Abstract

For the first time we compare two kinds of optical frequency combs, one of which is based on a Ti:sapphire femtosecond laser and the other is based on a mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser. The comparison is performed by measuring an optical frequency standard with these two combs simultaneously. The two frequency measurements agree within 1.8 Hz (<TEX>$3.8{\times}10^{-15}$</TEX>) with the uncertainty of 17.2 Hz (<TEX>$3.6{\times}10^{-14}$</TEX>), from which it can be concluded that the Ti:sapphire-based frequency comb and the fiber-based frequency comb have no systematic discrepancy at this level of uncertainty.

© 2007 Optical Society of Korea

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  1. Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hansch, "Absolute optical frequency measurement of the cesium D1 line with a mode-locked laser," Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 82, pp. 3568-3571, 1999
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hansch, "Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb," Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 84, pp. 5102-5105, 2000
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, "An optical clock based on a single trapped <TEX>$^{199}Hg^{+}$</TEX> ion", Science, vol. 293, pp. 825-828, 2001
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Marian, M. C. Stowe, J. R. Lawall, D. Felinto, and J. Ye, "United time-frequency spectroscopy for dynamics and global structure," Science, vol. 306, pp. 2063-2068, 2004
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Bize, S. A. Diddams, U. Tanaka, C. E. Tanner, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. E. Parker, T. P. Heavner, S. R. Jefferts, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, and J. C. Bergquist, "Testing the stability of fundamental constants with the <TEX>$^{199}Hg^{+}$</TEX> single-ion optical clock," Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 90, pp. 150802 1-150802 4, 2003
  6. R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, T. W. Haensch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and R. St. J. Russell, "Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 85, pp. 2264-2267, 2000
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Ye, J.-L. Peng, R. J. Jones, K. W. Holman, J. L. Hall, D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. Kitching, S. Bize, J. C. Bergquist, L. W. Hollberg, L. Robertsson, and L.-S. Ma, "Delivery of high-stability optical and microwave frequency standards over an optical fiber network," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, vol. 20, pp. 1459-1467, 2003
    [CrossRef]
  8. L.-S. Ma, L. Robertsson, S. Picard, M. Zucco, Z. Bi, S. Wu, and R. S. Windeler, "First international comparison of femtosecond laser comb at the International Bureau of Weights and Measures," Opt. Lett., vol. 29, pp. 641-643, 2004
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. Kubina, P. Adel, F. Adler, G. Grosche, T. W. Hansch, R. Holzwarth, A. Leitenstorfer, B. Lipphardt, and H. Schnatz, "Long term comparison of two fiber based frequency comb systems," Opt. Express, vol. 13, pp. 904-909, 2005
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, L.-S. Ma, and L. Robertsson, "Femtosecond-laser-based optical clockwork with instability <TEX>$\leq6.3\times10^{-16}$</TEX> in 1 s," Opt. Lett., vol. 27, pp. 58-60, 2002
    [CrossRef]
  11. L.-S. Ma, Z. Bi, A. Bartels, L. Robertsson, M. Zucco, R. S. Windeler, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. Diddams, "Optical frequency synthesis and comparison with uncertainty at the <TEX>$10^{-19}$</TEX> level," Science, vol. 303, pp. 1843-1845, 2004
    [CrossRef]
  12. L.-S. Ma, Z. Bi, A. Bartels, L. Robertsson, M. Zucco, R. S. Windeler, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, "International comparisons of femtosecond laser frequency combs," IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., vol. 54, pp. 746-749, 2005
    [CrossRef]
  13. L.-S. Ma, Z. Bi, A. Bartels, K. Kim, L. Robertsson, M. Zucco, R. S. Windeler, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, "Frequency uncertainty for optically referenced femtosecond laser frequency combs," IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 43, pp. 139-146, 2007
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. J. McFerran, W. C. Swann, B. R. Washburn, and N. R. Newbury, "Suppression of pump-induced frequency noise in fiber-laser frequency combs leading to subradian <TEX>$f_{ceo}$</TEX> phase excursions," Appl. Phys. B, vol. 86, pp. 219-227, 2007
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. Inaba, Y. Daimon, F.-L. Hong, A. Onae, K. Minoshima, T. R. Schibli, H. Matsumoto, M. Hirano, T. Okuno, M. Onishi, and M. Nakazawa, "Long-term measurement of optical frequencies using a simple, robust and low-noise fiber based frequency comb," Opt. Express, vol. 14, pp. 5223-5231, 2006
    [CrossRef]
  16. F. Adler, K. Moutzouris, A. Leitenstorfer, H. Schnatz, B. Lipphardt, G. Grosche, and F. Tauser, "Phaselocked two-branch erbium-doped fiber laser system for long-term precision measurements of optical frequencies," Opt. Express, vol. 12, pp. 5872-5880, 2004
    [CrossRef]
  17. W.-K. Lee, D.-S. Yee, and H. S. Suh, "Direct frequency counting with enhanced beat signal-to-noise ratio for absolute frequency measurement of a He-Ne/<TEX>$I_{2}$</TEX> laser at 633 nm," Appl. Opt., vol. 46, pp. 930-934, 2007
    [CrossRef]
  18. T. J. Quinn, "Practical realization of the definition of the metre, including recommended radiations of other optical frequency standards (2001)," Metrologia, vol. 40, pp. 103-133, 2003
    [CrossRef]

