Abstract

We demonstrate the capability of differential-phase optical coherence tomography (DP-OCT) to detect superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles taken up by liver parenchymeal macrophages (Kupffer cells). We apply an external time-varying high-intensity focused magnetic field. Our experiments demonstrate a novel diagnostic modality to detect macrophages that have taken up SPIO nanoparticles. Magnetic force acting on the nanoparticles was varied by applying a sinusoidal current to a solenoid containing a conical iron core that substantially increased and focused the magnetic field strength (<TEX>$B_{max}$</TEX> = 2 Tesla). <TEX>$ApoE^{-/-}$</TEX> mice were sacrificed 2 days post intravenous injections of different SPIO doses (1.0, and 0.1 mmol Fe/kg body weight). Livers of <TEX>$ApoE^{-/-}$</TEX> mice with and without injection of SPIO nanoparticles were investigated using DP-OCT, which detects tissue movement with nanometer resolution. Frequency response of iron-laden liver movement was twice the stimulus frequency. Movement was not observed in livers of control mice. Results of our experiments indicate DP-OCT is a candidate methodology to detect tissue based macrophages containing SPIO nanoparticles excited by an external focused magnetic field.

© 2007 Optical Society of Korea

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  4. J. I. Youn, T. Akkin, and T. E. Milner, "Electrokinetic measurement of cartilage using differential phase optical coherence tomography," Physiol. Meas., vol. 25, pp. 85-95, 2004
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  5. S. A. Telenkov, D. P. Dave, S. Sethuraman, T. Akkin, and T. E. Milner, "Differential phase optical coherence probe for depth-resolved detection of photothermal response in tissue," Phys. Med. Biol., vol. 49, pp. 111- 119, 2004
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  8. P. R. Moreno, E. Falk, I. F. Palacios, J. B. Newell, V. Fuster, and J. T. Fallon, "Macrophage Infiltration in Acute Coronary Syndromes - Implications for Plaque Rupture," Circulation, vol. 90, pp. 775-778, 1994
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  20. S. A. Schmitz, S. E. Coupland, R. Gust, S. Winterhalter, S. Wagner, M. Kresse, W. Semmler, and K. J. Wolf, "Superparamagnetic iron oxide-enhanced MRI of atherosclerotic plaques in Watanabe hereditable hyperlipidemic rabbits," Invest. Radiol., vol. 35, pp. 460-471, 2000
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  25. A. L. Oldenburg, F. J. J. Toublan, K. S. Suslick, A. Wei, and S. A. Boppart, "Magnetomotive contrast for in vivo optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express., vol. 13, pp. 6597-6614, 2005
    [CrossRef]

2005 (4)

K. Tsushima, A. Nishie, K. Yoshimitsu, A. Taketomi, and H. Honda, "Liver metastasis with apparent intratumoral superparamagnetic iron oxide uptake," Eur. Radiol., vol. 15, pp. 2203-2204, 2005
[CrossRef]

T. M. Said, S. Grunewald, U. Paasch, M. Rasch, A. Agarwal, and H. J. Glander, "Effects of magneticactivated cell sorting on sperm motility and cryosurvival rates," Fertil. Steril., vol. 83, pp. 1442-1446, 2005
[CrossRef]

T. Neuberger, B. Schopf, H. Hofmann, M. Hofmann, and B. von Rechenberg, "Superparamagnetic nanoparticles for biomedical applications: Possibilities and limitations of a new drug delivery system," J. Magn. Magn. Mater., vol. 293, pp. 483-496, 2005
[CrossRef]

A. L. Oldenburg, F. J. J. Toublan, K. S. Suslick, A. Wei, and S. A. Boppart, "Magnetomotive contrast for in vivo optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express., vol. 13, pp. 6597-6614, 2005
[CrossRef]

2004 (5)

M. Chastellain, A. Petri, A. Gupta, K. V. Rao, and H. Hofmann, "Superparamagnetic silica-iron oxide nanocomposites for application in hyperthermia," Adv. Eng Mater., vol. 6, pp. 235-241, 2004
[CrossRef]

