Abstract

This paper describes an efficient optimal design method for an arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) having MMI coupler with flattened transfer function. The objective function is the norm of the difference between calculated and target spectra. To analyze the AWG transfer function, the Fresnel-Kirchhof diffraction formula was employed and the design variable was optical path difference of each array waveguide. The (1+1) Evolution Strategy was applied to an eight-channel coarse wavelength division multiplexing (CWDM) AWG as the optimization tool. For obtaining a broadened spectrum, we use a MMI coupler and the variation in optical path difference at each array waveguide changes the shape of the transfer function to obtain the optimal spectrum shape.

© 2006 Optical Society of Korea

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  1. B. Glance, I. P. Kaminow, and R. W. Wilson, "Applications of the integrated waveguide grating router," J. Lightwave TechnoI.., vol. 12, pp. 957-961, 1994
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. Tachikawa, Y. Inoue, M. Kawachi, H. Takahashi, and K. Inoue, "Arrayed-waveguide grating add-drop multiplexer with loop-back optical paths," Electron Lett., vol. 29, pp. 2133-2134, 1993
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. R. Amersfoort, C. R. de Boer, F. P. G. M. van Ham, M. K. Smit, P. Demeester, J. J. G. M. van der Tol, and A. Kuntze, "Phased-array wavelength demultiplexer with flattened wavelength response," Electron. Lett., vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 300-302, 1994
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. P. Ho, H. Li, and Y. J. Chen, "Flat channel-passband-wavelength multiplexing and demultiplexing devices by multiple-Rowland-circle design," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 342-344, 1997
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Rigny, A. Bruno, and H. Sik, "Multigrating method for flattened spectral response wavelength multi/demultiplexer," Electron. Lett., vol. 33, no. 20, pp. 1701-1702, 1997
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. B. D. Soole, M. R. Amerfoort, H. P. LeBlanc, N. C. Andreadakis, A. Rajhel, C. Caneau, R. Bhat, M. A. Koza, C. Youtsey, and I. Adesida, "Use of multimode interference couplers to broaden the passband of wavelength-dispersive integrated WDM filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 8, no. 10, pp. 1340-1342, 1996
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. C. Parker and S. D. Walker, "Design of arrayed waveguide gratings using hybrid Fourier-Fresnel transform techniques," IEEE J. Select. Areas Quantum. Etectron., vol. 5, pp. 1379-1384, Sept./Oct. 1999
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. C. Parker and S. D. Walker, "Arrayed waveguide gratings, fiber Bragg gratings, and photonic crystals: an isomorphic Fourier transform light propagation analysis," IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum. Electron., vol. 8, pp. 1158-1167, Nov./Dec. 2002
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Jung et al., "An efficient design technique for the flattened transfer function of arrayed waveguide grating," Journal of Opticat Society of Korea, vol. 10, pp. 33-36, Mar.. 2006
  10. D. Dai, S. Liu, S. He, and Q. Zhou, "Optimal design of an mmi coupler for broadening the spectral response of an awg demultiplexer," J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 20, pp. 1957-1961, 2002
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. B. Fogel, Evolutionary Computation, New York: IEEE Press, 1995
  12. K. Press et al., "FEM & evolution strategies in the optimal design of electromagnetic devices," IEEE Trans. Magn., vol. 26, pp. 2181-2183, Sept. 2000
    [CrossRef]

2006

J. Jung et al., "An efficient design technique for the flattened transfer function of arrayed waveguide grating," Journal of Opticat Society of Korea, vol. 10, pp. 33-36, Mar.. 2006

2002

D. Dai, S. Liu, S. He, and Q. Zhou, "Optimal design of an mmi coupler for broadening the spectral response of an awg demultiplexer," J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 20, pp. 1957-1961, 2002
[CrossRef]

M. C. Parker and S. D. Walker, "Arrayed waveguide gratings, fiber Bragg gratings, and photonic crystals: an isomorphic Fourier transform light propagation analysis," IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum. Electron., vol. 8, pp. 1158-1167, Nov./Dec. 2002
[CrossRef]

1999

M. C. Parker and S. D. Walker, "Design of arrayed waveguide gratings using hybrid Fourier-Fresnel transform techniques," IEEE J. Select. Areas Quantum. Etectron., vol. 5, pp. 1379-1384, Sept./Oct. 1999
[CrossRef]

1997

Y. P. Ho, H. Li, and Y. J. Chen, "Flat channel-passband-wavelength multiplexing and demultiplexing devices by multiple-Rowland-circle design," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 342-344, 1997
[CrossRef]

A. Rigny, A. Bruno, and H. Sik, "Multigrating method for flattened spectral response wavelength multi/demultiplexer," Electron. Lett., vol. 33, no. 20, pp. 1701-1702, 1997
[CrossRef]