2007 (3)

L.-S. Ma, Z. Bi, A. Bartels, K. Kim, L. Robertsson, M. Zucco, R. S. Windeler, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, "Frequency uncertainty for optically referenced femtosecond laser frequency combs," IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 43, pp. 139-146, 2007
[CrossRef]

J. J. McFerran, W. C. Swann, B. R. Washburn, and N. R. Newbury, "Suppression of pump-induced frequency noise in fiber-laser frequency combs leading to subradian <TEX>$f_{ceo}$</TEX> phase excursions," Appl. Phys. B, vol. 86, pp. 219-227, 2007
[CrossRef]

W.-K. Lee, D.-S. Yee, and H. S. Suh, "Direct frequency counting with enhanced beat signal-to-noise ratio for absolute frequency measurement of a He-Ne/<TEX>$I_{2}$</TEX> laser at 633 nm," Appl. Opt., vol. 46, pp. 930-934, 2007
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

H. Inaba, Y. Daimon, F.-L. Hong, A. Onae, K. Minoshima, T. R. Schibli, H. Matsumoto, M. Hirano, T. Okuno, M. Onishi, and M. Nakazawa, "Long-term measurement of optical frequencies using a simple, robust and low-noise fiber based frequency comb," Opt. Express, vol. 14, pp. 5223-5231, 2006
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

P. Kubina, P. Adel, F. Adler, G. Grosche, T. W. Hansch, R. Holzwarth, A. Leitenstorfer, B. Lipphardt, and H. Schnatz, "Long term comparison of two fiber based frequency comb systems," Opt. Express, vol. 13, pp. 904-909, 2005
[CrossRef]

L.-S. Ma, Z. Bi, A. Bartels, L. Robertsson, M. Zucco, R. S. Windeler, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, "International comparisons of femtosecond laser frequency combs," IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., vol. 54, pp. 746-749, 2005
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

A. Marian, M. C. Stowe, J. R. Lawall, D. Felinto, and J. Ye, "United time-frequency spectroscopy for dynamics and global structure," Science, vol. 306, pp. 2063-2068, 2004
[CrossRef]

F. Adler, K. Moutzouris, A. Leitenstorfer, H. Schnatz, B. Lipphardt, G. Grosche, and F. Tauser, "Phaselocked two-branch erbium-doped fiber laser system for long-term precision measurements of optical frequencies," Opt. Express, vol. 12, pp. 5872-5880, 2004
[CrossRef]

L.-S. Ma, L. Robertsson, S. Picard, M. Zucco, Z. Bi, S. Wu, and R. S. Windeler, "First international comparison of femtosecond laser comb at the International Bureau of Weights and Measures," Opt. Lett., vol. 29, pp. 641-643, 2004
[CrossRef]

L.-S. Ma, Z. Bi, A. Bartels, L. Robertsson, M. Zucco, R. S. Windeler, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. Diddams, "Optical frequency synthesis and comparison with uncertainty at the <TEX>$10^{-19}$</TEX> level," Science, vol. 303, pp. 1843-1845, 2004
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

T. J. Quinn, "Practical realization of the definition of the metre, including recommended radiations of other optical frequency standards (2001)," Metrologia, vol. 40, pp. 103-133, 2003
[CrossRef]

S. Bize, S. A. Diddams, U. Tanaka, C. E. Tanner, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. E. Parker, T. P. Heavner, S. R. Jefferts, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, and J. C. Bergquist, "Testing the stability of fundamental constants with the <TEX>$^{199}Hg^{+}$</TEX> single-ion optical clock," Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 90, pp. 150802 1-150802 4, 2003

J. Ye, J.-L. Peng, R. J. Jones, K. W. Holman, J. L. Hall, D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. Kitching, S. Bize, J. C. Bergquist, L. W. Hollberg, L. Robertsson, and L.-S. Ma, "Delivery of high-stability optical and microwave frequency standards over an optical fiber network," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, vol. 20, pp. 1459-1467, 2003
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, L.-S. Ma, and L. Robertsson, "Femtosecond-laser-based optical clockwork with instability <TEX>$\leq6.3\times10^{-16}$</TEX> in 1 s," Opt. Lett., vol. 27, pp. 58-60, 2002
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, "An optical clock based on a single trapped <TEX>$^{199}Hg^{+}$</TEX> ion", Science, vol. 293, pp. 825-828, 2001
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, T. W. Haensch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and R. St. J. Russell, "Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 85, pp. 2264-2267, 2000
[CrossRef]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hansch, "Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb," Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 84, pp. 5102-5105, 2000
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hansch, "Absolute optical frequency measurement of the cesium D1 line with a mode-locked laser," Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 82, pp. 3568-3571, 1999
[CrossRef]

Applied Optics (1)

