Abstract

Objective methods to assess quantitatively port wine stain (PWS) blanching in response to laser therapy are needed to improve laser therapeutic outcome. Previous studies have attempted to assess objectively PWS color based on point measurement devices. To date, these approaches have typically been limited by a number of factors such as small test area and need for contact. To address these issues, a polarization spectral imaging system and an image analysis method have been developed to evaluate quantitatively erythema and melanin content distribution in skin. The developed polarization spectral imaging system minimizes artifacts such as glaring, shadowing, and non-uniform illumination that interfere with image fidelity. Furthermore, the image analysis method has been employed to get images of skin melanin and erythema indices from the acquired color images for quantitative analysis. Finally, using PWS patient color image, the effectiveness in laser treatment of PWS was evaluated by calculating relative erythema index image that is the relative erythema index of PWS region to the normal region. The developed device and analysis method appears to be a simple and effective method for quantitative analysis of PWS blanching.

© 2003 Optical Society of Korea

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  1. J. S. Nelson, K. M. Kelly, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, "Imaging blood flow in human port-wine stain in situ and in real time using optical doppler tomography," Arch. Dermatol., vol. 137, no. 6, pp. 741-744, 2001
  2. K. Onizuka, K. Tsuneda, Y. Shibata, M. Ito, I. Sekine, "Efficacy of flashlamp-pumped pulse dye laser for port wine stains: clinical assessment and histopathological characteristics," Brit. J. Plast. Surg., vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 271-279, 1995
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. H. L. Koster, C. M. A. M. van der Horst, O. M. M. Bossuyt, M. J. C. van Gemert, "Prediction of portwine stain clearance and required number of flashlamp pumped dye laser treatments," Lasers Surg. Med., vol. 29, pp. 151-155, 2001
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Michel, M. Landthaler, U. Hohenleutner, "Recurrence of port-wine stains after treatment with the flashlamp-pumped pulsed dye laser," Brit. J. Dermatol., vol. 143, no. 6, pp. 1230-1234, 2000
    [CrossRef]
  5. O. T. Tan, K. Sherwood, B. A. Gilchrest, "Treatment of children with port-wine stains using the flashlamppulsed tunable dye laser," New Engl. J. Med., vol. 320, no. 7, pp. 416-421, 1989
  6. M. Haederdsal, H. Efsen, M. Gniadecka, H. Fogh, J. Keiding, H.C. Wulf, "Changes in skin redness, pig-mentation, echostructure, thickness, and surface contour after 1 pulsed dye laser treatment of port-wine stains in children," Arch. Dermatol., vol. 134, no. 2, pp.175-181, 1998
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. J. C. van Gemert, J. S. Nelson, T. E. Milner, D. J. Smithies, W. Verkruysse, J. F. de Boer, G. W. Lucassen, D. M. Goodman, B. S. Tanenbaum, L. T. Norvang, L. O. Svaasand, "Noninvasive determination of port wine stain anatomy and physiology for optimal laser treatment strategies," Phys. Med. Biol., vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 937-950, 1997
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. T. Le, J. Shahidullah, I. J. Frienden, "Review of modern techniques in detecting port-wine stain response to laser therapy," Dermatol. Surg., vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 127-132, 1999
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. M. Troilius, B. Ljunggren, "Reflectance spectrophotometry in the objective assessment of dye laser-treated port-wine stains," Brit. J. Dermatol., vol. 132, no. 2, pp. 245-250, 1995
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. M. Troilius, B. Ljunggren, "Evaluation of port wine stains by Laser Doppler perfusion imaging and reflectance photometry before and after pulsed dye laser treatment," Acta. Derm. Venereol., vol. 76, no. 4, pp. 291-294, 1996