T. Akkin, D. P. Dave, T. E. Milner, and H. G. Rylander, "Detection of neural activity using phase-sensitive optical low-coherence reflectometry," Opt. Express., vol. 12, pp. 2377-2386, 2004
[CrossRef]

J. I. Youn, T. Akkin, and T. E. Milner, "Electrokinetic measurement of cartilage using differential phase optical coherence tomography," Physiol. Meas., vol. 25, pp. 85-95, 2004
[CrossRef]

S. A. Telenkov, D. P. Dave, S. Sethuraman, T. Akkin, and T. E. Milner, "Differential phase optical coherence probe for depth-resolved detection of photothermal response in tissue," Phys. Med. Biol., vol. 49, pp. 111- 119, 2004
[CrossRef]

C. G. Rylander, D. P. Dave, T. Akkin, T. E. Milner, K. R. Diller, and A. J. Welch, "Quantitative phasecontrast imaging of cells with phase-sensitive optical coherence microscopy," Opt. Lett., vol. 29, pp. 1509- 1511, 2004
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, "Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography," Circulation, vol. 107, pp. 113-119, 2003
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

L. M. Coussens and Z. Werb,"Inflammation and cancer," Nature, vol. 420, pp. 860-867, 2002
[CrossRef]

P. Cherukuri, J. Wosik, J. D. Hazle, S. Litovsky, M. Madjid, W. Casscells, J. T. Willerson, and M. Naghavi, "Contrast-enhanced intravascular detection of vulnerable plaque using superparamagnetic iron oxide and a novel magnetic resonance imaging catheter.," Am. J. Cardiol., vol. 90, pp. 23h-24h, 2002

2001 (1)

Y. X. Wang, S. M. Hussain, and G. P. Krestin, "Superparamagnetic iron oxide contrast agents: physicochemical characteristics and applications in MR imaging," Eur. Radiol., vol. 11, pp. 2319-2331, 2001
[CrossRef]

2000 (5)

J. F. Schenck, "Safety of strong, static magnetic fields," J. Magn. Reson. Imaging., vol. 12, pp. 2-19, 2000
[CrossRef]

P. Reimer, N. Jahnke, M. Fiebich, W. Schima, F. Deckers, C. Marx, N. Holzknecht, and S. Saini, "Hepatic lesion detection and characterization: value of nonenhanced MR imaging, superparamagnetic iron oxideenhanced MR imaging, and spiral CT-ROC analysis," Radiology, vol. 217, pp. 152-158, 2000

S. A. Schmitz, S. E. Coupland, R. Gust, S. Winterhalter, S. Wagner, M. Kresse, W. Semmler, and K. J. Wolf, "Superparamagnetic iron oxide-enhanced MRI of atherosclerotic plaques in Watanabe hereditable hyperlipidemic rabbits," Invest. Radiol., vol. 35, pp. 460-471, 2000
[CrossRef]

D. P. Dave and T. E. Milner, "Optical low-coherence reflectometer for differential phase measurement," Opt. Lett., vol. 25, pp. 227-229, 2000
[CrossRef]

W. Hundt, R. Petsch, T. Helmberger, and M. Reiser, "Effect of superparamagnetic iron oxide on bone marrow," Eur. Radiol., vol. 10, pp. 1495-1500, 2000
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

C. W. Jung and P. Jacobs, "Physical and chemical properties of superparamagnetic iron oxide MR contrast agents: ferumoxides, ferumoxtran, ferumoxsil," Magn. Reson. Imaging., vol. 13, pp. 661-674, 1995
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

R. L. Reddick, S. H. Zhang, and N. Maeda, "Atherosclerosis in Mice Lacking Apo-E - Evaluation of Lesional Development and Progression," Arterioscler. Thromb., vol. 14, pp. 839-839, 1994

P. R. Moreno, E. Falk, I. F. Palacios, J. B. Newell, V. Fuster, and J. T. Fallon, "Macrophage Infiltration in Acute Coronary Syndromes - Implications for Plaque Rupture," Circulation, vol. 90, pp. 775-778, 1994

