Abstract

Directly modulated fiber-optic links generally suffer higher link loss and larger signal distortion than externally modulated links. These result from the electron-photon conversion loss and laser modulation dynamics. As a method to overcome the drawbacks, we have experimentally demonstrated the RF performance of directly modulated, ultra-strong injection-locked gain-lever distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) lasers. The free-running DBR lasers exhibit an improved amplitude modulation efficiency of 12.4 dB under gain-lever modulation at the expense of linearity. By combining gain-lever modulation with ultra-strong optical injection locking, we can gain the benefits of both improved modulation efficiency from the gain-lever effect, plus improved linearity from injection locking. Using an injection ratio of R=11 dB, a 23.4-dB improvement in amplitude response and an 18-dB improvement in spurious-free dynamic range have been achieved.

© 2008 Optical Society of Korea

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  1. C. Cox, III, E. Ackerman, R. Helkey, and G. E. Betts, “Direct-detection analog optical links,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 45, no. 8, pp. 1375-1383, Aug. 1997
    [Crossref]
  2. K. Sato, S. Kuwahara, Y. Miyamoto, and N. Shimizu, “40 Gbit/s direct modulation of distributed feedback laser for very-short-reach optical links,” Electron. Lett., vol. 38, no. 15, pp. 816-817, Jul. 2002
    [Crossref]
  3. I. M. Jung and D. -S. Shin, ”Efficient Optical Intensity Modulator Based on the Electrically Tunable LiNbO3 Reflection Grating for Analog Fiber-Optic Links,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 1-5, Mar. 2007
  4. M. -K. Hong, S. -K. Han, and S. -H Lee, “Linearization of DFB LD by using Cross Gain Modulation of Reflective SOA in Radio-over-Fiber Link,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 158-161, Dec. 2007
  5. N. Moore and K. Y. Lau, “Ultrahigh efficiency microwave signal transmission using tandem-contact single quantum well GaAlAs lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 55, no. 10, pp. 936-938, Sep. 1989
    [Crossref]
  6. K. J. Vahala and M. A. Newkirk, “The optical gain lever: A novel gain mechanism in the direct modulation of quantum well semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 54, no. 25, pp. 2506-2508, Jun. 1989
    [Crossref]
  7. C. P. Seltzer, L. D. Westbrook, and H. J. Wickes, “The “gain-lever” effect in InGaAsP/InP multiple quantum well lasers,” J. Lightwave. Tech., vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 283-289, Feb. 1995
    [Crossref]
  8. C. H. Cox, III, H. V. Roussell, R. J. Ram, and R. J. Helkey, “Broadband, directly modulated analog fiber link with positive intrinsic gain and reduced noise figure,” International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (MWP), pp. 157-160, Oct. 1998
    [Crossref]
  9. R. J. Ram, F. Rana, and P. Mayer, “Cascade semiconductor lasers for telecommunications,” The 15th Annu. Meeting IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optic Society (LEOS), vol. 2, pp. 538-539, Nov. 2002
  10. J. T. Getty, L. A. Johansson, E. J. Skogen, and L. A. Coldren, “<TEX>$1.55-{\mu}m$</TEX> bipolar cascade segmented ridge lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 1138-1145, Sep./Oct. 2003
    [Crossref]
  11. S. G. Patterson, G. S. Petrich, R. J. Ram, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Continuous-wave room temperature operation of bipolar cascade laser,” Electron. Lett., vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 395-397, Mar. 1999
    [Crossref]
  12. T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, and A. Gavrielides, “Bandwidth enhancement and broadband noise reduction in injectionlocked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 7, no. 7, pp. 709-11, Jul. 1995
    [Crossref]
  13. T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, K. F. Huang, K. Tai, C. M. Clayton, A. Gavrielides, and V. Kovanis, “Cavity enhancement of resonant frequencies in semiconductor lasers subject to optical injection,” Phys. Rev. A, vol. 52, no. 6, pp. R4348-51, 1995
    [Crossref]
  14. X. J. Meng, T. Chau, and M. C. Wu, “Improved intrinsic dynamic distortions in directly modulated semiconductor lasers by optical injection locking,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 47, no. 7, pp. 1172-1176, Jul. 1999
    [Crossref]
  15. A. Murakami, K. Kawashima, and K. Atsuki, “Cavity resonance shift and bandwidth enhancement in semiconductor lasers with strong light injection,” IEEE J. Quantum Elect., vol. 39, no. 10, pp. 1196-1204, Oct. 2003
    [Crossref]
  16. L. Chrostowski, X. Zhao, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Microwave Performance of Optically Injection-Locked VCSELs,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 788-796, Feb. 2006
    [Crossref]
  17. H. K. Sung, E. K. Lau, and M. C. Wu, “Optical Properties and Modulation Characteristics of Ultra-Strong Injection-Locked Distributed Feedback Lasers,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Elec., vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 1215-1221, Sep./Oct. 2007
    [Crossref]
  18. S. Mohrdiek, H. Burkhard, and H. Walter, “Chirp reduction of directly modulated semiconductor lasers at 10 Gb/s by strong CW light injection,” J. Lightwave. Tech., vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 418-24, Mar. 1994
    [Crossref]
  19. H.-K. Sung, T. Jung, M. C. Wu, D. Tishinin, K. Y. Liou, and W. T. Tsang, “Optical Injection-Locked Gain-Lever Distributed Bragg Reflector Lasers with Enhanced RF Performance,” International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (MWP), pp. 225-228, Sep. 2004
    [Crossref]