  11. E. Berardesca, P. Elsner, K-P Wilhelm, H.I. Maibach, Bioengineering of the skin: Methods and Instrumentation (CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1995), pp. 29-40
  12. M. D. Shriver, E. Parra, "Comparison of narrow-band reflectance spectroscopy and tristimulus colorimetry of measurements of skin and hair color in persons of different biological ancestry," Am. J. Phys. Anthropol., vol. 112, no. 1, pp. 17-27, 2000
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. Takiwaki, S. Shirai, Y. Kanno, Y. Watanabe, S. Arase, "Quantification of erythema and pigmentation using a videomicroscope and computer," Brit. J. Dermatol., vol. 131, no. 1, pp. 85-92, 1984
    [CrossRef]
  14. P. Clarys, K. Alewaeters, R. Lambrecht, A. O. Barel, "Skin color measurements: comparison between three instruments: the Chromameter, the DermaSpectrometer and the Mexameter," Skin Res. Technol., vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 230-238, 2000
    [CrossRef]
  15. W. Alaluf, D. Atkins, K. Barrett, M. Blount, N. Carter, A. Heath, "The impact of epidermal melanin on objective measurements of human skin color," Pigment Cell Res., vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 119-126, 2002
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. O. Barel, P. Clarys, K. Alewaeters, C. Duez, J. L. Hubinon, M. Mommaerts, "The Visi-Chroma VC-100: a new imaging colorimeter for dermatocosmetic research," Skin Res. Technol., vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 24-31, 2001
    [CrossRef]
  17. H. Takiwaki, Y. Miyaoka, N. Skrebova, H. Kohno, S. Arase, "Skin reflectance-spectra and colour-value dependency on measuring-head aperture area in ordinary reflectance spectrophotometry and tristimulus colourimetry," Skin Res. Technol., vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 94-97, 2002
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. K. Wagner, C. Jovel, H. L. Norton, E. J. Parra, M. D. Shirver, "Comparing quantitative measures of erythema, pigmentation and skin response using reflectometry," Pigment Cell Res., vol 15, no. 5, pp. 379-384, 2002
    [CrossRef]
  19. H. Takiwaki, Y. Miyaoka, H. Kohno, S. Arase, "Graphic analysis of the relationship between skin colour change and variations in the amounts of melanin and hemoglobin," Skin Res. Technol., vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 78-83, 2002
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. Seraro, A. Sparavigna, "Quantification of erythema using digital camera and computer-based image analysis: a multicentre study," Skin Res. Technol., vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 84-88, 2002
    [CrossRef]
  21. S. A. Young-Gee, H. A. Kurwa, R. J. Barlow, "Objective assessment of port-wine stains following treatment with the 585nm pulsed dye laser," Aust. J. Dermatol., vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 243-246, 2001
    [CrossRef]
  22. K. Miyamoto, H. Takiwaki, G. G. Hillebrand, S. Arase, "Utilization of a high-resolution digital imaging system for the objective and quantitative assessment of hyperpigmented spots on the face," Skin Res. Technol., vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 73-77, 2002
    [CrossRef]
  23. D. K. Rah, S. H. Kim, K. H. Lee, B. Y. Park, D. W. Kim, "Objective evaluation of treatment effects on port-wine stains using <TEX>${L^*a^*b^*}$</TEX> color coordinate," Plast. Reconstr. Surg., vol. 108, no. 4, pp. 842-847, 2001
    [CrossRef]
  24. B. L. Diffey, R. J. Oliver, P. M. Farr, "A portable instrument for quantifying erythema induced by ultraviolet radiation," Brit. J. Dermatol., vol. 111, no. 6, pp. 663-672, 1984
    [CrossRef]
  25. P. M. Farr, B. L. Diffey, "Quantitative studies on cutaneous erythema induced by ultraviolet radiation," Brit. J. Dermatol., vol. 111, no. 6, pp. 673-682, 1984
    [CrossRef]
  26. J. B. Dawson, D. J. Barker, D. J. Ellis, "A theoretical and experimental study of light absorption and scattering by in vivo skin," Phys. Med. Biol., vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 695-709, 1980
    [CrossRef]

