Abstract

Laser-induced breakdown of colloidal suspensions, such as polystyrene, <TEX>$ZrO_2$</TEX>, and <TEX>$SiO_2$</TEX> particles in diameters of 100-400 nm in water is investigated by nanosecond flash-pumped Nd:YAG laser pulses operating at a wavelength <TEX>${\lambda}$</TEX>= 532 nm. The breakdown threshold intensity is examined in terms of breakdown probability as a function of laser pulse energy. The threshold intensity for <TEX>$SiO_2$</TEX> particles (<TEX>$1.27{\times}10^{11}\;W/cm^2$</TEX>) with a size of 100 nm is higher than those for polystyrene and <TEX>$ZrO_2$</TEX> particles with the same size, namely <TEX>$5.7{\times}10^{10}$</TEX> and <TEX>$5.5{\times}10^{10}\;W/cm^2$</TEX>, respectively. Results indicate that the absorption of five photons is required to induce ionization of <TEX>$SiO_2$</TEX> particles, whereas the other particles necessitate four-photon absorption. These breakdown thresholds are compared with those measured by nanosecond pulses from a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser having a different focusing geometry.

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  1. C. G. Morgan,"Laser-induced breakdown of gases," Rep. Prog. Phys., vol. 38, pp. 621-665, 1975
  2. F. Docchio, P. Regondi, M. R. C. Capon, and J. Mellerio, "Study of the temporal and spatial dynamics of plasmas induced in liquids by nanosecond Nd:YAG laser pulses. 2: Plasma luminescence and shielding," Appl. Opt., vol. 27, no. 17, pp. 3669-3674, 1988
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. A. Sacchi, "Laser-induced electric breakdown in water," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B., vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 337-345, 1991
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. K. Kennedy, S. A. Boppart, D. X. Hammer, B. A. Rockwell, G. D. Noojin, and W. P. Roach, "A firstorder model for computation of laser-induced breakdown thresholds in ocular and aqueous media: Part II-Comparison to experiment," IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 31, no. 12, pp. 2250-2257, 1995
    [CrossRef]
  5. B. C. Stuart, M. D., Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, "Nanosecond-tofemtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics," Phys. Rev. B., vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 1749-1761, 1996
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Noack, D. X. Hammer, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, and A. Vogel, "Influence of pulse duration on the mechanical effects after laser-induced breakdown in water," J. Appl. Phys., vol. 83, no. 12, pp. 7488-7495, 1998
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. K. Kennedy, D. X. Hammer, and B. A. Rockwell, "Laser-induced breakdown in aqueous media," Prog. Quant. Electr., vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 155-248, 1997
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. R. Bettis, "Correlation among the laser-induced breakdown thresholds in solids, liquids, and gases," Appl. Opt., vol. 31, no. 18, pp. 3448-3452, 1992
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Kitamori, K. Yokose, K. Suzuki, T. Sawada, and Y. Gohshi, "Laser breakdown acoustic effect of ultrafine particle in liquids and its application to particle counting," Jap. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 27, no. 6, pp. L983-L985, 1988
  10. T. Kitamori, K. Yokose, M. Sakagami, and T. Sawada, "Detection and counting of ultrafine particles in ultra-pure water using laser breakdown acoustic method," Jap. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 28, no. 7, pp. 1195-1198, 1989
  11. F. J. Scherbaum, R. Knopp, and J. I. Kim, "Counting of particles in aqueous solutions by laser-induced photoacoustic breakdown detection," Appl. Phys. B., vol. 63, pp. 299-306, 1996
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. Bundschuh, R. Knopp, and J. I. Kim, "Laser-induced breakdown detection (LIBD) of aquatic colloids with different laser systems," Colloids Surf. A., vol. 177, no. 1, pp. 47-55, 2001
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. Bundschuh, W. Hauser, J. I. Kim, R. Knopp, and F. J. Scherbaum, "Determination of colloid size by 2-D optical detection of laser induced plasma," Colloids Surf. A., vol. 180, no. 3, pp. 285-293, 2001
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. R. Lide (editor), CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (CRC Press LCC, Boca Raton, Boston, London, New York, Washington D.C., 82nd edition, 2001) Section 10
  15. D. X. Hammer, E. D. Jansen, M. Frenz, G. D. Noojin, R. J. Thomas, J. Noack, A. Vogel, B. A. Rockwell, and A. J. Welch, "Shielding properties of laser-induced breakdown in water for pulse durations from 5 ns to 125 fs," Appl. Opt., vol. 36, no. 22, pp. 5630-5640, 1997
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. E. Siegman, M. W. Sanett, and T. F. Johnson, "Choice of clip levels for beam width measurements using knife-edge techniques," IEEE J. Qauntum Electron, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 1098-1104, 1991
    [CrossRef]
  17. W. Demtroder, Laser spectroscopy: basic concepts and instrumentation (Springer Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, 2nd edition, 1998) Chapter 5
  18. D. X. Hammer, R. J. Thomas, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, P. K. Kennedy, and W. P. Roach, "Experimental investigation of ultrashort pulse laser-induced breakdown thresholds in aqueous media," IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 670-678, 1996
    [CrossRef]
  19. L. V. Keldysh, "Ionization in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave", Sov. Phys. JETP, vol. 20, no. 5, 1307-1314, 1965
  20. J. M. Dyke, H. Ozeki, M. Takahashi, M. C. R. Cockett, and K. Kimura, "A study of phenylacetylene and styrene and their argon complexes PA-Ar and ST-Ar with laser threshold photoelectron spectroscopy," J. Chem. Phys., vol. 97, pp. 8926-8933, 1992
    [CrossRef]
  21. C. Walther, A. Herlert, J. I. Kim, F. J. Scherbaum, L. Schweikhard, and M. Vogel, "Absolute cross-sections for the nonresonant multi-photon ionization of toluene and xylene in the gas phase," Chem. Phys., vol. 265, pp. 243-250, 2001
    [CrossRef]
  22. E. Murad and D. L. Hildenbrand, "Thermochemcial properties of gaseous ZrO and <TEX>$ZrO_{2}$</TEX>," J. Chem. Phys., vol. 63, pp. 1133-1139, 1975
    [CrossRef]
  23. R. F. Porter, W. A. Chupka, and M. G. Inghram, "Mass spectrometric study of gaseous species in the Si-<TEX>$SiO_{2}$</TEX> System," J. Chem. Phys., vol. 23, pp. 216-217, 1955
    [CrossRef]
  24. C. Walther, C. Bitea, W. Hauser, J. I. Kim, and F. J. Scherbaum, "Laser induced breakdown detection for the assessment of colloid mediated radionuclide migration," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B., vol. 195, no. 3-4, pp. 374-388, 2002
    [CrossRef]

