Abstract

A new laser Doppler velocimeter employing a <TEX>$CO_2$</TEX> laser has been developed by using its photoacoustic effect. A change in the pressure of a discharge, induced by mixing of a returned wave with an originally existing wave inside the cavity, is employed to detect the Doppler frequency shift. We found that a Doppler frequency shift as small as 50 kHz was detected, and also a good linear relationship between the velocity and the Doppler frequency shift was obtained.

© 2004 Optical Society of Korea

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  1. M.J. Rudd, "A laser Doppler velocimeter employing the laser as a mixer-oscillator," J. Physics E-Scientific Instruments, 1, 723-726, 1968
    [CrossRef]
  2. Churnside J.H., "Laser Doppler velocimetry by modulating a <TEX>$CO_2$</TEX> laser with backscattered light," Appl. Opt., vol. 23, pp. 61-66, 1984
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Shinohara, A. Mochizuki, H. Yoshida, and M. Sumi, "Laser Doppler velocimeter using the self-mixing effect of a semiconductor laser diode," Appl. Opt. 25, 1417-1419, 1986
    [CrossRef]
  4. J.W. Choi, Y. P. Kim, and Y. M. Kim, "Optogalvanic laser Doppler velocimetry using the self-mixing effect of <TEX>$CO_2$</TEX> laser," vol. 68, no. 12, 4623-4624, Review of Scientific Instruments, Dec., 1997
    [CrossRef]
  5. 5. H. W. Jentink, F. F. M. de Mul, H. E. Suichies, J. G. Aarnoudse, and J. Greve, "Smal laser Doppler velocimeter based on the self-mixing effect in a diode laser," Appl. Phys. vol. 27, no. 2, 379, 1988
    [CrossRef]
  6. Andrew C. Tam, Rev. of Modern Physics, vol. 58, no. 2, April, 1986
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Villagran-Muniz, et. al., "Photoacoustic methods for real-time measurement of laser beam diameter and position, and for laser cavity alignment," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66 (6), June, 1995
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. C. tam. In, "Ultrasensitive Laser Spectroscopy," edited by D. S. Kliger, Academic, New York, 1983
  9. B. M. Watrasiewicz, M. J. Rudd, "Laser Doppler Measurement," Butterworths, London, 1976
  10. Jitendra P. Gupta and Rajendra N. Sachdev, "Theoretical model of an optoacoustic detector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 36(12), 960, 1980
    [CrossRef]
  11. Kirk H. Michaelian, "Photoacoustic Infrared Spectroscopy," Wiley Interscience, 168, 2003
  12. A. Thony and M. W. Sigrist, "New developments in <TEX>$CO_2$</TEX>-laser photoacoustic monitoring of trace gases," Infrared Phys. Technol. vol. 36, no. 2, 585, 1995
    [CrossRef]
  13. L. Scalise and N. Paone, "Laser Doppler vibrometry based on self-mixing effect," Opt. Lasers Eng., vol. 38, pp. 1173-1184, 2002
    [CrossRef]
  14. Liu G., Zhang S., Zhu J., and Li Y., "Theoretical and experimental study of intensity branch phenomena in self-mixing interference in He-Ne laser," Opt. Comm. 221, 387, 2003
    [CrossRef]

2003 (2)

Kirk H. Michaelian, "Photoacoustic Infrared Spectroscopy," Wiley Interscience, 168, 2003

Liu G., Zhang S., Zhu J., and Li Y., "Theoretical and experimental study of intensity branch phenomena in self-mixing interference in He-Ne laser," Opt. Comm. 221, 387, 2003
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

L. Scalise and N. Paone, "Laser Doppler vibrometry based on self-mixing effect," Opt. Lasers Eng., vol. 38, pp. 1173-1184, 2002
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

J.W. Choi, Y. P. Kim, and Y. M. Kim, "Optogalvanic laser Doppler velocimetry using the self-mixing effect of <TEX>$CO_2$</TEX> laser," vol. 68, no. 12, 4623-4624, Review of Scientific Instruments, Dec., 1997
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

M. Villagran-Muniz, et. al., "Photoacoustic methods for real-time measurement of laser beam diameter and position, and for laser cavity alignment," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66 (6), June, 1995
[CrossRef]

A. Thony and M. W. Sigrist, "New developments in <TEX>$CO_2$</TEX>-laser photoacoustic monitoring of trace gases," Infrared Phys. Technol. vol. 36, no. 2, 585, 1995
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

