Abstract

We demonstrated a simple way of evaluating the duty cycle error in periodically polled lithium niobate(PPLN) based on the method of binary phase diffraction grating. To demonstrate this method, -Z face etched PPLN of desired periods were fabricated by the standard electric field poling technique. The etched PPLN was considered as a surface-relief binary phase grating. The diffraction patterns were recorded for different spatial locations along the length of the sample. The experimentally observed efficiencies of the diffracted orders were compared with the theoretically calculated values to estimate the duty cycle error.

© 2008 Optical Society of Korea

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  1. M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: tuning and tolerances," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron., vol. 28, no. 11, pp. 2631-2654, 1992
    [CrossRef]
  2. C.-S. Kee , J. Lee , and Y. L. Lee, "Characteristics of Solc filters in <TEX>$X^{(2)}$</TEX> nonlinear photonic crystals," J. Opt. Soc. Korea, vol. 11, no 3, pp. 130-132, 2007
  3. I. M. Jung and D.-S. Shin, "Efficient optical intensity modulator based on the electrically tunable <TEX>$LiNbO_3$</TEX> reflection grating for analog fiber-optic links," J. Opt. Soc. Korea, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 1-5, 2007
  4. A. Rosenfeldt and M. Florsheimer, "Nondestructive remote imaging of ferroelectric domain distributions with high three-dimensional resolution," Appl. Phys. B., vol. 73, no. 5-6, pp. 523-529, 2001
  5. V. Dierolf and C. Sandmann, "Inspection of periodically poled waveguide devices by confocal luminescence microscopy," Appl. Phys., B., vol. 78, no. 3-4, pp. 363-366, 2004
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. J. Yang, V. Gopalan, P. J. Swart, and U. Mohideen, "Direct Observation of Pinning and Bowing of a Single Ferroelectric Domain Wall," Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 82, no. 20, pp. 4106-4109, 1999
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Müller, E. Soergel, K. Buse, C. Langrock, and M. M. Fejer, "Investigation of periodically poled lithium niobate crystals by light diffraction," J. Appl. Phys., vol. 97, no. 4, pp. 044102, 2005
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. W. Goodman,"Introduction to Fourier Optics," <TEX>$2^{nd}$</TEX> ed., (McGraw-Hill, Singapore, 1996)
  9. D. C. Oshea, T. J. Suleski, A. D. Kathman, and D. W. Prathes, "Diffractive Optics: Design, Fabrication and Test," SPIE Publication, 2003
  10. M .J. Jin, O. Y. Jeon, B. J. Kim, and M. Cha, "Fabrication of Periodically Poled Lithium Niobate Crystal and Poling-Quality Evaluation by Diffraction Measurement," J. Korean Phys. Soc., vol. 47, pp. S336-S339, 2005
  11. J. H. Ro, Ph.D. thesis, Pusan National University, 2001
  12. M. J. Missey, S. Russell, V. Dominic, R. G. Batchko, and K. L. Schepler, "Real-time visualization of domain formation in periodically poled lithium niobate," Opt. Express., vol. 6, no. 10, pp. 186-195, 2000
  13. V. Gopalan, Q. X. Jia, and T. E. Mitchell, "In situ video observation of <TEX>$180^{\circ}$</TEX> domain kinetics in congruent <TEX>$LiNbO_3$</TEX> crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 75, no. 16, pp. 2482-2484, 1999
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. L. Sones, S. Mailis, W. S. Brocklesby, R. W. Eason, and J. R. Owe, "Differential etch rates in z-cut <TEX>$LiNbO_3$</TEX> for variable <TEX>$HF/HNO_3$</TEX>concentrations," J. Material Chem., vol. 12, pp. 295-298, 2002
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. M. Sanchezlopez, J. Cos, J. A. Davis, D. A. Miller, and I. Moreno, "Fourier analysis of harmonic frequency transmission dielectric structures," Appl. Opt., vol. 44, no. 18, pp. 3774-3783, 2005
    [CrossRef]
  16. G. D. Miller, Ph.D. thesis, Stanford University, 1998

2007

I. M. Jung and D.-S. Shin, "Efficient optical intensity modulator based on the electrically tunable <TEX>$LiNbO_3$</TEX> reflection grating for analog fiber-optic links," J. Opt. Soc. Korea, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 1-5, 2007

C.-S. Kee , J. Lee , and Y. L. Lee, "Characteristics of Solc filters in <TEX>$X^{(2)}$</TEX> nonlinear photonic crystals," J. Opt. Soc. Korea, vol. 11, no 3, pp. 130-132, 2007

2005

M. M. Sanchezlopez, J. Cos, J. A. Davis, D. A. Miller, and I. Moreno, "Fourier analysis of harmonic frequency transmission dielectric structures," Appl. Opt., vol. 44, no. 18, pp. 3774-3783, 2005
[CrossRef]

M. Müller, E. Soergel, K. Buse, C. Langrock, and M. M. Fejer, "Investigation of periodically poled lithium niobate crystals by light diffraction," J. Appl. Phys., vol. 97, no. 4, pp. 044102, 2005
[CrossRef]

M .J. Jin, O. Y. Jeon, B. J. Kim, and M. Cha, "Fabrication of Periodically Poled Lithium Niobate Crystal and Poling-Quality Evaluation by Diffraction Measurement," J. Korean Phys. Soc., vol. 47, pp. S336-S339, 2005

2004

V. Dierolf and C. Sandmann, "Inspection of periodically poled waveguide devices by confocal luminescence microscopy," Appl. Phys., B., vol. 78, no. 3-4, pp. 363-366, 2004
[CrossRef]