2002 (1)

C. Walther, C. Bitea, W. Hauser, J. I. Kim, and F. J. Scherbaum, "Laser induced breakdown detection for the assessment of colloid mediated radionuclide migration," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B., vol. 195, no. 3-4, pp. 374-388, 2002
[CrossRef]

2001 (4)

C. Walther, A. Herlert, J. I. Kim, F. J. Scherbaum, L. Schweikhard, and M. Vogel, "Absolute cross-sections for the nonresonant multi-photon ionization of toluene and xylene in the gas phase," Chem. Phys., vol. 265, pp. 243-250, 2001
[CrossRef]

T. Bundschuh, R. Knopp, and J. I. Kim, "Laser-induced breakdown detection (LIBD) of aquatic colloids with different laser systems," Colloids Surf. A., vol. 177, no. 1, pp. 47-55, 2001
[CrossRef]

T. Bundschuh, W. Hauser, J. I. Kim, R. Knopp, and F. J. Scherbaum, "Determination of colloid size by 2-D optical detection of laser induced plasma," Colloids Surf. A., vol. 180, no. 3, pp. 285-293, 2001
[CrossRef]

D. R. Lide (editor), CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (CRC Press LCC, Boca Raton, Boston, London, New York, Washington D.C., 82nd edition, 2001) Section 10

1998 (2)

W. Demtroder, Laser spectroscopy: basic concepts and instrumentation (Springer Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, 2nd edition, 1998) Chapter 5

J. Noack, D. X. Hammer, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, and A. Vogel, "Influence of pulse duration on the mechanical effects after laser-induced breakdown in water," J. Appl. Phys., vol. 83, no. 12, pp. 7488-7495, 1998
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

P. K. Kennedy, D. X. Hammer, and B. A. Rockwell, "Laser-induced breakdown in aqueous media," Prog. Quant. Electr., vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 155-248, 1997
[CrossRef]

D. X. Hammer, E. D. Jansen, M. Frenz, G. D. Noojin, R. J. Thomas, J. Noack, A. Vogel, B. A. Rockwell, and A. J. Welch, "Shielding properties of laser-induced breakdown in water for pulse durations from 5 ns to 125 fs," Appl. Opt., vol. 36, no. 22, pp. 5630-5640, 1997
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

D. X. Hammer, R. J. Thomas, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, P. K. Kennedy, and W. P. Roach, "Experimental investigation of ultrashort pulse laser-induced breakdown thresholds in aqueous media," IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 670-678, 1996
[CrossRef]