1992 (1)

R. M. Weisskoff and S. Kiihne, "Mri Susceptometry - Image-Based Measurement of Absolute Susceptibility of Mr Contrast Agents and Human Blood," Magnet. Reson. Med., vol. 24, pp. 375-383, 1992
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et al., "Optical coherence tomography," Science, vol. 254, pp. 1178-1181, 1991
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

R. Weissleder, D. D. Stark, B. L. Engelstad, B. R. Bacon, C. C. Compton, D. L. White, P. Jacobs, and J. Lewis, "Superparamagnetic Iron-Oxide - Pharmacokinetics and Toxicity," Am. J. Roentgenol., vol. 152, pp. 167-173, 1989

G. Marchal, P. Van Hecke, P. Demaerel, E. Decrop, C. Kennis, A. L. Baert, and E. van der Schueren, "Detection of liver metastases with superparamagnetic iron oxide in 15 patients: results of MR imaging at 1.5 T," AJR. Am. J. Roentgenol., vol. 152, pp. 771-775, 1989

Advanced Engineering Materials (1)

M. Chastellain, A. Petri, A. Gupta, K. V. Rao, and H. Hofmann, "Superparamagnetic silica-iron oxide nanocomposites for application in hyperthermia," Adv. Eng Mater., vol. 6, pp. 235-241, 2004
[CrossRef]

AJR. Am. J. Roentgenol. (1)

G. Marchal, P. Van Hecke, P. Demaerel, E. Decrop, C. Kennis, A. L. Baert, and E. van der Schueren, "Detection of liver metastases with superparamagnetic iron oxide in 15 patients: results of MR imaging at 1.5 T," AJR. Am. J. Roentgenol., vol. 152, pp. 771-775, 1989

Am. J. Cardiol. (1)

P. Cherukuri, J. Wosik, J. D. Hazle, S. Litovsky, M. Madjid, W. Casscells, J. T. Willerson, and M. Naghavi, "Contrast-enhanced intravascular detection of vulnerable plaque using superparamagnetic iron oxide and a novel magnetic resonance imaging catheter.," Am. J. Cardiol., vol. 90, pp. 23h-24h, 2002

Am. J. Roentgenol. (1)

R. Weissleder, D. D. Stark, B. L. Engelstad, B. R. Bacon, C. C. Compton, D. L. White, P. Jacobs, and J. Lewis, "Superparamagnetic Iron-Oxide - Pharmacokinetics and Toxicity," Am. J. Roentgenol., vol. 152, pp. 167-173, 1989

Arterioscler. Thromb. (1)

R. L. Reddick, S. H. Zhang, and N. Maeda, "Atherosclerosis in Mice Lacking Apo-E - Evaluation of Lesional Development and Progression," Arterioscler. Thromb., vol. 14, pp. 839-839, 1994

Circulation (2)

P. R. Moreno, E. Falk, I. F. Palacios, J. B. Newell, V. Fuster, and J. T. Fallon, "Macrophage Infiltration in Acute Coronary Syndromes - Implications for Plaque Rupture," Circulation, vol. 90, pp. 775-778, 1994

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I. K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, "Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography," Circulation, vol. 107, pp. 113-119, 2003
[CrossRef]

European Radiology (3)

K. Tsushima, A. Nishie, K. Yoshimitsu, A. Taketomi, and H. Honda, "Liver metastasis with apparent intratumoral superparamagnetic iron oxide uptake," Eur. Radiol., vol. 15, pp. 2203-2204, 2005
[CrossRef]

W. Hundt, R. Petsch, T. Helmberger, and M. Reiser, "Effect of superparamagnetic iron oxide on bone marrow," Eur. Radiol., vol. 10, pp. 1495-1500, 2000
[CrossRef]

Y. X. Wang, S. M. Hussain, and G. P. Krestin, "Superparamagnetic iron oxide contrast agents: physicochemical characteristics and applications in MR imaging," Eur. Radiol., vol. 11, pp. 2319-2331, 2001
[CrossRef]

