We derived the average bit error rate (BER) of coherent free-space optical (FSO) systems with digital binary phase shift keying (BPSK) modulations over atmospheric turbulence channels with a gamma–gamma distribution. To obtain a generalized derivation in a closed-form expression, we used special integrals and transformations of the Meijer G function. Furthermore, we numerically analyzed and simulated the average BER behavior according to the average SNR for different turbulence strengths. Simulation results are demonstrated to confirm the analytical results.

© 2015 Optical Society of Korea

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