W.-K. Lee, D.-S. Yee, and H. S. Suh, "Direct frequency counting with enhanced beat signal-to-noise ratio for absolute frequency measurement of a He-Ne/<TEX>$I_{2}$</TEX> laser at 633 nm," Appl. Opt., vol. 46, pp. 930-934, 2007
[CrossRef]

Applied Physics B (1)

J. J. McFerran, W. C. Swann, B. R. Washburn, and N. R. Newbury, "Suppression of pump-induced frequency noise in fiber-laser frequency combs leading to subradian <TEX>$f_{ceo}$</TEX> phase excursions," Appl. Phys. B, vol. 86, pp. 219-227, 2007
[CrossRef]

Instrumentation and Measurement, IEEE Transactions on (1)

L.-S. Ma, Z. Bi, A. Bartels, L. Robertsson, M. Zucco, R. S. Windeler, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, "International comparisons of femtosecond laser frequency combs," IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., vol. 54, pp. 746-749, 2005
[CrossRef]

Journal of the Optical Society of America B (1)

J. Ye, J.-L. Peng, R. J. Jones, K. W. Holman, J. L. Hall, D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. Kitching, S. Bize, J. C. Bergquist, L. W. Hollberg, L. Robertsson, and L.-S. Ma, "Delivery of high-stability optical and microwave frequency standards over an optical fiber network," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, vol. 20, pp. 1459-1467, 2003
[CrossRef]

Metrologia (1)

T. J. Quinn, "Practical realization of the definition of the metre, including recommended radiations of other optical frequency standards (2001)," Metrologia, vol. 40, pp. 103-133, 2003
[CrossRef]

Optics Express (3)

H. Inaba, Y. Daimon, F.-L. Hong, A. Onae, K. Minoshima, T. R. Schibli, H. Matsumoto, M. Hirano, T. Okuno, M. Onishi, and M. Nakazawa, "Long-term measurement of optical frequencies using a simple, robust and low-noise fiber based frequency comb," Opt. Express, vol. 14, pp. 5223-5231, 2006
[CrossRef]

F. Adler, K. Moutzouris, A. Leitenstorfer, H. Schnatz, B. Lipphardt, G. Grosche, and F. Tauser, "Phaselocked two-branch erbium-doped fiber laser system for long-term precision measurements of optical frequencies," Opt. Express, vol. 12, pp. 5872-5880, 2004
[CrossRef]

P. Kubina, P. Adel, F. Adler, G. Grosche, T. W. Hansch, R. Holzwarth, A. Leitenstorfer, B. Lipphardt, and H. Schnatz, "Long term comparison of two fiber based frequency comb systems," Opt. Express, vol. 13, pp. 904-909, 2005
[CrossRef]

Optics Letters (2)

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, L.-S. Ma, and L. Robertsson, "Femtosecond-laser-based optical clockwork with instability <TEX>$\leq6.3\times10^{-16}$</TEX> in 1 s," Opt. Lett., vol. 27, pp. 58-60, 2002
[CrossRef]

L.-S. Ma, L. Robertsson, S. Picard, M. Zucco, Z. Bi, S. Wu, and R. S. Windeler, "First international comparison of femtosecond laser comb at the International Bureau of Weights and Measures," Opt. Lett., vol. 29, pp. 641-643, 2004
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

S. Bize, S. A. Diddams, U. Tanaka, C. E. Tanner, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. E. Parker, T. P. Heavner, S. R. Jefferts, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, and J. C. Bergquist, "Testing the stability of fundamental constants with the <TEX>$^{199}Hg^{+}$</TEX> single-ion optical clock," Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 90, pp. 150802 1-150802 4, 2003

Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hansch, "Absolute optical frequency measurement of the cesium D1 line with a mode-locked laser," Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 82, pp. 3568-3571, 1999
[CrossRef]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hansch, "Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb," Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 84, pp. 5102-5105, 2000
[CrossRef]

Physical Review Letters (1)

R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, T. W. Haensch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and R. St. J. Russell, "Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 85, pp. 2264-2267, 2000
[CrossRef]

Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of (1)

L.-S. Ma, Z. Bi, A. Bartels, K. Kim, L. Robertsson, M. Zucco, R. S. Windeler, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, "Frequency uncertainty for optically referenced femtosecond laser frequency combs," IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 43, pp. 139-146, 2007
[CrossRef]

Science (3)

L.-S. Ma, Z. Bi, A. Bartels, L. Robertsson, M. Zucco, R. S. Windeler, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. Diddams, "Optical frequency synthesis and comparison with uncertainty at the <TEX>$10^{-19}$</TEX> level," Science, vol. 303, pp. 1843-1845, 2004
[CrossRef]

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, "An optical clock based on a single trapped <TEX>$^{199}Hg^{+}$</TEX> ion", Science, vol. 293, pp. 825-828, 2001
[CrossRef]

A. Marian, M. C. Stowe, J. R. Lawall, D. Felinto, and J. Ye, "United time-frequency spectroscopy for dynamics and global structure," Science, vol. 306, pp. 2063-2068, 2004
[CrossRef]

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