Fertility and Sterility (1)

T. M. Said, S. Grunewald, U. Paasch, M. Rasch, A. Agarwal, and H. J. Glander, "Effects of magneticactivated cell sorting on sperm motility and cryosurvival rates," Fertil. Steril., vol. 83, pp. 1442-1446, 2005
[CrossRef]

Investigative Radiology (1)

S. A. Schmitz, S. E. Coupland, R. Gust, S. Winterhalter, S. Wagner, M. Kresse, W. Semmler, and K. J. Wolf, "Superparamagnetic iron oxide-enhanced MRI of atherosclerotic plaques in Watanabe hereditable hyperlipidemic rabbits," Invest. Radiol., vol. 35, pp. 460-471, 2000
[CrossRef]

Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (1)

J. F. Schenck, "Safety of strong, static magnetic fields," J. Magn. Reson. Imaging., vol. 12, pp. 2-19, 2000
[CrossRef]

Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials (1)

T. Neuberger, B. Schopf, H. Hofmann, M. Hofmann, and B. von Rechenberg, "Superparamagnetic nanoparticles for biomedical applications: Possibilities and limitations of a new drug delivery system," J. Magn. Magn. Mater., vol. 293, pp. 483-496, 2005
[CrossRef]

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (1)

C. W. Jung and P. Jacobs, "Physical and chemical properties of superparamagnetic iron oxide MR contrast agents: ferumoxides, ferumoxtran, ferumoxsil," Magn. Reson. Imaging., vol. 13, pp. 661-674, 1995
[CrossRef]

Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (1)

R. M. Weisskoff and S. Kiihne, "Mri Susceptometry - Image-Based Measurement of Absolute Susceptibility of Mr Contrast Agents and Human Blood," Magnet. Reson. Med., vol. 24, pp. 375-383, 1992
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

L. M. Coussens and Z. Werb,"Inflammation and cancer," Nature, vol. 420, pp. 860-867, 2002
[CrossRef]

Optics Express (2)

T. Akkin, D. P. Dave, T. E. Milner, and H. G. Rylander, "Detection of neural activity using phase-sensitive optical low-coherence reflectometry," Opt. Express., vol. 12, pp. 2377-2386, 2004
[CrossRef]

A. L. Oldenburg, F. J. J. Toublan, K. S. Suslick, A. Wei, and S. A. Boppart, "Magnetomotive contrast for in vivo optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express., vol. 13, pp. 6597-6614, 2005
[CrossRef]

Optics Letters (2)

D. P. Dave and T. E. Milner, "Optical low-coherence reflectometer for differential phase measurement," Opt. Lett., vol. 25, pp. 227-229, 2000
[CrossRef]

C. G. Rylander, D. P. Dave, T. Akkin, T. E. Milner, K. R. Diller, and A. J. Welch, "Quantitative phasecontrast imaging of cells with phase-sensitive optical coherence microscopy," Opt. Lett., vol. 29, pp. 1509- 1511, 2004
[CrossRef]

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

S. A. Telenkov, D. P. Dave, S. Sethuraman, T. Akkin, and T. E. Milner, "Differential phase optical coherence probe for depth-resolved detection of photothermal response in tissue," Phys. Med. Biol., vol. 49, pp. 111- 119, 2004
[CrossRef]

Physiol. Meas. (1)

J. I. Youn, T. Akkin, and T. E. Milner, "Electrokinetic measurement of cartilage using differential phase optical coherence tomography," Physiol. Meas., vol. 25, pp. 85-95, 2004
[CrossRef]

Radiology (1)

P. Reimer, N. Jahnke, M. Fiebich, W. Schima, F. Deckers, C. Marx, N. Holzknecht, and S. Saini, "Hepatic lesion detection and characterization: value of nonenhanced MR imaging, superparamagnetic iron oxideenhanced MR imaging, and spiral CT-ROC analysis," Radiology, vol. 217, pp. 152-158, 2000

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et al., "Optical coherence tomography," Science, vol. 254, pp. 1178-1181, 1991
[CrossRef]

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