Abstract

In the field of ophthalmology, many diagnostic instruments based on optical technology have been developed, such as refractometer, keratometer, corneal mapper, tonometer, fundus camera, slit lamp, laser scan ophthalmoscope and optical coherence tomography. Among them, the refractometer that is used for measuring the refractive power of the human eye has the long research history and various types have been developed. However the efforts to realize more accurate and precise measurement are still in progress. The wavefront analyzer commercialized in recent years is an excellent outcome of such efforts. In this paper, a brief account of the developmental history of various refractometers including the wavefront analyzer is summarized, and the underlying measurement principle is introduced in the view of optics. Finally, the technical issues that should be solved for getting better performance are discussed.

© 2006 Optical Society of Korea

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    [CrossRef]
  2. S. M. MacRae, R. R. Krueger, and R. A. Applegate, Customized corneal ablation (Slack, Thorofare, 2001)
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  4. L. N. Thibos, "Principles of Hartmann-Shack aberrometry," J. Refract. Surg., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. S563-S565, 2000
  5. S. Buck, Der gesch<TEX>$\ddot{a}$</TEX>rfte blick zur geschichte der brille und ihrer verwendung in Deutschland seit 1850, Ph.D. Thesis, Philipps Univ., Germany, 2002
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    [CrossRef]
  8. H. C. Howland and B. Howland, "A subjective method for the measurement of monochromatic aberrations of the eye," J. Opt. Soc. Am., vol. 67, no. 11, pp. 1508-1518, 1977
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. E. Reason, "Sight-testing apparatus", US patent 2049222, 1936
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  11. N. Roth, "Automatic optometer for use with the undrugged human eye," Rev. Sci. Instrum., vol. 36, no. 11 pp. 1636-1641, 1965
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. E. Moreno-Barriuso, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, and S. A. Burns, "Comparing laser ray tracing, the spatially resolved refractometer, and the Hartmann-Shack sensor to measure the ocular wave aberration," Optom. Vis. Sci., vol. 78, no. 3, pp. 152-156, 2001
    [CrossRef]
  14. E. Moreno-Barriuso and R. Navarro, "Laser ray tracing versus Hartmann-Shack sensor for measuring optical aberrations in the human eye," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 974-985, 2000
    [CrossRef]
  15. B. C. Platt and R. Shack, "History and principles of Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing," J. Refract. Surg., vol. 17, no. 5, pp. S573-S577, 2001
  16. S. A. Burns, "The spatially resolved refractometer," J. Refract. Surg., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. S566-S569, 2000
  17. M. Mrochen, M. Kaemmerer, P. Mierdel, H.-E. Krinke, and T. Seiler, "Principles of Tscherning aberrometry," J. Refract. Surg., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. S570-S571, 2000
  18. V. V. Molebny, S. I. Panagopoulou, S. V. Molebny, Y. S. Wakil, and I. G. Pallikaris, "Principles of ray tracing aberrometry," J. Refract. Surg., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. S572-S575, 2000
  19. B. J. Wilson, K. E. Decker, and A. Roorda, "Monochromatic aberrations provide an odd-error cue to focus direction," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 833-839, 2002
    [CrossRef]
  20. W. N. Charman, Handbook of Optics, vol. 1, 2nd ed., M. Bass, E. W. Van Stryland, D. R. Williams, and W. L. Wolfe eds. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1995), chap. 24
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  22. M. Nohda, I. Umemura, and T. Arai, "Eye-refractometer device", US patent 4390255, 1983
  23. K. Sekiguchi, "Ophthalmic measuring apparatus", US patent 4878750, 1989
  24. R. J. Noll. "Zernike polynomials and atmosphericturbulence," J. Opt. Soc. Am., vol. 66, no. 3, pp. 207-211, 1976
    [CrossRef]
  25. T. O. Salmon, R. W. West, W. Gasser, and T. Kenmore, "Measurement of refractive errors in young myopes using the COAS Shack-Hartmann aberrometer," Optom. Vis. Sci., vol. 80, no. 1, pp. 6-14, 2003
    [CrossRef]
  26. R. P. Mierdel, H. E. Krinke, W. Wiegand, M. Kaemmerer, and T. Seiler, "Messplatz zur bestimmung der monochromatischen aberration des menschlichen auges," Ophthalmologe, vol. 96, pp. 441-445, 1997
    [CrossRef]
  27. M. S. Smirnov, "Measurement of the wave aberration of the human eye," Biofizika, vol. 6, pp. 687-703, 1961
  28. J. Hartmann, "Bemerkungen uber den Bau und die Justirung von Spektrographen." Z. Instrumentenkd., vol. 20, pp. 47-58, 1900
  29. R. V. Shack and B. C. Platt, "Production and use of a lenticular Hartmann screen," J. Opt. Soc. Am., vol. 61, p. 656, 1971
  30. D. M. Topa, "Wavefront reconstruction for the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor," Proc. SPIE, vol. 4769, pp. 101-115, 2002
    [CrossRef]
  31. L. A. Poyneer, "Advanced techniques for Fourier transform wavefront reconstruction," Proc. SPIE, vol. 4839, pp. 1023-1034, 2003
    [CrossRef]
  32. W. J. Geeraets and E. R. Berry, "Ocular spectral characteristics as related to hazards from lasers and other light sources," Am. J. Ophthalmot., vol. 66, no. 1, pp. 15-20, 1968
  33. Y. Kawagoe, N. Takai, and T. Asakura, "Speckle reduction by a rotating aperture at the fourier trans-form plane," Opt. Laser Eng., vol. 3, pp. 197-218, 1982
    [CrossRef]
  34. D. R. Neal, J. Copland, and D. A. Neal, "Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor precision and accuracy," Proc. SPIE, vol. 4779, pp. 148-160, 2002
    [CrossRef]
  35. W. Jiang, H. Xian, and F. Shen, "Detection error of Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors," Proc. SPIE, vol. 3126, pp. 534-544, 1997
    [CrossRef]
  36. S. Thomas, "Optimized centroid computing in a Shack-Hartmann sensor," Proc. SPIE, vol. 5490, pp. 1238-1246, 2004
    [CrossRef]
  37. L. A. Poyneer, Correlation wave-front sensing algorithms for Shack-Hartmann-based adaptive optics using a point source, Report No. UCRL-JC-152975, Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (Livermore, CA, USA), 2003

