. He, “Surface modes in two-dimensional dielectric and metallic photonic band gap structures: a FDTD study,” Phys. Lett. A, vol. 282, no. 1-2, pp. 85- 91, 2001
[CrossRef]

Proceedings of SPIE (1)

S. K. Morrison and Y. S. Kivshar, “Beaming effect and directional emission from photonic-crystal waveguides,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 5733, pp. 104-113, 2005
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science, vol. 297, no. 5582, pp. 820-822, 2002
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

A. Taflove and S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method (Third Edition, Artech House, Boston, U.S.A., 2005) Chapter 16

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