B. C. Stuart, M. D., Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, "Nanosecond-tofemtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics," Phys. Rev. B., vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 1749-1761, 1996
[CrossRef]

F. J. Scherbaum, R. Knopp, and J. I. Kim, "Counting of particles in aqueous solutions by laser-induced photoacoustic breakdown detection," Appl. Phys. B., vol. 63, pp. 299-306, 1996
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

P. K. Kennedy, S. A. Boppart, D. X. Hammer, B. A. Rockwell, G. D. Noojin, and W. P. Roach, "A firstorder model for computation of laser-induced breakdown thresholds in ocular and aqueous media: Part II-Comparison to experiment," IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 31, no. 12, pp. 2250-2257, 1995
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

J. R. Bettis, "Correlation among the laser-induced breakdown thresholds in solids, liquids, and gases," Appl. Opt., vol. 31, no. 18, pp. 3448-3452, 1992
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dyke, H. Ozeki, M. Takahashi, M. C. R. Cockett, and K. Kimura, "A study of phenylacetylene and styrene and their argon complexes PA-Ar and ST-Ar with laser threshold photoelectron spectroscopy," J. Chem. Phys., vol. 97, pp. 8926-8933, 1992
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

C. A. Sacchi, "Laser-induced electric breakdown in water," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B., vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 337-345, 1991
[CrossRef]

A. E. Siegman, M. W. Sanett, and T. F. Johnson, "Choice of clip levels for beam width measurements using knife-edge techniques," IEEE J. Qauntum Electron, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 1098-1104, 1991
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

T. Kitamori, K. Yokose, M. Sakagami, and T. Sawada, "Detection and counting of ultrafine particles in ultra-pure water using laser breakdown acoustic method," Jap. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 28, no. 7, pp. 1195-1198, 1989

1988 (2)

F. Docchio, P. Regondi, M. R. C. Capon, and J. Mellerio, "Study of the temporal and spatial dynamics of plasmas induced in liquids by nanosecond Nd:YAG laser pulses. 2: Plasma luminescence and shielding," Appl. Opt., vol. 27, no. 17, pp. 3669-3674, 1988
[CrossRef]

T. Kitamori, K. Yokose, K. Suzuki, T. Sawada, and Y. Gohshi, "Laser breakdown acoustic effect of ultrafine particle in liquids and its application to particle counting," Jap. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 27, no. 6, pp. L983-L985, 1988

1975 (2)

C. G. Morgan,"Laser-induced breakdown of gases," Rep. Prog. Phys., vol. 38, pp. 621-665, 1975

E. Murad and D. L. Hildenbrand, "Thermochemcial properties of gaseous ZrO and <TEX>$ZrO_{2}$</TEX>," J. Chem. Phys., vol. 63, pp. 1133-1139, 1975
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

L. V. Keldysh, "Ionization in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave", Sov. Phys. JETP, vol. 20, no. 5, 1307-1314, 1965

1955 (1)

R. F. Porter, W. A. Chupka, and M. G. Inghram, "Mass spectrometric study of gaseous species in the Si-<TEX>$SiO_{2}$</TEX> System," J. Chem. Phys., vol. 23, pp. 216-217, 1955
[CrossRef]

Applied Optics (3)

F. Docchio, P. Regondi, M. R. C. Capon, and J. Mellerio, "Study of the temporal and spatial dynamics of plasmas induced in liquids by nanosecond Nd:YAG laser pulses. 2: Plasma luminescence and shielding," Appl. Opt., vol. 27, no. 17, pp. 3669-3674, 1988
[CrossRef]

J. R. Bettis, "Correlation among the laser-induced breakdown thresholds in solids, liquids, and gases," Appl. Opt., vol. 31, no. 18, pp. 3448-3452, 1992
[CrossRef]

D. X. Hammer, E. D. Jansen, M. Frenz, G. D. Noojin, R. J. Thomas, J. Noack, A. Vogel, B. A. Rockwell, and A. J. Welch, "Shielding properties of laser-induced breakdown in water for pulse durations from 5 ns to 125 fs," Appl. Opt., vol. 36, no. 22, pp. 5630-5640, 1997
[CrossRef]

Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics (1)

F. J. Scherbaum, R. Knopp, and J. I. Kim, "Counting of particles in aqueous solutions by laser-induced photoacoustic breakdown detection," Appl. Phys. B., vol. 63, pp. 299-306, 1996
[CrossRef]

Chemical Physics (1)