2007 (3)

I. M. Jung and D. -S. Shin, ”Efficient Optical Intensity Modulator Based on the Electrically Tunable LiNbO3 Reflection Grating for Analog Fiber-Optic Links,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 1-5, Mar. 2007

M. -K. Hong, S. -K. Han, and S. -H Lee, “Linearization of DFB LD by using Cross Gain Modulation of Reflective SOA in Radio-over-Fiber Link,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 158-161, Dec. 2007

H. K. Sung, E. K. Lau, and M. C. Wu, “Optical Properties and Modulation Characteristics of Ultra-Strong Injection-Locked Distributed Feedback Lasers,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Elec., vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 1215-1221, Sep./Oct. 2007
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

L. Chrostowski, X. Zhao, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Microwave Performance of Optically Injection-Locked VCSELs,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 788-796, Feb. 2006
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

H.-K. Sung, T. Jung, M. C. Wu, D. Tishinin, K. Y. Liou, and W. T. Tsang, “Optical Injection-Locked Gain-Lever Distributed Bragg Reflector Lasers with Enhanced RF Performance,” International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (MWP), pp. 225-228, Sep. 2004
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

A. Murakami, K. Kawashima, and K. Atsuki, “Cavity resonance shift and bandwidth enhancement in semiconductor lasers with strong light injection,” IEEE J. Quantum Elect., vol. 39, no. 10, pp. 1196-1204, Oct. 2003
[Crossref]

J. T. Getty, L. A. Johansson, E. J. Skogen, and L. A. Coldren, “<TEX>$1.55-{\mu}m$</TEX> bipolar cascade segmented ridge lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 1138-1145, Sep./Oct. 2003
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

R. J. Ram, F. Rana, and P. Mayer, “Cascade semiconductor lasers for telecommunications,” The 15th Annu. Meeting IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optic Society (LEOS), vol. 2, pp. 538-539, Nov. 2002

K. Sato, S. Kuwahara, Y. Miyamoto, and N. Shimizu, “40 Gbit/s direct modulation of distributed feedback laser for very-short-reach optical links,” Electron. Lett., vol. 38, no. 15, pp. 816-817, Jul. 2002
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

X. J. Meng, T. Chau, and M. C. Wu, “Improved intrinsic dynamic distortions in directly modulated semiconductor lasers by optical injection locking,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 47, no. 7, pp. 1172-1176, Jul. 1999
[Crossref]

S. G. Patterson, G. S. Petrich, R. J. Ram, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Continuous-wave room temperature operation of bipolar cascade laser,” Electron. Lett., vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 395-397, Mar. 1999
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

C. H. Cox, III, H. V. Roussell, R. J. Ram, and R. J. Helkey, “Broadband, directly modulated analog fiber link with positive intrinsic gain and reduced noise figure,” International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (MWP), pp. 157-160, Oct. 1998
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

C. Cox, III, E. Ackerman, R. Helkey, and G. E. Betts, “Direct-detection analog optical links,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 45, no. 8, pp. 1375-1383, Aug. 1997
[Crossref]

1995 (3)

C. P. Seltzer, L. D. Westbrook, and H. J. Wickes, “The “gain-lever” effect in InGaAsP/InP multiple quantum well lasers,” J. Lightwave. Tech., vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 283-289, Feb. 1995
[Crossref]

T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, and A. Gavrielides, “Bandwidth enhancement and broadband noise reduction in injectionlocked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 7, no. 7, pp. 709-11, Jul. 1995
[Crossref]

T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, K. F. Huang, K. Tai, C. M. Clayton, A. Gavrielides, and V. Kovanis, “Cavity enhancement of resonant frequencies in semiconductor lasers subject to optical injection,” Phys. Rev. A, vol. 52, no. 6, pp. R4348-51, 1995
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

S. Mohrdiek, H. Burkhard, and H. Walter, “Chirp reduction of directly modulated semiconductor lasers at 10 Gb/s by strong CW light injection,” J. Lightwave. Tech., vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 418-24, Mar. 1994
[Crossref]

1989 (2)

N. Moore and K. Y. Lau, “Ultrahigh efficiency microwave signal transmission using tandem-contact single quantum well GaAlAs lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 55, no. 10, pp. 936-938, Sep. 1989
[Crossref]

K. J. Vahala and M. A. Newkirk, “The optical gain lever: A novel gain mechanism in the direct modulation of quantum well semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 54, no. 25, pp. 2506-2508, Jun. 1989
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