2004

S. Thomas, "Optimized centroid computing in a Shack-Hartmann sensor," Proc. SPIE, vol. 5490, pp. 1238-1246, 2004
[CrossRef]

2003

L. A. Poyneer, Correlation wave-front sensing algorithms for Shack-Hartmann-based adaptive optics using a point source, Report No. UCRL-JC-152975, Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (Livermore, CA, USA), 2003

T. O. Salmon, R. W. West, W. Gasser, and T. Kenmore, "Measurement of refractive errors in young myopes using the COAS Shack-Hartmann aberrometer," Optom. Vis. Sci., vol. 80, no. 1, pp. 6-14, 2003
[CrossRef]

L. A. Poyneer, "Advanced techniques for Fourier transform wavefront reconstruction," Proc. SPIE, vol. 4839, pp. 1023-1034, 2003
[CrossRef]

2002

D. M. Topa, "Wavefront reconstruction for the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor," Proc. SPIE, vol. 4769, pp. 101-115, 2002
[CrossRef]

B. J. Wilson, K. E. Decker, and A. Roorda, "Monochromatic aberrations provide an odd-error cue to focus direction," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 833-839, 2002
[CrossRef]

Ophthalmic Test, The Korean Ophthalmological Society ed. (Jin Publishing, Seoul, 2002)

S. Buck, Der gesch<TEX>$\ddot{a}$</TEX>rfte blick zur geschichte der brille und ihrer verwendung in Deutschland seit 1850, Ph.D. Thesis, Philipps Univ., Germany, 2002