C. Walther, A. Herlert, J. I. Kim, F. J. Scherbaum, L. Schweikhard, and M. Vogel, "Absolute cross-sections for the nonresonant multi-photon ionization of toluene and xylene in the gas phase," Chem. Phys., vol. 265, pp. 243-250, 2001
[CrossRef]

Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects (2)

T. Bundschuh, R. Knopp, and J. I. Kim, "Laser-induced breakdown detection (LIBD) of aquatic colloids with different laser systems," Colloids Surf. A., vol. 177, no. 1, pp. 47-55, 2001
[CrossRef]

T. Bundschuh, W. Hauser, J. I. Kim, R. Knopp, and F. J. Scherbaum, "Determination of colloid size by 2-D optical detection of laser induced plasma," Colloids Surf. A., vol. 180, no. 3, pp. 285-293, 2001
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. Noack, D. X. Hammer, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, and A. Vogel, "Influence of pulse duration on the mechanical effects after laser-induced breakdown in water," J. Appl. Phys., vol. 83, no. 12, pp. 7488-7495, 1998
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (3)

E. Murad and D. L. Hildenbrand, "Thermochemcial properties of gaseous ZrO and <TEX>$ZrO_{2}$</TEX>," J. Chem. Phys., vol. 63, pp. 1133-1139, 1975
[CrossRef]

R. F. Porter, W. A. Chupka, and M. G. Inghram, "Mass spectrometric study of gaseous species in the Si-<TEX>$SiO_{2}$</TEX> System," J. Chem. Phys., vol. 23, pp. 216-217, 1955
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dyke, H. Ozeki, M. Takahashi, M. C. R. Cockett, and K. Kimura, "A study of phenylacetylene and styrene and their argon complexes PA-Ar and ST-Ar with laser threshold photoelectron spectroscopy," J. Chem. Phys., vol. 97, pp. 8926-8933, 1992
[CrossRef]

Jap. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

T. Kitamori, K. Yokose, K. Suzuki, T. Sawada, and Y. Gohshi, "Laser breakdown acoustic effect of ultrafine particle in liquids and its application to particle counting," Jap. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 27, no. 6, pp. L983-L985, 1988

T. Kitamori, K. Yokose, M. Sakagami, and T. Sawada, "Detection and counting of ultrafine particles in ultra-pure water using laser breakdown acoustic method," Jap. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 28, no. 7, pp. 1195-1198, 1989

JOSA B (1)

C. A. Sacchi, "Laser-induced electric breakdown in water," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B., vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 337-345, 1991
[CrossRef]

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms (1)

C. Walther, C. Bitea, W. Hauser, J. I. Kim, and F. J. Scherbaum, "Laser induced breakdown detection for the assessment of colloid mediated radionuclide migration," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B., vol. 195, no. 3-4, pp. 374-388, 2002
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B. (1)

B. C. Stuart, M. D., Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, "Nanosecond-tofemtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics," Phys. Rev. B., vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 1749-1761, 1996
[CrossRef]

Progress in Quantum Electronics (1)

P. K. Kennedy, D. X. Hammer, and B. A. Rockwell, "Laser-induced breakdown in aqueous media," Prog. Quant. Electr., vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 155-248, 1997
[CrossRef]

Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of (3)

P. K. Kennedy, S. A. Boppart, D. X. Hammer, B. A. Rockwell, G. D. Noojin, and W. P. Roach, "A firstorder model for computation of laser-induced breakdown thresholds in ocular and aqueous media: Part II-Comparison to experiment," IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 31, no. 12, pp. 2250-2257, 1995
[CrossRef]

A. E. Siegman, M. W. Sanett, and T. F. Johnson, "Choice of clip levels for beam width measurements using knife-edge techniques," IEEE J. Qauntum Electron, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 1098-1104, 1991
[CrossRef]

D. X. Hammer, R. J. Thomas, G. D. Noojin, B. A. Rockwell, P. K. Kennedy, and W. P. Roach, "Experimental investigation of ultrashort pulse laser-induced breakdown thresholds in aqueous media," IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 670-678, 1996
[CrossRef]

Rep. Prog. Phys (1)

C. G. Morgan,"Laser-induced breakdown of gases," Rep. Prog. Phys., vol. 38, pp. 621-665, 1975

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

L. V. Keldysh, "Ionization in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave", Sov. Phys. JETP, vol. 20, no. 5, 1307-1314, 1965

Other (2)

W. Demtroder, Laser spectroscopy: basic concepts and instrumentation (Springer Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, 2nd edition, 1998) Chapter 5

D. R. Lide (editor), CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (CRC Press LCC, Boca Raton, Boston, London, New York, Washington D.C., 82nd edition, 2001) Section 10

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