Abstract

We propose a new pH-sensing scheme using a methylene blue adsorption on an optical fiber cladding surface. Interactions between the silica and hydroxyl ions of a base solution induce the surface of the silica negatively charged. The charged surface attracts the positively charged chromophores of methylene blue. As the pH of the solution is reduced, the electrostatic attraction will also be reduced. This electrostatic attraction can change the transmitted light intensity of the cladding mode, since the boundary condition changes. We also carried out a simulation to verify the effect from external refractive index change around a long-period fiber grating. Our results confirm that the wavelength shift by external refractive index change is negligible compared to the transmitted light intensity variation of the cladding mode. By using a long-period grating pair, we can detect the cladding mode transmittance variations. Experimentally, we showed the possibility of pH sensing in the <TEX>$1.5{\mu}m$</TEX> infrared region.

© 2006 Optical Society of Korea

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  1. B. Lee, "Review of the present status of optical fiber sensors," Optical Fiber Technology, vol. 9, pp. 57-59, 2003
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. M. Rollins, Z. Xu, R. Alcla, and J. A. Izatt, "A novel wide range single fiber optic fluorescence pH sensor," Summaries of Papers Presented at the Conference on CLEO "97, vol. 11, pp. 187, 1997
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  5. F. J. Arregui, I. Latasa, and I. R. Matias, An optical fiber pH sensor based on the electrostatic self-assembly method, 2003. Proceedings of IEEE Sensors, vol. 1, pp. 107-110, 2003
    [CrossRef]
  6. B.J.-C. Deboux, E. Lewis, P. J. Scully, and R. Edw-ards, "A novel technique for optical fiber pH sensing based on methylene blue adsorption," Journal of Light-wave Technology, vol. 13, pp. 1407-1414, 1995
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Gaston, I. Lozano, F. Perez, F. Auza, and J. Sevilla, "Evanescent wave optical-fiber sensing (temperature, relative humidity, and pH sensors)," IEEE Sensors Journal, vol. 3, pp. 806-811, 2003
    [CrossRef]
  8. N. Matsuda, J. H. Santos, A. Takatsu, and K. Kato, "In situ observation of absorption spectra and adsorbed species of methylene blue on indium-tin-oxide electrode by slab optical waveguide spectroscopy," Thin Solid Films, vol. 445, pp. 313-316, 2003
    [CrossRef]
  9. X. Shu, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Sensitivity characteristics of long-period fiber gratings," Journal of Lightwave Technology, vol. 20, pp. 255-266, 2002
    [CrossRef]
  10. E. M. Dianov, S. A. Vasiliev, A. S. Kurkov, O. I. Medvedkov, and V. N. Protopopov, In-fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on a pair of long-period gratings, 22nd European Conference on Optical Communication-ECOC "96, pp. 65-68, 1996
  11. H. J. Patrick, A. D. Kersey, and F. Bucholtz, "Analysis of the response of long period fiber gratings to external index of refraction," Journal of Lightwave Technology, vol. 16, pp. 1606-1611, 1998
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. Jeong and B. Lee, "Nonlinear property analysis of long-period fiber gratings using discretized coupled-mode theory," IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, vol. 35, pp. 1284-1292, 1999
    [CrossRef]

2003 (4)

B. Lee, "Review of the present status of optical fiber sensors," Optical Fiber Technology, vol. 9, pp. 57-59, 2003
[CrossRef]

A. Gaston, I. Lozano, F. Perez, F. Auza, and J. Sevilla, "Evanescent wave optical-fiber sensing (temperature, relative humidity, and pH sensors)," IEEE Sensors Journal, vol. 3, pp. 806-811, 2003
[CrossRef]

N. Matsuda, J. H. Santos, A. Takatsu, and K. Kato, "In situ observation of absorption spectra and adsorbed species of methylene blue on indium-tin-oxide electrode by slab optical waveguide spectroscopy," Thin Solid Films, vol. 445, pp. 313-316, 2003
[CrossRef]

F. J. Arregui, I. Latasa, and I. R. Matias, An optical fiber pH sensor based on the electrostatic self-assembly method, 2003. Proceedings of IEEE Sensors, vol. 1, pp. 107-110, 2003
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

X. Shu, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Sensitivity characteristics of long-period fiber gratings," Journal of Lightwave Technology, vol. 20, pp. 255-266, 2002
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

Y. Jeong and B. Lee, "Nonlinear property analysis of long-period fiber gratings using discretized coupled-mode theory," IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, vol. 35, pp. 1284-1292, 1999
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

