Abstract

The compound refractive X-ray lens (CRL) for focusing hard X-rays is investigated to determine the parameters such as the focal length, the focal spot size, and spatial distribution at the focal spot using a simple theoretical calculations and CRLs fabricated by the self-assembly method. The number of individual compound lenses are defined for the given focal length of 1 m. The X-ray energy of 1 to 40 keV is used in the calculations. The CRL for focusing hard X-rays which generated from the X-ray tube is fabricated by nanoparticle-polymer composite in the form of circular concaves. The self-assembly method is applied to form the nanoaluminum-poly (methly meth-acrylate) composite and carbon-polymer composite CRL lenses. Aluminum nanoparticles of 100 nm and carbon microparticles are diffused in the polymer solution then the high gravity up to 6000G is applied in it to form the concave lens shape. X-ray energy at 8 keV is used for characterization of the composite CRLs. The FWHM of intensity for the fabricated nanoaluminium composite CRL system, N=10 is measured as 1.8 mm, which would give about <TEX>$70{\mu}m$</TEX> in FWHM at 1 m of the focal length.

© 2007 Optical Society of Korea

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2005

T.-Y. Tsai, C.-H. Li, C.-H. Chang, W.-H. Cheng, C.-L. Hwang, and R.-J. Wu, "Preparation of Exfoliated Polyester/ Clay Nanocomposite," Advanced materials, vol. 17, no. 14, pp. 1769-1773, 2005
[CrossRef]

2004

Kinraide, R., Moore, C. J., Jacobs, K. D., Severson, M., Bissen, M. J., Frazer, B., Bisognano, J. J., Bosch, R. A., Eisert, D., Fisher, M., Green, M. A., Gundelach, C. T., Hansen, R. W. C., Hochst, H., Julian, R. L., Keil, R., Kleman, K., Kubala, T., Legg, R. A., Pedley, B., Rogers, G. C., Stott, J. P., Wallace, D. J., Wehlitz, R., Wiese, L. M., Taylor, J., Campuzano, J. C., and de Stasio, G, "Current Status of the Synchrotron Radiation Center," Synchrotron Radiation Insrumentation, AIP conf. proc. No. 705. 2004
[CrossRef]

2003

K. Robinson, F. Pfeiffer, I. Vartanyants, Y. Sun, and Y. Xia, "Enhancement of coherent X-ray diffraction from nanocrystals by introduction of X-ray optics," Opt. Express, vol. 11, pp. 2329-2334, 2003

2002

C. Schroer, J. Meyer, M. Kuhlmann, B. Benner, T. F. Gunzler, and B. Lengeler, "Nanotomography based on hard x-ray microscopy with refractive lenses," Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 81, pp. 1527-1529, 2002
[CrossRef]

2001

O. Hignette, G. Rostaing, P. Cloetens, A. Rommevaux, W. Ludwig, and A. Freund, "Submicron focussing of hard X-rays with reflecting surfaces at the ESRF." SPIE Conference Proceedings, vol. 4499, pp. 105-116, 2001

B. Lengeler, C. G. Schroer, B. Benner, T. F. Gunzler, M. Kuhlmann, J. Tummler, A. S. Simionovici, M. Drakopoulos, A. Snigirev, and I. Snigireva., "Parabolic refractive X-ray lenses: a breakthrough in X-ray optics," Nuclear inst. and method, vol. A467-468, pp. 944-951. 2001
[CrossRef]

Albert Thompson, X-ray data Booklet, (Center for Xray Optics and Advanced Light Source), 2001

1999

W. Yun, et al., "Development of Zone Plates with a Blazed Profile for Hard X-ray Applications," Rev. Sci. Instrum., vol. 70, pp. 3537-3541, 1999
[CrossRef]

1998

B. Lengeler, J. Tummler, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, and C. Raven, "Transmission and gain of singly and doubly focusing refractive X-ray lenses," J. Appl Phys., vol. 84, pp. 5855-5861, 1998
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, A. K. Sood, P. V. Satyam, Y. Feng, X.-Z. Wu, Z. Cai, W. Yun, and S. K. Sinha, "X-ray Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy: A Method for Studying Particle Dynamics in Condensed Matter," Phys. Rev. Lett. vol. 80, pp. 1110-1113, 1998
[CrossRef]

V. V. Protpopov and K. A. Valiev, "Theory of an ideal Compound X-ray lens," Optics Comm. vol. 151, pp. 297- 312, 1998
[CrossRef]

1996

A. Snigirev, V. Kohn, I. Snigireva, and B. Lengeler, "A compound refractive lens for focusing high-energy Xrays," Nature, vol. 384, pp. 49-51, 1996
[CrossRef]

1995

E. Bourgeat-Lami, P. Espiard, and A. Guyot, "Poly (ethyl acrylate) latexes encapsulating nanoparticles of silica: 1. Functionalization and dispersion of silica," Polymer, vol. 36, pp. 4385, 1995

J. J. Watkins and J. McCowthy, "New Approaches to Polymer Modification," Society of Plastics Engineers Incorporated, vol. 3, pp. 2506-2510, 1995