D. R. Neal, J. Copland, and D. A. Neal, "Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor precision and accuracy," Proc. SPIE, vol. 4779, pp. 148-160, 2002
[CrossRef]

2001

T. Hellmuth, "Sensors in Ophthalmology." Sensors Update, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 289-323, 2001
[CrossRef]

S. M. MacRae, R. R. Krueger, and R. A. Applegate, Customized corneal ablation (Slack, Thorofare, 2001)

B. C. Platt and R. Shack, "History and principles of Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing," J. Refract. Surg., vol. 17, no. 5, pp. S573-S577, 2001

E. Moreno-Barriuso, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, and S. A. Burns, "Comparing laser ray tracing, the spatially resolved refractometer, and the Hartmann-Shack sensor to measure the ocular wave aberration," Optom. Vis. Sci., vol. 78, no. 3, pp. 152-156, 2001
[CrossRef]

2000

E. Moreno-Barriuso and R. Navarro, "Laser ray tracing versus Hartmann-Shack sensor for measuring optical aberrations in the human eye," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 974-985, 2000
[CrossRef]

S. A. Burns, "The spatially resolved refractometer," J. Refract. Surg., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. S566-S569, 2000

M. Mrochen, M. Kaemmerer, P. Mierdel, H.-E. Krinke, and T. Seiler, "Principles of Tscherning aberrometry," J. Refract. Surg., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. S570-S571, 2000

V. V. Molebny, S. I. Panagopoulou, S. V. Molebny, Y. S. Wakil, and I. G. Pallikaris, "Principles of ray tracing aberrometry," J. Refract. Surg., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. S572-S575, 2000

H. C. Howland, "The history and methods of ophthalmic wavefront sensing," J. Refract. Surg., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. S552-S553, 2000

L. N. Thibos, "Principles of Hartmann-Shack aberrometry," J. Refract. Surg., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. S563-S565, 2000

1997

R. P. Mierdel, H. E. Krinke, W. Wiegand, M. Kaemmerer, and T. Seiler, "Messplatz zur bestimmung der monochromatischen aberration des menschlichen auges," Ophthalmologe, vol. 96, pp. 441-445, 1997
[CrossRef]

W. Jiang, H. Xian, and F. Shen, "Detection error of Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors," Proc. SPIE, vol. 3126, pp. 534-544, 1997
[CrossRef]

1995

W. N. Charman, Handbook of Optics, vol. 1, 2nd ed., M. Bass, E. W. Van Stryland, D. R. Williams, and W. L. Wolfe eds. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1995), chap. 24

1994

J. Liang, B. Grimm, S. Goelz, and J. F. Bille, "Objective measurement of wave aberrations of the human eye with the use of a Hartmann-Shack wave-front sensor," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, vol. 11, no. 7, pp. 1949-1957, 1994
[CrossRef]

1989

K. Sekiguchi, "Ophthalmic measuring apparatus", US patent 4878750, 1989

1983

M. Nohda, I. Umemura, and T. Arai, "Eye-refractometer device", US patent 4390255, 1983

1982

Y. Kawagoe, N. Takai, and T. Asakura, "Speckle reduction by a rotating aperture at the fourier trans-form plane," Opt. Laser Eng., vol. 3, pp. 197-218, 1982
[CrossRef]

1977

H. C. Howland and B. Howland, "A subjective method for the measurement of monochromatic aberrations of the eye," J. Opt. Soc. Am., vol. 67, no. 11, pp. 1508-1518, 1977
[CrossRef]

1976

B. Howland and H. C. Howland, "Subjective measurement of high-order aberrations of the eye," Science, vol. 193, pp. 580-582, 1976
[CrossRef]

R. J. Noll. "Zernike polynomials and atmosphericturbulence," J. Opt. Soc. Am., vol. 66, no. 3, pp. 207-211, 1976
[CrossRef]

1971

R. V. Shack and B. C. Platt, "Production and use of a lenticular Hartmann screen," J. Opt. Soc. Am., vol. 61, p. 656, 1971