2002 (6)

H. Takiwaki, Y. Miyaoka, N. Skrebova, H. Kohno, S. Arase, "Skin reflectance-spectra and colour-value dependency on measuring-head aperture area in ordinary reflectance spectrophotometry and tristimulus colourimetry," Skin Res. Technol., vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 94-97, 2002
[CrossRef]

J. K. Wagner, C. Jovel, H. L. Norton, E. J. Parra, M. D. Shirver, "Comparing quantitative measures of erythema, pigmentation and skin response using reflectometry," Pigment Cell Res., vol 15, no. 5, pp. 379-384, 2002
[CrossRef]

H. Takiwaki, Y. Miyaoka, H. Kohno, S. Arase, "Graphic analysis of the relationship between skin colour change and variations in the amounts of melanin and hemoglobin," Skin Res. Technol., vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 78-83, 2002
[CrossRef]

M. Seraro, A. Sparavigna, "Quantification of erythema using digital camera and computer-based image analysis: a multicentre study," Skin Res. Technol., vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 84-88, 2002
[CrossRef]

K. Miyamoto, H. Takiwaki, G. G. Hillebrand, S. Arase, "Utilization of a high-resolution digital imaging system for the objective and quantitative assessment of hyperpigmented spots on the face," Skin Res. Technol., vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 73-77, 2002
[CrossRef]

W. Alaluf, D. Atkins, K. Barrett, M. Blount, N. Carter, A. Heath, "The impact of epidermal melanin on objective measurements of human skin color," Pigment Cell Res., vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 119-126, 2002
[CrossRef]

2001 (5)

A. O. Barel, P. Clarys, K. Alewaeters, C. Duez, J. L. Hubinon, M. Mommaerts, "The Visi-Chroma VC-100: a new imaging colorimeter for dermatocosmetic research," Skin Res. Technol., vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 24-31, 2001
[CrossRef]

D. K. Rah, S. H. Kim, K. H. Lee, B. Y. Park, D. W. Kim, "Objective evaluation of treatment effects on port-wine stains using <TEX>${L^*a^*b^*}$</TEX> color coordinate," Plast. Reconstr. Surg., vol. 108, no. 4, pp. 842-847, 2001
[CrossRef]

S. A. Young-Gee, H. A. Kurwa, R. J. Barlow, "Objective assessment of port-wine stains following treatment with the 585nm pulsed dye laser," Aust. J. Dermatol., vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 243-246, 2001
[CrossRef]

J. S. Nelson, K. M. Kelly, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, "Imaging blood flow in human port-wine stain in situ and in real time using optical doppler tomography," Arch. Dermatol., vol. 137, no. 6, pp. 741-744, 2001

P. H. L. Koster, C. M. A. M. van der Horst, O. M. M. Bossuyt, M. J. C. van Gemert, "Prediction of portwine stain clearance and required number of flashlamp pumped dye laser treatments," Lasers Surg. Med., vol. 29, pp. 151-155, 2001
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

S. Michel, M. Landthaler, U. Hohenleutner, "Recurrence of port-wine stains after treatment with the flashlamp-pumped pulsed dye laser," Brit. J. Dermatol., vol. 143, no. 6, pp. 1230-1234, 2000
[CrossRef]

M. D. Shriver, E. Parra, "Comparison of narrow-band reflectance spectroscopy and tristimulus colorimetry of measurements of skin and hair color in persons of different biological ancestry," Am. J. Phys. Anthropol., vol. 112, no. 1, pp. 17-27, 2000
[CrossRef]

P. Clarys, K. Alewaeters, R. Lambrecht, A. O. Barel, "Skin color measurements: comparison between three instruments: the Chromameter, the DermaSpectrometer and the Mexameter," Skin Res. Technol., vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 230-238, 2000
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

K. T. Le, J. Shahidullah, I. J. Frienden, "Review of modern techniques in detecting port-wine stain response to laser therapy," Dermatol. Surg., vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 127-132, 1999
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

M. Haederdsal, H. Efsen, M. Gniadecka, H. Fogh, J. Keiding, H.C. Wulf, "Changes in skin redness, pig-mentation, echostructure, thickness, and surface contour after 1 pulsed dye laser treatment of port-wine stains in children," Arch. Dermatol., vol. 134, no. 2, pp.175-181, 1998
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

M. J. C. van Gemert, J. S. Nelson, T. E. Milner, D. J. Smithies, W. Verkruysse, J. F. de Boer, G. W. Lucassen, D. M. Goodman, B. S. Tanenbaum, L. T. Norvang, L. O. Svaasand, "Noninvasive determination of port wine stain anatomy and physiology for optimal laser treatment strategies," Phys. Med. Biol., vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 937-950, 1997
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

A. M. Troilius, B. Ljunggren, "Evaluation of port wine stains by Laser Doppler perfusion imaging and reflectance photometry before and after pulsed dye laser treatment," Acta. Derm. Venereol., vol. 76, no. 4, pp. 291-294, 1996

1995 (3)

E. Berardesca, P. Elsner, K-P Wilhelm, H.I. Maibach, Bioengineering of the skin: Methods and Instrumentation (CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1995), pp. 29-40

A. M. Troilius, B. Ljunggren, "Reflectance spectrophotometry in the objective assessment of dye laser-treated port-wine stains," Brit. J. Dermatol., vol. 132, no. 2, pp. 245-250, 1995
[CrossRef]