1994

D. Bilderback, S. Hohman, and D. Thiel, "Nanometer spatial resolution achieved in hard x-ray imaging and Laue diffraction experiments," Science, vol. 263, pp. 201-203, 1994
[CrossRef]

1993

H. Weller, "Quantized semiconductor particles: A novel state of matter for materials science," Adv. Mater. vol. 5, pp. 88-95, 1993
[CrossRef]

1968

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principle of Optics, (Pergamon, New York) 1968

Advanced materials

T.-Y. Tsai, C.-H. Li, C.-H. Chang, W.-H. Cheng, C.-L. Hwang, and R.-J. Wu, "Preparation of Exfoliated Polyester/ Clay Nanocomposite," Advanced materials, vol. 17, no. 14, pp. 1769-1773, 2005
[CrossRef]

H. Weller, "Quantized semiconductor particles: A novel state of matter for materials science," Adv. Mater. vol. 5, pp. 88-95, 1993
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

C. Schroer, J. Meyer, M. Kuhlmann, B. Benner, T. F. Gunzler, and B. Lengeler, "Nanotomography based on hard x-ray microscopy with refractive lenses," Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 81, pp. 1527-1529, 2002
[CrossRef]

J. Appl Phys.

B. Lengeler, J. Tummler, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, and C. Raven, "Transmission and gain of singly and doubly focusing refractive X-ray lenses," J. Appl Phys., vol. 84, pp. 5855-5861, 1998
[CrossRef]

Nature

A. Snigirev, V. Kohn, I. Snigireva, and B. Lengeler, "A compound refractive lens for focusing high-energy Xrays," Nature, vol. 384, pp. 49-51, 1996
[CrossRef]

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A

B. Lengeler, C. G. Schroer, B. Benner, T. F. Gunzler, M. Kuhlmann, J. Tummler, A. S. Simionovici, M. Drakopoulos, A. Snigirev, and I. Snigireva., "Parabolic refractive X-ray lenses: a breakthrough in X-ray optics," Nuclear inst. and method, vol. A467-468, pp. 944-951. 2001
[CrossRef]

Optics Communications

V. V. Protpopov and K. A. Valiev, "Theory of an ideal Compound X-ray lens," Optics Comm. vol. 151, pp. 297- 312, 1998
[CrossRef]

Optics Express

K. Robinson, F. Pfeiffer, I. Vartanyants, Y. Sun, and Y. Xia, "Enhancement of coherent X-ray diffraction from nanocrystals by introduction of X-ray optics," Opt. Express, vol. 11, pp. 2329-2334, 2003

Physical review letters

J. Wang, A. K. Sood, P. V. Satyam, Y. Feng, X.-Z. Wu, Z. Cai, W. Yun, and S. K. Sinha, "X-ray Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy: A Method for Studying Particle Dynamics in Condensed Matter," Phys. Rev. Lett. vol. 80, pp. 1110-1113, 1998
[CrossRef]

Polymer

E. Bourgeat-Lami, P. Espiard, and A. Guyot, "Poly (ethyl acrylate) latexes encapsulating nanoparticles of silica: 1. Functionalization and dispersion of silica," Polymer, vol. 36, pp. 4385, 1995

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

W. Yun, et al., "Development of Zone Plates with a Blazed Profile for Hard X-ray Applications," Rev. Sci. Instrum., vol. 70, pp. 3537-3541, 1999
[CrossRef]

Science

D. Bilderback, S. Hohman, and D. Thiel, "Nanometer spatial resolution achieved in hard x-ray imaging and Laue diffraction experiments," Science, vol. 263, pp. 201-203, 1994
[CrossRef]

Society of Plastics Engineers Incorporated

J. J. Watkins and J. McCowthy, "New Approaches to Polymer Modification," Society of Plastics Engineers Incorporated, vol. 3, pp. 2506-2510, 1995

SPIE Conference Proceedings

O. Hignette, G. Rostaing, P. Cloetens, A. Rommevaux, W. Ludwig, and A. Freund, "Submicron focussing of hard X-rays with reflecting surfaces at the ESRF." SPIE Conference Proceedings, vol. 4499, pp. 105-116, 2001

SYNCHROTRON RADIATION INSTRUMENTATION: Eighth International Conference on Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation. AIP Conference Proceedings

Kinraide, R., Moore, C. J., Jacobs, K. D., Severson, M., Bissen, M. J., Frazer, B., Bisognano, J. J., Bosch, R. A., Eisert, D., Fisher, M., Green, M. A., Gundelach, C. T., Hansen, R. W. C., Hochst, H., Julian, R. L., Keil, R., Kleman, K., Kubala, T., Legg, R. A., Pedley, B., Rogers, G. C., Stott, J. P., Wallace, D. J., Wehlitz, R., Wiese, L. M., Taylor, J., Campuzano, J. C., and de Stasio, G, "Current Status of the Synchrotron Radiation Center," Synchrotron Radiation Insrumentation, AIP conf. proc. No. 705. 2004
[CrossRef]

Other

Albert Thompson, X-ray data Booklet, (Center for Xray Optics and Advanced Light Source), 2001

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principle of Optics, (Pergamon, New York) 1968

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