Abstract

We present an optical security method for binary data information by using 4-step phase-shifting digital holography and we analyze tolerance error for the decrypted data. 4-step phase-shifting digital holograms are acquired by moving the PZT mirror with equidistant phase steps of <TEX>${\pi}/2$</TEX> in the Mach-Zender type interferometer. The digital hologram in this method is a Fourier transform hologram and is quantized with 256 gray level. The decryption performance of the binary data information is analyzed. One of the most important errors is the quantization error in detecting the hologram intensity on CCD. The greater the number of quantization error pixels and the variation of gray level increase, the more the number of error bits increases for decryption. Computer experiments show the results for encryption and decryption with the proposed method and show the graph to analyze the tolerance of the quantization error in the system.

© 2006 Optical Society of Korea

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  1. N. Yoshikawa, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, "Binary computer-generated holograms for security applications from a synthetic double-exposure method by electron-beam lithography", Opt. Lett., vol. 23, pp. 1483-1485, 1990
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. Refregier and B. Javidi, "Optical image encryption based on input plane and Fourier plane random encoding", Opt. Lett., vol. 20, pp. 767-769, 1995
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. Javidi and J. L. Horner, "Optical pattern recognition for validation and security verification", Opt. Eng., vol. 33, pp. 1752-1756, 1994
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. Unnikrishnan and K. Singh, "Double random fractional Fourier domain encoding for optical security", Opt. Eng., vol. 39, pp. 2853-2859, 2000
    [CrossRef]
  5. E. Cuche, F. Bevilacqua, and C. Depeursinge, "Digital holography for quantitative phase-contrast imaging", Opt. Lett., vol. 24, pp. 291-293, 1999
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. Javidi and T. Nomura, "Securing information by means of digital holography", Opt. Lett., vol. 25, pp. 28-30, 2000
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. Tajahuerce and B. Javidi, "Encrypting three-dimensional information with digital holography", Appl. Opt., vol. 39, pp. 6595-6601, 2000
    [CrossRef]
  8. I. Yamaguchi and T. Zhang, "Phase-shifting digital holography", Opt. Lett., vol. 22, pp. 610-612, 1998
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. K. Gil and S. H. Jeon, "Successive encryption and transmission with phase-shifting", Proc. of SPIE, vol. 6136, pp. 22-23, 2006
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. G. Kim, "Phase error analysis in polarization phaseshifting technique using a wollaston prsim and wave plates", J. Opt. Soc. Kor., vol. 9, pp. 145-150, 2005
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. L. Sin and H. O. Kim, "The phase sensitivity of the coincidence detection in one output port of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer", J. Opt. Soc. Kor., vol. 9, pp. 169-172, 2005
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. J. Lee and S. K. Gil, "Error analysis on encryption system with 4-step phase-shifting digital interferometry", COOC 2006, 2006
  13. U. Schnars and W. Jueptner, Digital Holography (Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2005), pp. 37-61

2006 (2)

S. K. Gil and S. H. Jeon, "Successive encryption and transmission with phase-shifting", Proc. of SPIE, vol. 6136, pp. 22-23, 2006
[CrossRef]

H. J. Lee and S. K. Gil, "Error analysis on encryption system with 4-step phase-shifting digital interferometry", COOC 2006, 2006

2005 (3)

U. Schnars and W. Jueptner, Digital Holography (Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2005), pp. 37-61

S. G. Kim, "Phase error analysis in polarization phaseshifting technique using a wollaston prsim and wave plates", J. Opt. Soc. Kor., vol. 9, pp. 145-150, 2005
[CrossRef]

H. L. Sin and H. O. Kim, "The phase sensitivity of the coincidence detection in one output port of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer", J. Opt. Soc. Kor., vol. 9, pp. 169-172, 2005
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

B. Javidi and T. Nomura, "Securing information by means of digital holography", Opt. Lett., vol. 25, pp. 28-30, 2000
[CrossRef]

E. Tajahuerce and B. Javidi, "Encrypting three-dimensional information with digital holography", Appl. Opt., vol. 39, pp. 6595-6601, 2000
[CrossRef]

G. Unnikrishnan and K. Singh, "Double random fractional Fourier domain encoding for optical security", Opt. Eng., vol. 39, pp. 2853-2859, 2000
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

E. Cuche, F. Bevilacqua, and C. Depeursinge, "Digital holography for quantitative phase-contrast imaging", Opt. Lett., vol. 24, pp. 291-293, 1999
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

I. Yamaguchi and T. Zhang, "Phase-shifting digital holography", Opt. Lett., vol. 22, pp. 610-612, 1998
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

P. Refregier and B. Javidi, "Optical image encryption based on input plane and Fourier plane random encoding", Opt. Lett., vol. 20, pp. 767-769, 1995
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

B. Javidi and J. L. Horner, "Optical pattern recognition for validation and security verification", Opt. Eng., vol. 33, pp. 1752-1756, 1994
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

N. Yoshikawa, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, "Binary computer-generated holograms for security applications from a synthetic double-exposure method by electron-beam lithography", Opt. Lett., vol. 23, pp. 1483-1485, 1990
[CrossRef]

Applied Optics (1)

E. Tajahuerce and B. Javidi, "Encrypting three-dimensional information with digital holography", Appl. Opt., vol. 39, pp. 6595-6601, 2000
[CrossRef]

COOC 2006 (1)

H. J. Lee and S. K. Gil, "Error analysis on encryption system with 4-step phase-shifting digital interferometry", COOC 2006, 2006

Journal of the Optical Society of Korea (2)

S. G. Kim, "Phase error analysis in polarization phaseshifting technique using a wollaston prsim and wave plates", J. Opt. Soc. Kor., vol. 9, pp. 145-150, 2005
[CrossRef]

H. L. Sin and H. O. Kim, "The phase sensitivity of the coincidence detection in one output port of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer", J. Opt. Soc. Kor., vol. 9, pp. 169-172, 2005
[CrossRef]

Optical Engineering (2)

B. Javidi and J. L. Horner, "Optical pattern recognition for validation and security verification", Opt. Eng., vol. 33, pp. 1752-1756, 1994
[CrossRef]

G. Unnikrishnan and K. Singh, "Double random fractional Fourier domain encoding for optical security", Opt. Eng., vol. 39, pp. 2853-2859, 2000
[CrossRef]

Optics Letters (5)

E. Cuche, F. Bevilacqua, and C. Depeursinge, "Digital holography for quantitative phase-contrast imaging", Opt. Lett., vol. 24, pp. 291-293, 1999
[CrossRef]

B. Javidi and T. Nomura, "Securing information by means of digital holography", Opt. Lett., vol. 25, pp. 28-30, 2000
[CrossRef]

I. Yamaguchi and T. Zhang, "Phase-shifting digital holography", Opt. Lett., vol. 22, pp. 610-612, 1998
[CrossRef]

N. Yoshikawa, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, "Binary computer-generated holograms for security applications from a synthetic double-exposure method by electron-beam lithography", Opt. Lett., vol. 23, pp. 1483-1485, 1990
[CrossRef]

P. Refregier and B. Javidi, "Optical image encryption based on input plane and Fourier plane random encoding", Opt. Lett., vol. 20, pp. 767-769, 1995
[CrossRef]

Proc. of SPIE (1)

S. K. Gil and S. H. Jeon, "Successive encryption and transmission with phase-shifting", Proc. of SPIE, vol. 6136, pp. 22-23, 2006
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

U. Schnars and W. Jueptner, Digital Holography (Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2005), pp. 37-61

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