Abstract

The structure of Ti:LiNbO<TEX>$_3$</TEX>optical waveguide with a mode size far different from that of single mode optical fiber has been optimized by tapering the waveguide ends. This work was focused on determining the optimized sets of parameters for the fabrication of low-loss Ti indiffused optical waveguides in LiNbO<TEX>$_3$</TEX>. Numerical and analytical modeling were applied to simulate the guiding quality and to determine the mode sizes. Based on these modeling results, new waveguide structures with tapered ends have been defined, fabricated and characterized in the respect of the coupling of fiber to Ti-indiffused LiNbO<TEX>$_3$</TEX>waveguide.

© 2004 Optical Society of Korea

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  1. R C. Alfemess, "Guided-wave devices for optical communication," IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 946-959, 1981
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. R. C. Alferness, V. R. Ramaswamy, S. K. Korotky, M. D. Divino, and L. L. Buhl, "Efficient Single-Mode Fiber to Titanium Diffused Lithium Niobate Waveguide Coupling for Lambda = <TEX>$1.32\;{\mu}m$</TEX>," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Tech., vol. 82, no. 10, pp. 1795-1801, 1982
    [CrossRef]
  4. O. G. Ramer, C. Nelson, and C. Mohr, "Experimental integrated optic circuit losses and fiber pigtailing of chips," IEEE J. Quantum Electro., vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 970-976, 1981
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. H. Bulmer, S. K. Sheem, R. P. Moeller, and W. S. Burns, "High-efficiency flip-chip coupling between single-mode fibers and <TEX>$LiNb0_3$</TEX> channel waveguides," Appl. Phys. Left., vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 351-353, 1981
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Fukuma, J. Node, and H. Iwasaki, "Optical properties in titanium-diffused <TEX>$LiNbO_3$</TEX> strip waveguides," J. Appl. Phys., vol. 49, no. 7, pp. 3693-3698, 1978
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Hibino, "Recent advances in high-density and large-scale AWG multi/demultiplexers with higher index-contrast silic-based PLCs," IEEE J. Selected Topics in Quantum. Electronics., vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 1090-1101, 2002.
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Fritze, J. Knecht, C. Bozler, C. Keast, J. Fijol, S. Jacobson, P. Keating, J. LeBlanc, E. Fike, B. Kessler, M. Frish, and C. Manolatou, "3D mode converters for SOl integrated optics," 2002 IEEE Int. SOl Conf., 10/02.
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2002

Y. Hibino, "Recent advances in high-density and large-scale AWG multi/demultiplexers with higher index-contrast silic-based PLCs," IEEE J. Selected Topics in Quantum. Electronics., vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 1090-1101, 2002.
[CrossRef]

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, "Low loss mode size converter from 0.3 <TEX>${\mu}m$</TEX> square Si wire waveguides to single mode fibres," Electron Left., vol. 38, no. 25, pp. 1669-1670, 2002.
[CrossRef]

1988

E. Strake, G. P Bava, and I. Montrosset, "Guided modes of <TEX>$Ti:LiNbO_3$</TEX> channel waveguides: a novel quasi-analytical technique in comparison with the scalar finite-element method," J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 1126-1135, 1988.
[CrossRef]

1985

R. Regener and W. Sohler, "Loss in low-finesse LiNbO3 optical waveguide resonators," Appl. Phys. B, vol. 36, pp. 143-145, 1985.
[CrossRef]

1982

S. K. Korotky, W. J. Minford, L. L. Buhl, M. D. Divino, and R. C. Alferness, "Mode size and method for estimating the propagation constant of single-mode <TEX>$Ti:LiNbO_3$</TEX> strip waveguides," IEEE 1. Quantum Electron., vol. 82. no. 10, pp. 1796-1801, 1982.

S. K. Korotky, W. J. Minford, L. L. Buhl, M. D. Divino, and R. C. Alferness, "Mode Size and Method for Estimating the Propagation Constant of Single- Mode <TEX>$Ti:LiNb0_3$</TEX> Strip Waveguides," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Tech., vol. 82, no. 10, pp. 1784-1789, 1982
[CrossRef]

R. C. Alferness, V. R. Ramaswamy, S. K. Korotky, M. D. Divino, and L. L. Buhl, "Efficient Single-Mode Fiber to Titanium Diffused Lithium Niobate Waveguide Coupling for Lambda = <TEX>$1.32\;{\mu}m$</TEX>," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Tech., vol. 82, no. 10, pp. 1795-1801, 1982
[CrossRef]

