Abstract

In this paper, we describe the fabrication process of a photonic crystal fiber and present the measured optical properties of the photonic crystal fiber. The fabrication of the photonic crystal fiber involves stacking, jacketing, collapsing, and drawing using a conventional drawing tower The photonic crystal fiber drawing needs higher tension to maintain the uniform air hole structure. Thus, the temperature of the photonic crystal fiber drawing is lowered by a few hundred degrees Celsius than for the case of conventional optical fiber drawing. The optical properties of the fabricated photonic crystal fiber such as mode profile, optical loss, transmission spectrum, bending loss, and polarization dependent loss are measured.

© 2003 Optical Society of Korea

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  1. J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett., vol. 22, no. 13, pp. 961−963, 1997.
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. M. Monro, D. J. Richarson, N. G. R. Broderick, and P. J. Bennett, “Holey optical fibers: An efficient modal model,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 1093−1102, 1999.
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, R. F. Cregan, P. St. J. Russell, and J. P. de Sandro, “Large mode area photonic crystal fibre,” Electron. Lett., vol. 34, no. 13, pp. 1347−1348, 1998.
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. A. Birks, D. Mogilevtsev, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Dispersion compensation using singlematerial fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 674−676, 1999.
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. J. Gander, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, D. Mogilevtsev, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Experimental measurement of group velocity dispersion in photonic crystal fiber,” Electron. Lett., vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 63−64, 1999.
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Mogilevtsev, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Group-velocity dispersion in photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett., vol. 23, no. 21, pp. 1662−1664, 1999.
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Kim, U.-C. Paek, D. Y. Kim, and Y. Chung, “Analysis of the dispersion properties of holey optical fibers using normalized dispersion,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference vol. 54 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), WDD86.
    [CrossRef]
  8. W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. Arriaga, E. Silvestre, and P. St. J. Russell, “Soliton effects in photonic crystal fibres at 850 nm,” Electron. Lett., vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 53−54, 2000.
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  10. B. J. Eggleton, P. S. Westbrook, C. A. White, C. Kerbage, R. S. Windeler, and G. L. Burdge, “Cladding-mode-resonances in air-silica microstructure optical fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 18, no. 8, pp. 1084−1100, 2000.
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B. J. Mangan, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett., vol 25, no. 18, pp. 1325−1327, 2000.
    [CrossRef]
  12. B. H. Lee, J. B. Eom, J. Kim, D. S. Moon, U.-C. Paek, and G.-H. Yang, “Photonic crystal fiber coupler,” Opt. Lett., vol. 27, no. 10, pp. 812−814, 2002.
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Coen, A. H. L. Chau, R. Leonhardt, J. D. Harvey, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, “White-light supercontinuum generation with 60-ps pump pulses in a photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett., vol. 26, no. 17, pp. 1356−1358, 2001.
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. K. Varshneya, Fundamentals of inorganic glasses (Academic press, New York, 1994).
  16. Y. Dogu, and D. A. Kaminski, “Effects of eccentricity on glass temperature in the neck-down stage of the optical fiber drawing process,” Proceedings of the ASME Heat Transfer Division, vol. 1, pp. 89−100, 1997.
  17. T. Sorensen, J. Broeng, A. Bjarklev, E. Kundsen, and E. E. Barkou Libori, “Macro-bending loss properties of photonic crystal fibre,” Electron. Lett., vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 287−288, 2001.
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and J. P. de Sandro, “Properties of photonic crystal fiber and the effective index model,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 748−752, 1998.
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. C. Carlson, “Measuring Polarization-Dependent Loss with the IQ-12004B DWDM Passive Component Test System,” EXFO Application Note, ANOTE050.1AN, 2001, http://documents.exfo.com/appnotes/anote050an.pdf.