2003

D. C. Oshea, T. J. Suleski, A. D. Kathman, and D. W. Prathes, "Diffractive Optics: Design, Fabrication and Test," SPIE Publication, 2003

2002

C. L. Sones, S. Mailis, W. S. Brocklesby, R. W. Eason, and J. R. Owe, "Differential etch rates in z-cut <TEX>$LiNbO_3$</TEX> for variable <TEX>$HF/HNO_3$</TEX>concentrations," J. Material Chem., vol. 12, pp. 295-298, 2002
[CrossRef]

2001

A. Rosenfeldt and M. Florsheimer, "Nondestructive remote imaging of ferroelectric domain distributions with high three-dimensional resolution," Appl. Phys. B., vol. 73, no. 5-6, pp. 523-529, 2001

J. H. Ro, Ph.D. thesis, Pusan National University, 2001

2000

M. J. Missey, S. Russell, V. Dominic, R. G. Batchko, and K. L. Schepler, "Real-time visualization of domain formation in periodically poled lithium niobate," Opt. Express., vol. 6, no. 10, pp. 186-195, 2000

1999

V. Gopalan, Q. X. Jia, and T. E. Mitchell, "In situ video observation of <TEX>$180^{\circ}$</TEX> domain kinetics in congruent <TEX>$LiNbO_3$</TEX> crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 75, no. 16, pp. 2482-2484, 1999
[CrossRef]

T. J. Yang, V. Gopalan, P. J. Swart, and U. Mohideen, "Direct Observation of Pinning and Bowing of a Single Ferroelectric Domain Wall," Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 82, no. 20, pp. 4106-4109, 1999
[CrossRef]

1998

G. D. Miller, Ph.D. thesis, Stanford University, 1998

1996

J. W. Goodman,"Introduction to Fourier Optics," <TEX>$2^{nd}$</TEX> ed., (McGraw-Hill, Singapore, 1996)

1992

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: tuning and tolerances," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron., vol. 28, no. 11, pp. 2631-2654, 1992
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B.

A. Rosenfeldt and M. Florsheimer, "Nondestructive remote imaging of ferroelectric domain distributions with high three-dimensional resolution," Appl. Phys. B., vol. 73, no. 5-6, pp. 523-529, 2001

Appl. Phys. Lett.

V. Gopalan, Q. X. Jia, and T. E. Mitchell, "In situ video observation of <TEX>$180^{\circ}$</TEX> domain kinetics in congruent <TEX>$LiNbO_3$</TEX> crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 75, no. 16, pp. 2482-2484, 1999
[CrossRef]

Applied Optics

M. M. Sanchezlopez, J. Cos, J. A. Davis, D. A. Miller, and I. Moreno, "Fourier analysis of harmonic frequency transmission dielectric structures," Appl. Opt., vol. 44, no. 18, pp. 3774-3783, 2005
[CrossRef]

Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics

V. Dierolf and C. Sandmann, "Inspection of periodically poled waveguide devices by confocal luminescence microscopy," Appl. Phys., B., vol. 78, no. 3-4, pp. 363-366, 2004
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

M. Müller, E. Soergel, K. Buse, C. Langrock, and M. M. Fejer, "Investigation of periodically poled lithium niobate crystals by light diffraction," J. Appl. Phys., vol. 97, no. 4, pp. 044102, 2005
[CrossRef]

J. Korean Phys. Soc.

M .J. Jin, O. Y. Jeon, B. J. Kim, and M. Cha, "Fabrication of Periodically Poled Lithium Niobate Crystal and Poling-Quality Evaluation by Diffraction Measurement," J. Korean Phys. Soc., vol. 47, pp. S336-S339, 2005

J. Mater. Chem.

C. L. Sones, S. Mailis, W. S. Brocklesby, R. W. Eason, and J. R. Owe, "Differential etch rates in z-cut <TEX>$LiNbO_3$</TEX> for variable <TEX>$HF/HNO_3$</TEX>concentrations," J. Material Chem., vol. 12, pp. 295-298, 2002
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Korea

Journal of the Optical Society of Korea

I. M. Jung and D.-S. Shin, "Efficient optical intensity modulator based on the electrically tunable <TEX>$LiNbO_3$</TEX> reflection grating for analog fiber-optic links," J. Opt. Soc. Korea, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 1-5, 2007

Opt. Express.

M. J. Missey, S. Russell, V. Dominic, R. G. Batchko, and K. L. Schepler, "Real-time visualization of domain formation in periodically poled lithium niobate," Opt. Express., vol. 6, no. 10, pp. 186-195, 2000

Phys. Rev. Lett.

T. J. Yang, V. Gopalan, P. J. Swart, and U. Mohideen, "Direct Observation of Pinning and Bowing of a Single Ferroelectric Domain Wall," Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 82, no. 20, pp. 4106-4109, 1999
[CrossRef]

Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: tuning and tolerances," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron., vol. 28, no. 11, pp. 2631-2654, 1992
[CrossRef]

Other

G. D. Miller, Ph.D. thesis, Stanford University, 1998

J. W. Goodman,"Introduction to Fourier Optics," <TEX>$2^{nd}$</TEX> ed., (McGraw-Hill, Singapore, 1996)

D. C. Oshea, T. J. Suleski, A. D. Kathman, and D. W. Prathes, "Diffractive Optics: Design, Fabrication and Test," SPIE Publication, 2003

J. H. Ro, Ph.D. thesis, Pusan National University, 2001

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