1968

W. J. Geeraets and E. R. Berry, "Ocular spectral characteristics as related to hazards from lasers and other light sources," Am. J. Ophthalmot., vol. 66, no. 1, pp. 15-20, 1968

1965

N. Roth, "Automatic optometer for use with the undrugged human eye," Rev. Sci. Instrum., vol. 36, no. 11 pp. 1636-1641, 1965
[CrossRef]

1961

M. S. Smirnov, "Measurement of the wave aberration of the human eye," Biofizika, vol. 6, pp. 687-703, 1961

1937

G. Collins, "The electronic refractometer," Br. J. Physiol. Opt., vol. 1, pp. 30-40, 1937

1936

R. E. Reason, "Sight-testing apparatus", US patent 2049222, 1936

1900

J. Hartmann, "Bemerkungen uber den Bau und die Justirung von Spektrographen." Z. Instrumentenkd., vol. 20, pp. 47-58, 1900

1894

M. Tscherning, "Die monochromatischen aberrationen des menschlichen auges," Z. Psychol. Physiol. Sinn., vol. 6, pp. 456-471, 1894

Am. J. Ophthalmot.

W. J. Geeraets and E. R. Berry, "Ocular spectral characteristics as related to hazards from lasers and other light sources," Am. J. Ophthalmot., vol. 66, no. 1, pp. 15-20, 1968

Biofizika

M. S. Smirnov, "Measurement of the wave aberration of the human eye," Biofizika, vol. 6, pp. 687-703, 1961

British Journal of Physiological Optics

G. Collins, "The electronic refractometer," Br. J. Physiol. Opt., vol. 1, pp. 30-40, 1937

Der Ophthalmologe

R. P. Mierdel, H. E. Krinke, W. Wiegand, M. Kaemmerer, and T. Seiler, "Messplatz zur bestimmung der monochromatischen aberration des menschlichen auges," Ophthalmologe, vol. 96, pp. 441-445, 1997
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

R. V. Shack and B. C. Platt, "Production and use of a lenticular Hartmann screen," J. Opt. Soc. Am., vol. 61, p. 656, 1971

Journal of Refractive Surgery

H. C. Howland, "The history and methods of ophthalmic wavefront sensing," J. Refract. Surg., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. S552-S553, 2000

L. N. Thibos, "Principles of Hartmann-Shack aberrometry," J. Refract. Surg., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. S563-S565, 2000

B. C. Platt and R. Shack, "History and principles of Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing," J. Refract. Surg., vol. 17, no. 5, pp. S573-S577, 2001

S. A. Burns, "The spatially resolved refractometer," J. Refract. Surg., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. S566-S569, 2000

M. Mrochen, M. Kaemmerer, P. Mierdel, H.-E. Krinke, and T. Seiler, "Principles of Tscherning aberrometry," J. Refract. Surg., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. S570-S571, 2000

V. V. Molebny, S. I. Panagopoulou, S. V. Molebny, Y. S. Wakil, and I. G. Pallikaris, "Principles of ray tracing aberrometry," J. Refract. Surg., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. S572-S575, 2000

Journal of the Optical Society of America

H. C. Howland and B. Howland, "A subjective method for the measurement of monochromatic aberrations of the eye," J. Opt. Soc. Am., vol. 67, no. 11, pp. 1508-1518, 1977
[CrossRef]

R. J. Noll. "Zernike polynomials and atmosphericturbulence," J. Opt. Soc. Am., vol. 66, no. 3, pp. 207-211, 1976
[CrossRef]

Journal of the Optical Society of America A

E. Moreno-Barriuso and R. Navarro, "Laser ray tracing versus Hartmann-Shack sensor for measuring optical aberrations in the human eye," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 974-985, 2000
[CrossRef]

J. Liang, B. Grimm, S. Goelz, and J. F. Bille, "Objective measurement of wave aberrations of the human eye with the use of a Hartmann-Shack wave-front sensor," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, vol. 11, no. 7, pp. 1949-1957, 1994
[CrossRef]