H. J. Patrick, A. D. Kersey, and F. Bucholtz, "Analysis of the response of long period fiber gratings to external index of refraction," Journal of Lightwave Technology, vol. 16, pp. 1606-1611, 1998
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

A. M. Rollins, Z. Xu, R. Alcla, and J. A. Izatt, "A novel wide range single fiber optic fluorescence pH sensor," Summaries of Papers Presented at the Conference on CLEO "97, vol. 11, pp. 187, 1997

1996 (1)

E. M. Dianov, S. A. Vasiliev, A. S. Kurkov, O. I. Medvedkov, and V. N. Protopopov, In-fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on a pair of long-period gratings, 22nd European Conference on Optical Communication-ECOC "96, pp. 65-68, 1996

1995 (1)

B.J.-C. Deboux, E. Lewis, P. J. Scully, and R. Edw-ards, "A novel technique for optical fiber pH sensing based on methylene blue adsorption," Journal of Light-wave Technology, vol. 13, pp. 1407-1414, 1995
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

S. Draxler and M. E. Lippitsch, "Optical pH sensors using fluorescence decay time," Sensors and Actuators B, vol. 11, pp. 421-424, 1993
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

J. Y. Ding, M. R. Shahriari, and G. H. Sigel, "Fibre optic pH sensors prepared by sol-gel immobilization technique," Electronis Letters, vol. 3, pp. 1560-1562, 1991
[CrossRef]

Electronics Letters (1)

J. Y. Ding, M. R. Shahriari, and G. H. Sigel, "Fibre optic pH sensors prepared by sol-gel immobilization technique," Electronis Letters, vol. 3, pp. 1560-1562, 1991
[CrossRef]

IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics (1)

Y. Jeong and B. Lee, "Nonlinear property analysis of long-period fiber gratings using discretized coupled-mode theory," IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, vol. 35, pp. 1284-1292, 1999
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sensors Journal (1)

A. Gaston, I. Lozano, F. Perez, F. Auza, and J. Sevilla, "Evanescent wave optical-fiber sensing (temperature, relative humidity, and pH sensors)," IEEE Sensors Journal, vol. 3, pp. 806-811, 2003
[CrossRef]

Journal of Lightwave Technology (3)

B.J.-C. Deboux, E. Lewis, P. J. Scully, and R. Edw-ards, "A novel technique for optical fiber pH sensing based on methylene blue adsorption," Journal of Light-wave Technology, vol. 13, pp. 1407-1414, 1995
[CrossRef]

H. J. Patrick, A. D. Kersey, and F. Bucholtz, "Analysis of the response of long period fiber gratings to external index of refraction," Journal of Lightwave Technology, vol. 16, pp. 1606-1611, 1998
[CrossRef]

X. Shu, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Sensitivity characteristics of long-period fiber gratings," Journal of Lightwave Technology, vol. 20, pp. 255-266, 2002
[CrossRef]

Optical Communication, 1996. ECOC '96. 22nd European Conference on (1)

E. M. Dianov, S. A. Vasiliev, A. S. Kurkov, O. I. Medvedkov, and V. N. Protopopov, In-fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on a pair of long-period gratings, 22nd European Conference on Optical Communication-ECOC "96, pp. 65-68, 1996

Optical Fiber Technology (1)

B. Lee, "Review of the present status of optical fiber sensors," Optical Fiber Technology, vol. 9, pp. 57-59, 2003
[CrossRef]

Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical (1)

S. Draxler and M. E. Lippitsch, "Optical pH sensors using fluorescence decay time," Sensors and Actuators B, vol. 11, pp. 421-424, 1993
[CrossRef]

Sensors, 2003. Proceedings of IEEE (1)

F. J. Arregui, I. Latasa, and I. R. Matias, An optical fiber pH sensor based on the electrostatic self-assembly method, 2003. Proceedings of IEEE Sensors, vol. 1, pp. 107-110, 2003
[CrossRef]

Summaries of Papers Presented at the Conference on CLEO '97 (1)

A. M. Rollins, Z. Xu, R. Alcla, and J. A. Izatt, "A novel wide range single fiber optic fluorescence pH sensor," Summaries of Papers Presented at the Conference on CLEO "97, vol. 11, pp. 187, 1997

Thin Solid Films (1)

N. Matsuda, J. H. Santos, A. Takatsu, and K. Kato, "In situ observation of absorption spectra and adsorbed species of methylene blue on indium-tin-oxide electrode by slab optical waveguide spectroscopy," Thin Solid Films, vol. 445, pp. 313-316, 2003
[CrossRef]

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