K. Onizuka, K. Tsuneda, Y. Shibata, M. Ito, I. Sekine, "Efficacy of flashlamp-pumped pulse dye laser for port wine stains: clinical assessment and histopathological characteristics," Brit. J. Plast. Surg., vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 271-279, 1995
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

O. T. Tan, K. Sherwood, B. A. Gilchrest, "Treatment of children with port-wine stains using the flashlamppulsed tunable dye laser," New Engl. J. Med., vol. 320, no. 7, pp. 416-421, 1989

1984 (3)

H. Takiwaki, S. Shirai, Y. Kanno, Y. Watanabe, S. Arase, "Quantification of erythema and pigmentation using a videomicroscope and computer," Brit. J. Dermatol., vol. 131, no. 1, pp. 85-92, 1984
[CrossRef]

B. L. Diffey, R. J. Oliver, P. M. Farr, "A portable instrument for quantifying erythema induced by ultraviolet radiation," Brit. J. Dermatol., vol. 111, no. 6, pp. 663-672, 1984
[CrossRef]

P. M. Farr, B. L. Diffey, "Quantitative studies on cutaneous erythema induced by ultraviolet radiation," Brit. J. Dermatol., vol. 111, no. 6, pp. 673-682, 1984
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

J. B. Dawson, D. J. Barker, D. J. Ellis, "A theoretical and experimental study of light absorption and scattering by in vivo skin," Phys. Med. Biol., vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 695-709, 1980
[CrossRef]

Acta. Derm. Venereol. (1)

A. M. Troilius, B. Ljunggren, "Evaluation of port wine stains by Laser Doppler perfusion imaging and reflectance photometry before and after pulsed dye laser treatment," Acta. Derm. Venereol., vol. 76, no. 4, pp. 291-294, 1996

American Journal of Physical Anthropology (1)

M. D. Shriver, E. Parra, "Comparison of narrow-band reflectance spectroscopy and tristimulus colorimetry of measurements of skin and hair color in persons of different biological ancestry," Am. J. Phys. Anthropol., vol. 112, no. 1, pp. 17-27, 2000
[CrossRef]

Arch. Dermatol. (1)

J. S. Nelson, K. M. Kelly, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, "Imaging blood flow in human port-wine stain in situ and in real time using optical doppler tomography," Arch. Dermatol., vol. 137, no. 6, pp. 741-744, 2001

Archives of Dermatology (1)

M. Haederdsal, H. Efsen, M. Gniadecka, H. Fogh, J. Keiding, H.C. Wulf, "Changes in skin redness, pig-mentation, echostructure, thickness, and surface contour after 1 pulsed dye laser treatment of port-wine stains in children," Arch. Dermatol., vol. 134, no. 2, pp.175-181, 1998
[CrossRef]

Australasian Journal of Dermatology (1)

S. A. Young-Gee, H. A. Kurwa, R. J. Barlow, "Objective assessment of port-wine stains following treatment with the 585nm pulsed dye laser," Aust. J. Dermatol., vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 243-246, 2001
[CrossRef]

British Journal of Dermatology (5)

B. L. Diffey, R. J. Oliver, P. M. Farr, "A portable instrument for quantifying erythema induced by ultraviolet radiation," Brit. J. Dermatol., vol. 111, no. 6, pp. 663-672, 1984
[CrossRef]

P. M. Farr, B. L. Diffey, "Quantitative studies on cutaneous erythema induced by ultraviolet radiation," Brit. J. Dermatol., vol. 111, no. 6, pp. 673-682, 1984
[CrossRef]

A. M. Troilius, B. Ljunggren, "Reflectance spectrophotometry in the objective assessment of dye laser-treated port-wine stains," Brit. J. Dermatol., vol. 132, no. 2, pp. 245-250, 1995
[CrossRef]

S. Michel, M. Landthaler, U. Hohenleutner, "Recurrence of port-wine stains after treatment with the flashlamp-pumped pulsed dye laser," Brit. J. Dermatol., vol. 143, no. 6, pp. 1230-1234, 2000
[CrossRef]

H. Takiwaki, S. Shirai, Y. Kanno, Y. Watanabe, S. Arase, "Quantification of erythema and pigmentation using a videomicroscope and computer," Brit. J. Dermatol., vol. 131, no. 1, pp. 85-92, 1984
[CrossRef]

British Journal of Plastic Surgery (1)