5. H. W. Jentink, F. F. M. de Mul, H. E. Suichies, J. G. Aarnoudse, and J. Greve, "Smal laser Doppler velocimeter based on the self-mixing effect in a diode laser," Appl. Phys. vol. 27, no. 2, 379, 1988
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

Andrew C. Tam, Rev. of Modern Physics, vol. 58, no. 2, April, 1986
[CrossRef]

S. Shinohara, A. Mochizuki, H. Yoshida, and M. Sumi, "Laser Doppler velocimeter using the self-mixing effect of a semiconductor laser diode," Appl. Opt. 25, 1417-1419, 1986
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

Churnside J.H., "Laser Doppler velocimetry by modulating a <TEX>$CO_2$</TEX> laser with backscattered light," Appl. Opt., vol. 23, pp. 61-66, 1984
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

A. C. tam. In, "Ultrasensitive Laser Spectroscopy," edited by D. S. Kliger, Academic, New York, 1983

1980 (1)

Jitendra P. Gupta and Rajendra N. Sachdev, "Theoretical model of an optoacoustic detector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 36(12), 960, 1980
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

B. M. Watrasiewicz, M. J. Rudd, "Laser Doppler Measurement," Butterworths, London, 1976

1968 (1)

M.J. Rudd, "A laser Doppler velocimeter employing the laser as a mixer-oscillator," J. Physics E-Scientific Instruments, 1, 723-726, 1968
[CrossRef]

Applied Optics (3)

Churnside J.H., "Laser Doppler velocimetry by modulating a <TEX>$CO_2$</TEX> laser with backscattered light," Appl. Opt., vol. 23, pp. 61-66, 1984
[CrossRef]

S. Shinohara, A. Mochizuki, H. Yoshida, and M. Sumi, "Laser Doppler velocimeter using the self-mixing effect of a semiconductor laser diode," Appl. Opt. 25, 1417-1419, 1986
[CrossRef]

5. H. W. Jentink, F. F. M. de Mul, H. E. Suichies, J. G. Aarnoudse, and J. Greve, "Smal laser Doppler velocimeter based on the self-mixing effect in a diode laser," Appl. Phys. vol. 27, no. 2, 379, 1988
[CrossRef]

Applied Physics Letters (1)

Jitendra P. Gupta and Rajendra N. Sachdev, "Theoretical model of an optoacoustic detector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 36(12), 960, 1980
[CrossRef]

Infrared Physics & Technology (1)

A. Thony and M. W. Sigrist, "New developments in <TEX>$CO_2$</TEX>-laser photoacoustic monitoring of trace gases," Infrared Phys. Technol. vol. 36, no. 2, 585, 1995
[CrossRef]

Journal of Physics E: Scientific Instruments (1)

M.J. Rudd, "A laser Doppler velocimeter employing the laser as a mixer-oscillator," J. Physics E-Scientific Instruments, 1, 723-726, 1968
[CrossRef]

Optics and Lasers in Engineering (1)

L. Scalise and N. Paone, "Laser Doppler vibrometry based on self-mixing effect," Opt. Lasers Eng., vol. 38, pp. 1173-1184, 2002
[CrossRef]

Optics Communications (1)

Liu G., Zhang S., Zhu J., and Li Y., "Theoretical and experimental study of intensity branch phenomena in self-mixing interference in He-Ne laser," Opt. Comm. 221, 387, 2003
[CrossRef]

Review of Scientific Instruments (2)

M. Villagran-Muniz, et. al., "Photoacoustic methods for real-time measurement of laser beam diameter and position, and for laser cavity alignment," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66 (6), June, 1995
[CrossRef]

J.W. Choi, Y. P. Kim, and Y. M. Kim, "Optogalvanic laser Doppler velocimetry using the self-mixing effect of <TEX>$CO_2$</TEX> laser," vol. 68, no. 12, 4623-4624, Review of Scientific Instruments, Dec., 1997
[CrossRef]

Reviews of Modern Physics (1)

Andrew C. Tam, Rev. of Modern Physics, vol. 58, no. 2, April, 1986
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

A. C. tam. In, "Ultrasensitive Laser Spectroscopy," edited by D. S. Kliger, Academic, New York, 1983

B. M. Watrasiewicz, M. J. Rudd, "Laser Doppler Measurement," Butterworths, London, 1976

Kirk H. Michaelian, "Photoacoustic Infrared Spectroscopy," Wiley Interscience, 168, 2003

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