N. Moore and K. Y. Lau, “Ultrahigh efficiency microwave signal transmission using tandem-contact single quantum well GaAlAs lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 55, no. 10, pp. 936-938, Sep. 1989
[Crossref]

K. J. Vahala and M. A. Newkirk, “The optical gain lever: A novel gain mechanism in the direct modulation of quantum well semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 54, no. 25, pp. 2506-2508, Jun. 1989
[Crossref]

Electronics Letters (2)

K. Sato, S. Kuwahara, Y. Miyamoto, and N. Shimizu, “40 Gbit/s direct modulation of distributed feedback laser for very-short-reach optical links,” Electron. Lett., vol. 38, no. 15, pp. 816-817, Jul. 2002
[Crossref]

S. G. Patterson, G. S. Petrich, R. J. Ram, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Continuous-wave room temperature operation of bipolar cascade laser,” Electron. Lett., vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 395-397, Mar. 1999
[Crossref]

Journal of the Optical Society of Korea (2)

I. M. Jung and D. -S. Shin, ”Efficient Optical Intensity Modulator Based on the Electrically Tunable LiNbO3 Reflection Grating for Analog Fiber-Optic Links,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 1-5, Mar. 2007

M. -K. Hong, S. -K. Han, and S. -H Lee, “Linearization of DFB LD by using Cross Gain Modulation of Reflective SOA in Radio-over-Fiber Link,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 158-161, Dec. 2007

Lightwave Technology, Journal of (2)

C. P. Seltzer, L. D. Westbrook, and H. J. Wickes, “The “gain-lever” effect in InGaAsP/InP multiple quantum well lasers,” J. Lightwave. Tech., vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 283-289, Feb. 1995
[Crossref]

S. Mohrdiek, H. Burkhard, and H. Walter, “Chirp reduction of directly modulated semiconductor lasers at 10 Gb/s by strong CW light injection,” J. Lightwave. Tech., vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 418-24, Mar. 1994
[Crossref]

Microwave Photonics, 1998. MWP '98. International Topical Meeting on (1)

C. H. Cox, III, H. V. Roussell, R. J. Ram, and R. J. Helkey, “Broadband, directly modulated analog fiber link with positive intrinsic gain and reduced noise figure,” International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (MWP), pp. 157-160, Oct. 1998
[Crossref]

Microwave Photonics, 2004. MWP'04. 2004 IEEE International Topical Meeting on (1)

H.-K. Sung, T. Jung, M. C. Wu, D. Tishinin, K. Y. Liou, and W. T. Tsang, “Optical Injection-Locked Gain-Lever Distributed Bragg Reflector Lasers with Enhanced RF Performance,” International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (MWP), pp. 225-228, Sep. 2004
[Crossref]

Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on (3)

L. Chrostowski, X. Zhao, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Microwave Performance of Optically Injection-Locked VCSELs,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 788-796, Feb. 2006
[Crossref]

X. J. Meng, T. Chau, and M. C. Wu, “Improved intrinsic dynamic distortions in directly modulated semiconductor lasers by optical injection locking,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 47, no. 7, pp. 1172-1176, Jul. 1999
[Crossref]

C. Cox, III, E. Ackerman, R. Helkey, and G. E. Betts, “Direct-detection analog optical links,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 45, no. 8, pp. 1375-1383, Aug. 1997
[Crossref]

Photonics Technology Letters, IEEE (1)

T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, and A. Gavrielides, “Bandwidth enhancement and broadband noise reduction in injectionlocked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 7, no. 7, pp. 709-11, Jul. 1995
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. (1)

T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, K. F. Huang, K. Tai, C. M. Clayton, A. Gavrielides, and V. Kovanis, “Cavity enhancement of resonant frequencies in semiconductor lasers subject to optical injection,” Phys. Rev. A, vol. 52, no. 6, pp. R4348-51, 1995
[Crossref]

Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of (1)

A. Murakami, K. Kawashima, and K. Atsuki, “Cavity resonance shift and bandwidth enhancement in semiconductor lasers with strong light injection,” IEEE J. Quantum Elect., vol. 39, no. 10, pp. 1196-1204, Oct. 2003
[Crossref]

Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of (2)

H. K. Sung, E. K. Lau, and M. C. Wu, “Optical Properties and Modulation Characteristics of Ultra-Strong Injection-Locked Distributed Feedback Lasers,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Elec., vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 1215-1221, Sep./Oct. 2007
[Crossref]

J. T. Getty, L. A. Johansson, E. J. Skogen, and L. A. Coldren, “<TEX>$1.55-{\mu}m$</TEX> bipolar cascade segmented ridge lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 1138-1145, Sep./Oct. 2003
[Crossref]

The 15th Annu. Meeting IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optic Society (LEOS) (1)

R. J. Ram, F. Rana, and P. Mayer, “Cascade semiconductor lasers for telecommunications,” The 15th Annu. Meeting IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optic Society (LEOS), vol. 2, pp. 538-539, Nov. 2002

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