K. Onizuka, K. Tsuneda, Y. Shibata, M. Ito, I. Sekine, "Efficacy of flashlamp-pumped pulse dye laser for port wine stains: clinical assessment and histopathological characteristics," Brit. J. Plast. Surg., vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 271-279, 1995
[CrossRef]

Dermatologic Surgery (1)

K. T. Le, J. Shahidullah, I. J. Frienden, "Review of modern techniques in detecting port-wine stain response to laser therapy," Dermatol. Surg., vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 127-132, 1999
[CrossRef]

Lasers in Surgery and Medicine (1)

P. H. L. Koster, C. M. A. M. van der Horst, O. M. M. Bossuyt, M. J. C. van Gemert, "Prediction of portwine stain clearance and required number of flashlamp pumped dye laser treatments," Lasers Surg. Med., vol. 29, pp. 151-155, 2001
[CrossRef]

New Engl. J. Med. (1)

O. T. Tan, K. Sherwood, B. A. Gilchrest, "Treatment of children with port-wine stains using the flashlamppulsed tunable dye laser," New Engl. J. Med., vol. 320, no. 7, pp. 416-421, 1989

Physics in Medicine and Biology (2)

M. J. C. van Gemert, J. S. Nelson, T. E. Milner, D. J. Smithies, W. Verkruysse, J. F. de Boer, G. W. Lucassen, D. M. Goodman, B. S. Tanenbaum, L. T. Norvang, L. O. Svaasand, "Noninvasive determination of port wine stain anatomy and physiology for optimal laser treatment strategies," Phys. Med. Biol., vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 937-950, 1997
[CrossRef]

J. B. Dawson, D. J. Barker, D. J. Ellis, "A theoretical and experimental study of light absorption and scattering by in vivo skin," Phys. Med. Biol., vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 695-709, 1980
[CrossRef]

Pigment Cell Research (2)

W. Alaluf, D. Atkins, K. Barrett, M. Blount, N. Carter, A. Heath, "The impact of epidermal melanin on objective measurements of human skin color," Pigment Cell Res., vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 119-126, 2002
[CrossRef]

J. K. Wagner, C. Jovel, H. L. Norton, E. J. Parra, M. D. Shirver, "Comparing quantitative measures of erythema, pigmentation and skin response using reflectometry," Pigment Cell Res., vol 15, no. 5, pp. 379-384, 2002
[CrossRef]

Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (1)

D. K. Rah, S. H. Kim, K. H. Lee, B. Y. Park, D. W. Kim, "Objective evaluation of treatment effects on port-wine stains using <TEX>${L^*a^*b^*}$</TEX> color coordinate," Plast. Reconstr. Surg., vol. 108, no. 4, pp. 842-847, 2001
[CrossRef]

Skin Research and Technology (6)

K. Miyamoto, H. Takiwaki, G. G. Hillebrand, S. Arase, "Utilization of a high-resolution digital imaging system for the objective and quantitative assessment of hyperpigmented spots on the face," Skin Res. Technol., vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 73-77, 2002
[CrossRef]

H. Takiwaki, Y. Miyaoka, H. Kohno, S. Arase, "Graphic analysis of the relationship between skin colour change and variations in the amounts of melanin and hemoglobin," Skin Res. Technol., vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 78-83, 2002
[CrossRef]

M. Seraro, A. Sparavigna, "Quantification of erythema using digital camera and computer-based image analysis: a multicentre study," Skin Res. Technol., vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 84-88, 2002
[CrossRef]

A. O. Barel, P. Clarys, K. Alewaeters, C. Duez, J. L. Hubinon, M. Mommaerts, "The Visi-Chroma VC-100: a new imaging colorimeter for dermatocosmetic research," Skin Res. Technol., vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 24-31, 2001
[CrossRef]

H. Takiwaki, Y. Miyaoka, N. Skrebova, H. Kohno, S. Arase, "Skin reflectance-spectra and colour-value dependency on measuring-head aperture area in ordinary reflectance spectrophotometry and tristimulus colourimetry," Skin Res. Technol., vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 94-97, 2002
[CrossRef]

P. Clarys, K. Alewaeters, R. Lambrecht, A. O. Barel, "Skin color measurements: comparison between three instruments: the Chromameter, the DermaSpectrometer and the Mexameter," Skin Res. Technol., vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 230-238, 2000
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

E. Berardesca, P. Elsner, K-P Wilhelm, H.I. Maibach, Bioengineering of the skin: Methods and Instrumentation (CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1995), pp. 29-40

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