1981

O. G. Ramer, C. Nelson, and C. Mohr, "Experimental integrated optic circuit losses and fiber pigtailing of chips," IEEE J. Quantum Electro., vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 970-976, 1981
[CrossRef]

R C. Alfemess, "Guided-wave devices for optical communication," IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 946-959, 1981
[CrossRef]

1980

C. H. Bulmer, S. K. Sheem, R. P. Moeller, and W. S. Burns, "High-efficiency flip-chip coupling between single-mode fibers and <TEX>$LiNb0_3$</TEX> channel waveguides," Appl. Phys. Left., vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 351-353, 1981
[CrossRef]

1978

M. Fukuma, J. Node, and H. Iwasaki, "Optical properties in titanium-diffused <TEX>$LiNbO_3$</TEX> strip waveguides," J. Appl. Phys., vol. 49, no. 7, pp. 3693-3698, 1978
[CrossRef]

Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics

R. Regener and W. Sohler, "Loss in low-finesse LiNbO3 optical waveguide resonators," Appl. Phys. B, vol. 36, pp. 143-145, 1985.
[CrossRef]

Applied Physics Letters

C. H. Bulmer, S. K. Sheem, R. P. Moeller, and W. S. Burns, "High-efficiency flip-chip coupling between single-mode fibers and <TEX>$LiNb0_3$</TEX> channel waveguides," Appl. Phys. Left., vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 351-353, 1981
[CrossRef]

Electronics Letters

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, "Low loss mode size converter from 0.3 <TEX>${\mu}m$</TEX> square Si wire waveguides to single mode fibres," Electron Left., vol. 38, no. 25, pp. 1669-1670, 2002.
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

S. K. Korotky, W. J. Minford, L. L. Buhl, M. D. Divino, and R. C. Alferness, "Mode size and method for estimating the propagation constant of single-mode <TEX>$Ti:LiNbO_3$</TEX> strip waveguides," IEEE 1. Quantum Electron., vol. 82. no. 10, pp. 1796-1801, 1982.

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Tech.

S. K. Korotky, W. J. Minford, L. L. Buhl, M. D. Divino, and R. C. Alferness, "Mode Size and Method for Estimating the Propagation Constant of Single- Mode <TEX>$Ti:LiNb0_3$</TEX> Strip Waveguides," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Tech., vol. 82, no. 10, pp. 1784-1789, 1982
[CrossRef]

Journal of Applied Physics

M. Fukuma, J. Node, and H. Iwasaki, "Optical properties in titanium-diffused <TEX>$LiNbO_3$</TEX> strip waveguides," J. Appl. Phys., vol. 49, no. 7, pp. 3693-3698, 1978
[CrossRef]

Lightwave Technology, Journal of

E. Strake, G. P Bava, and I. Montrosset, "Guided modes of <TEX>$Ti:LiNbO_3$</TEX> channel waveguides: a novel quasi-analytical technique in comparison with the scalar finite-element method," J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 1126-1135, 1988.
[CrossRef]

Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on

R. C. Alferness, V. R. Ramaswamy, S. K. Korotky, M. D. Divino, and L. L. Buhl, "Efficient Single-Mode Fiber to Titanium Diffused Lithium Niobate Waveguide Coupling for Lambda = <TEX>$1.32\;{\mu}m$</TEX>," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Tech., vol. 82, no. 10, pp. 1795-1801, 1982
[CrossRef]

Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of

O. G. Ramer, C. Nelson, and C. Mohr, "Experimental integrated optic circuit losses and fiber pigtailing of chips," IEEE J. Quantum Electro., vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 970-976, 1981
[CrossRef]

R C. Alfemess, "Guided-wave devices for optical communication," IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 946-959, 1981
[CrossRef]

Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of

Y. Hibino, "Recent advances in high-density and large-scale AWG multi/demultiplexers with higher index-contrast silic-based PLCs," IEEE J. Selected Topics in Quantum. Electronics., vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 1090-1101, 2002.
[CrossRef]

SOI Conference, IEEE International 2002

M. Fritze, J. Knecht, C. Bozler, C. Keast, J. Fijol, S. Jacobson, P. Keating, J. LeBlanc, E. Fike, B. Kessler, M. Frish, and C. Manolatou, "3D mode converters for SOl integrated optics," 2002 IEEE Int. SOl Conf., 10/02.
[CrossRef]

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