B. J. Wilson, K. E. Decker, and A. Roorda, "Monochromatic aberrations provide an odd-error cue to focus direction," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 833-839, 2002
[CrossRef]

Optics and Lasers in Engineering

Y. Kawagoe, N. Takai, and T. Asakura, "Speckle reduction by a rotating aperture at the fourier trans-form plane," Opt. Laser Eng., vol. 3, pp. 197-218, 1982
[CrossRef]

Optometry and Vision Science

E. Moreno-Barriuso, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, and S. A. Burns, "Comparing laser ray tracing, the spatially resolved refractometer, and the Hartmann-Shack sensor to measure the ocular wave aberration," Optom. Vis. Sci., vol. 78, no. 3, pp. 152-156, 2001
[CrossRef]

T. O. Salmon, R. W. West, W. Gasser, and T. Kenmore, "Measurement of refractive errors in young myopes using the COAS Shack-Hartmann aberrometer," Optom. Vis. Sci., vol. 80, no. 1, pp. 6-14, 2003
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

D. R. Neal, J. Copland, and D. A. Neal, "Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor precision and accuracy," Proc. SPIE, vol. 4779, pp. 148-160, 2002
[CrossRef]

W. Jiang, H. Xian, and F. Shen, "Detection error of Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors," Proc. SPIE, vol. 3126, pp. 534-544, 1997
[CrossRef]

S. Thomas, "Optimized centroid computing in a Shack-Hartmann sensor," Proc. SPIE, vol. 5490, pp. 1238-1246, 2004
[CrossRef]

D. M. Topa, "Wavefront reconstruction for the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor," Proc. SPIE, vol. 4769, pp. 101-115, 2002
[CrossRef]

L. A. Poyneer, "Advanced techniques for Fourier transform wavefront reconstruction," Proc. SPIE, vol. 4839, pp. 1023-1034, 2003
[CrossRef]

Review of Scientific Instruments

N. Roth, "Automatic optometer for use with the undrugged human eye," Rev. Sci. Instrum., vol. 36, no. 11 pp. 1636-1641, 1965
[CrossRef]

Science

B. Howland and H. C. Howland, "Subjective measurement of high-order aberrations of the eye," Science, vol. 193, pp. 580-582, 1976
[CrossRef]

Sensors Update

T. Hellmuth, "Sensors in Ophthalmology." Sensors Update, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 289-323, 2001
[CrossRef]

Z. Instrumentenkd.

J. Hartmann, "Bemerkungen uber den Bau und die Justirung von Spektrographen." Z. Instrumentenkd., vol. 20, pp. 47-58, 1900

Z. Psychol. Physiol. Sinn.

M. Tscherning, "Die monochromatischen aberrationen des menschlichen auges," Z. Psychol. Physiol. Sinn., vol. 6, pp. 456-471, 1894

Other

R. E. Reason, "Sight-testing apparatus", US patent 2049222, 1936

S. M. MacRae, R. R. Krueger, and R. A. Applegate, Customized corneal ablation (Slack, Thorofare, 2001)

S. Buck, Der gesch<TEX>$\ddot{a}$</TEX>rfte blick zur geschichte der brille und ihrer verwendung in Deutschland seit 1850, Ph.D. Thesis, Philipps Univ., Germany, 2002

W. N. Charman, Handbook of Optics, vol. 1, 2nd ed., M. Bass, E. W. Van Stryland, D. R. Williams, and W. L. Wolfe eds. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1995), chap. 24

Ophthalmic Test, The Korean Ophthalmological Society ed. (Jin Publishing, Seoul, 2002)

M. Nohda, I. Umemura, and T. Arai, "Eye-refractometer device", US patent 4390255, 1983

K. Sekiguchi, "Ophthalmic measuring apparatus", US patent 4878750, 1989

L. A. Poyneer, Correlation wave-front sensing algorithms for Shack-Hartmann-based adaptive optics using a point source, Report No. UCRL-JC-152975, Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (Livermore, CA, USA), 2003

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