2002 (1)

B. H. Lee, J. B. Eom, J. Kim, D. S. Moon, U.-C. Paek, and G.-H. Yang, “Photonic crystal fiber coupler,” Opt. Lett., vol. 27, no. 10, pp. 812−814, 2002.
[CrossRef]

2001 (4)

S. Coen, A. H. L. Chau, R. Leonhardt, J. D. Harvey, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, “White-light supercontinuum generation with 60-ps pump pulses in a photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett., vol. 26, no. 17, pp. 1356−1358, 2001.
[CrossRef]

T. Sorensen, J. Broeng, A. Bjarklev, E. Kundsen, and E. E. Barkou Libori, “Macro-bending loss properties of photonic crystal fibre,” Electron. Lett., vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 287−288, 2001.
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, U.-C. Paek, D. Y. Kim, and Y. Chung, “Analysis of the dispersion properties of holey optical fibers using normalized dispersion,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference vol. 54 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), WDD86.
[CrossRef]

M. C. Carlson, “Measuring Polarization-Dependent Loss with the IQ-12004B DWDM Passive Component Test System,” EXFO Application Note, ANOTE050.1AN, 2001, http://documents.exfo.com/appnotes/anote050an.pdf.

2000 (4)

W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. Arriaga, E. Silvestre, and P. St. J. Russell, “Soliton effects in photonic crystal fibres at 850 nm,” Electron. Lett., vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 53−54, 2000.
[CrossRef]

B. J. Eggleton, P. S. Westbrook, C. A. White, C. Kerbage, R. S. Windeler, and G. L. Burdge, “Cladding-mode-resonances in air-silica microstructure optical fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 18, no. 8, pp. 1084−1100, 2000.
[CrossRef]

A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B. J. Mangan, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett., vol 25, no. 18, pp. 1325−1327, 2000.
[CrossRef]

J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, A. J. Stentz, “Visible continuum generation in air-silica microstructure optical fibers with anomalous dispersion at 800 nm,” Opt. Lett., vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 25−27, 2000.
[CrossRef]

1999 (5)

N. G. R. Broderick, T. M. Monro, P. J. Bennett, and D. J. Richardson, “Nonlinearity in holey optical fibers: Measurement and future opportunities,” Opt. Lett., vol. 24, pp. 1395−1397, 1999; Opt. Lett., vol. 24, no. 20, p. 1647, 1999.
[CrossRef]

T. M. Monro, D. J. Richarson, N. G. R. Broderick, and P. J. Bennett, “Holey optical fibers: An efficient modal model,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 1093−1102, 1999.
[CrossRef]

T. A. Birks, D. Mogilevtsev, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Dispersion compensation using singlematerial fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 674−676, 1999.
[CrossRef]

M. J. Gander, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, D. Mogilevtsev, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Experimental measurement of group velocity dispersion in photonic crystal fiber,” Electron. Lett., vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 63−64, 1999.
[CrossRef]

D. Mogilevtsev, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Group-velocity dispersion in photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett., vol. 23, no. 21, pp. 1662−1664, 1999.
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, R. F. Cregan, P. St. J. Russell, and J. P. de Sandro, “Large mode area photonic crystal fibre,” Electron. Lett., vol. 34, no. 13, pp. 1347−1348, 1998.
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett., vol. 22, no. 13, pp. 961−963, 1997.
[CrossRef]

Y. Dogu, and D. A. Kaminski, “Effects of eccentricity on glass temperature in the neck-down stage of the optical fiber drawing process,” Proceedings of the ASME Heat Transfer Division, vol. 1, pp. 89−100, 1997.