1996

J. B. D. Soole, M. R. Amerfoort, H. P. LeBlanc, N. C. Andreadakis, A. Rajhel, C. Caneau, R. Bhat, M. A. Koza, C. Youtsey, and I. Adesida, "Use of multimode interference couplers to broaden the passband of wavelength-dispersive integrated WDM filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 8, no. 10, pp. 1340-1342, 1996
[CrossRef]

1995

D. B. Fogel, Evolutionary Computation, New York: IEEE Press, 1995

1994

B. Glance, I. P. Kaminow, and R. W. Wilson, "Applications of the integrated waveguide grating router," J. Lightwave TechnoI.., vol. 12, pp. 957-961, 1994
[CrossRef]

M. R. Amersfoort, C. R. de Boer, F. P. G. M. van Ham, M. K. Smit, P. Demeester, J. J. G. M. van der Tol, and A. Kuntze, "Phased-array wavelength demultiplexer with flattened wavelength response," Electron. Lett., vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 300-302, 1994
[CrossRef]

1993

Y. Tachikawa, Y. Inoue, M. Kawachi, H. Takahashi, and K. Inoue, "Arrayed-waveguide grating add-drop multiplexer with loop-back optical paths," Electron Lett., vol. 29, pp. 2133-2134, 1993
[CrossRef]

1990

K. Press et al., "FEM & evolution strategies in the optimal design of electromagnetic devices," IEEE Trans. Magn., vol. 26, pp. 2181-2183, Sept. 2000
[CrossRef]

Electronics Letters

Y. Tachikawa, Y. Inoue, M. Kawachi, H. Takahashi, and K. Inoue, "Arrayed-waveguide grating add-drop multiplexer with loop-back optical paths," Electron Lett., vol. 29, pp. 2133-2134, 1993
[CrossRef]

M. R. Amersfoort, C. R. de Boer, F. P. G. M. van Ham, M. K. Smit, P. Demeester, J. J. G. M. van der Tol, and A. Kuntze, "Phased-array wavelength demultiplexer with flattened wavelength response," Electron. Lett., vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 300-302, 1994
[CrossRef]

A. Rigny, A. Bruno, and H. Sik, "Multigrating method for flattened spectral response wavelength multi/demultiplexer," Electron. Lett., vol. 33, no. 20, pp. 1701-1702, 1997
[CrossRef]

IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics

M. C. Parker and S. D. Walker, "Design of arrayed waveguide gratings using hybrid Fourier-Fresnel transform techniques," IEEE J. Select. Areas Quantum. Etectron., vol. 5, pp. 1379-1384, Sept./Oct. 1999
[CrossRef]

M. C. Parker and S. D. Walker, "Arrayed waveguide gratings, fiber Bragg gratings, and photonic crystals: an isomorphic Fourier transform light propagation analysis," IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum. Electron., vol. 8, pp. 1158-1167, Nov./Dec. 2002
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technology Letters

Y. P. Ho, H. Li, and Y. J. Chen, "Flat channel-passband-wavelength multiplexing and demultiplexing devices by multiple-Rowland-circle design," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 342-344, 1997
[CrossRef]

IEEE Transactions on Magnetics

K. Press et al., "FEM & evolution strategies in the optimal design of electromagnetic devices," IEEE Trans. Magn., vol. 26, pp. 2181-2183, Sept. 2000
[CrossRef]

Journal of Lightwave Technology

B. Glance, I. P. Kaminow, and R. W. Wilson, "Applications of the integrated waveguide grating router," J. Lightwave TechnoI.., vol. 12, pp. 957-961, 1994
[CrossRef]

D. Dai, S. Liu, S. He, and Q. Zhou, "Optimal design of an mmi coupler for broadening the spectral response of an awg demultiplexer," J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 20, pp. 1957-1961, 2002
[CrossRef]

Journal of the Optical Society of Korea

J. Jung et al., "An efficient design technique for the flattened transfer function of arrayed waveguide grating," Journal of Opticat Society of Korea, vol. 10, pp. 33-36, Mar.. 2006

Photonics Technology Letters, IEEE

J. B. D. Soole, M. R. Amerfoort, H. P. LeBlanc, N. C. Andreadakis, A. Rajhel, C. Caneau, R. Bhat, M. A. Koza, C. Youtsey, and I. Adesida, "Use of multimode interference couplers to broaden the passband of wavelength-dispersive integrated WDM filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 8, no. 10, pp. 1340-1342, 1996
[CrossRef]

Other

D. B. Fogel, Evolutionary Computation, New York: IEEE Press, 1995

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