1994 (1)

A. K. Varshneya, Fundamentals of inorganic glasses (Academic press, New York, 1994).

1988 (1)

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and J. P. de Sandro, “Properties of photonic crystal fiber and the effective index model,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 748−752, 1998.
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (3)

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, R. F. Cregan, P. St. J. Russell, and J. P. de Sandro, “Large mode area photonic crystal fibre,” Electron. Lett., vol. 34, no. 13, pp. 1347−1348, 1998.
[CrossRef]

M. J. Gander, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, D. Mogilevtsev, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Experimental measurement of group velocity dispersion in photonic crystal fiber,” Electron. Lett., vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 63−64, 1999.
[CrossRef]

W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. Arriaga, E. Silvestre, and P. St. J. Russell, “Soliton effects in photonic crystal fibres at 850 nm,” Electron. Lett., vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 53−54, 2000.
[CrossRef]

Electronics Letters (1)

T. Sorensen, J. Broeng, A. Bjarklev, E. Kundsen, and E. E. Barkou Libori, “Macro-bending loss properties of photonic crystal fibre,” Electron. Lett., vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 287−288, 2001.
[CrossRef]

JOSA A (1)

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and J. P. de Sandro, “Properties of photonic crystal fiber and the effective index model,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 748−752, 1998.
[CrossRef]

Lightwave Technology, Journal of (2)

B. J. Eggleton, P. S. Westbrook, C. A. White, C. Kerbage, R. S. Windeler, and G. L. Burdge, “Cladding-mode-resonances in air-silica microstructure optical fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 18, no. 8, pp. 1084−1100, 2000.
[CrossRef]

T. M. Monro, D. J. Richarson, N. G. R. Broderick, and P. J. Bennett, “Holey optical fibers: An efficient modal model,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 1093−1102, 1999.
[CrossRef]

Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibit, 2001. OFC 2001 (1)

J. Kim, U.-C. Paek, D. Y. Kim, and Y. Chung, “Analysis of the dispersion properties of holey optical fibers using normalized dispersion,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference vol. 54 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), WDD86.
[CrossRef]

Optics Letters (7)

A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B. J. Mangan, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett., vol 25, no. 18, pp. 1325−1327, 2000.
[CrossRef]

B. H. Lee, J. B. Eom, J. Kim, D. S. Moon, U.-C. Paek, and G.-H. Yang, “Photonic crystal fiber coupler,” Opt. Lett., vol. 27, no. 10, pp. 812−814, 2002.
[CrossRef]

J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, A. J. Stentz, “Visible continuum generation in air-silica microstructure optical fibers with anomalous dispersion at 800 nm,” Opt. Lett., vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 25−27, 2000.
[CrossRef]

S. Coen, A. H. L. Chau, R. Leonhardt, J. D. Harvey, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, “White-light supercontinuum generation with 60-ps pump pulses in a photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett., vol. 26, no. 17, pp. 1356−1358, 2001.
[CrossRef]

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett., vol. 22, no. 13, pp. 961−963, 1997.
[CrossRef]

N. G. R. Broderick, T. M. Monro, P. J. Bennett, and D. J. Richardson, “Nonlinearity in holey optical fibers: Measurement and future opportunities,” Opt. Lett., vol. 24, pp. 1395−1397, 1999; Opt. Lett., vol. 24, no. 20, p. 1647, 1999.
[CrossRef]

D. Mogilevtsev, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Group-velocity dispersion in photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett., vol. 23, no. 21, pp. 1662−1664, 1999.
[CrossRef]

Photonics Technology Letters, IEEE (1)

T. A. Birks, D. Mogilevtsev, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Dispersion compensation using singlematerial fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 674−676, 1999.
[CrossRef]

Proceedings of the ASEM Heat Transfer Division (1)

Y. Dogu, and D. A. Kaminski, “Effects of eccentricity on glass temperature in the neck-down stage of the optical fiber drawing process,” Proceedings of the ASME Heat Transfer Division, vol. 1, pp. 89−100, 1997.

Other (2)

M. C. Carlson, “Measuring Polarization-Dependent Loss with the IQ-12004B DWDM Passive Component Test System,” EXFO Application Note, ANOTE050.1AN, 2001, http://documents.exfo.com/appnotes/anote050an.pdf.

A. K. Varshneya, Fundamentals of inorganic glasses (Academic press, New York, 1994).

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