Abstract

Over the past decade the experimental technique of THz time domain spectroscopy (㎔- TDS) has proved to be a versatile method for investigating a wide range of phenomena in the ㎔ or far infrared spectral region from 100 ㎓ to 5 ㎔. This paper reviews some recent results of the Ultrafast ㎔ Research Group at Oklahoma State University using ㎔-TDS as a characterization tool. The experimental technique is described along with recent results on ㎔ beam propagation and how ㎔ beam profiles arise from propagation of pulse fronts along caustics. To illustrate how spatio-temporal electric field measurements can determine material properties over a wide spectral range, propagation of ㎔ pulses through systems exhibiting frustrated total internal reflection (FTIR) are reviewed. Finally two potential metrology applications of ㎔-TDS are discussed, thin film characterization and non-destructive evaluation of ceramics. Although ㎔-TDS has been confined to the research laboratory, the focus on application may stimulate the adoption of ㎔- TDS for industrial or metrology applications.

© 2004 Optical Society of Korea

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2003 (4)

K. S. Lee, T. M. Lu, and X. C. Zhang, "The measurement of the dielectric and optical properties of nano thin films by THz differential time-domain spectroscopy," Microelectronics Journal, vol. 34, pp. 63-69, 2003.
[CrossRef]

K. Kawase, J. Shikata, and H. Ito, "Narrow-linewidth tunable terahertz-wave sources using nonlinear optics," in Solid-State Mid-Infrared Laser Sources, vol. 89, Topics in Applied Physics, 2003, pp. 397-423.
[CrossRef]

M. F. Kimmitt, "Restrahlen to T-rays - 100 years of terahertz radiation," J. Bioi. Phys., vol. 29, pp. 77-85, 2003.
[CrossRef]

M. T. Reiten, S. A. Harmon, and R. A. Cheville, "Terahertz beam propagation measured through three¬dimensional amplitude profile determination," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, vol. 20, pp. 2215-2225, 2003.
[CrossRef]

2002 (8)

J. Z. Xu, C. 1. Zhang, and X. C. Zhang, "Recent progress in terahertz science and technology," Prog. Nat. Science, vol. 12, pp. 729-736, 2002.

A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, and M. B. Johnston, "The development of terahertz sources and their applications," Phys. Med. Biol., vol. 47, pp. 3679-3689, 2002.
[CrossRef]

T. Nagatsuma, "Photonic measurement technologies for high-speed electronics," Meas. Sci. Tech., vol. 13, pp. 1655-1663, 2002.
[CrossRef]

J. Shan, A. Nahata, and T. F. Heinz, "Terahertz timedomain spectroscopy based on nonlinear optics," J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mat., vol. 11, pp. 31-48, 2002.
[CrossRef]

J. Van Rudd and D. M. Mittleman, "Influence of substrate-lens design in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, vol. 19, pp. 319-329, 2002.
[CrossRef]

M. Brucherseifer, P. H. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, "Combined optical and spatial modulation THz-spectroscopy for the analysis of thin-layered systems," Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 81, pp. 1791-1793, 2002.
[CrossRef]

P. H. Bolivar, M. Brucherseifer, M. Nagel, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Buttner, "Label-free probing of the binding state of DNA by time-domain terahertz sensing," in Ultrafast Phenomena in Semiconductors 2001, vol. 384-3, (Materials Science Forum, 2002), pp. 253-258.
[CrossRef]

M. Nagel, P. H. Bolivar, M. Brucherseifer, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Buttner, "Integrated THz technology for label-free genetic diagnostics," Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 80, pp. 154-156, 2002.
[CrossRef]

2001 (7)

M. T. Reiten, D. Grischkowsky, and R. A. Cheville, "Optical tunneling of single-cycle terahertz bandwidth pulses," Phys. Rev. E, vol. 6403, 200l.
[CrossRef]

S. Krishnamurthy, M. T. Reiten, S. A. Harmon, and R. A. Cheville, "Characterization of thin polymer films using terahertz time-domain interferometry," Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 79, pp. 875-877, 200l.
[CrossRef]

J. L. Johnson, T. D. Dorney, and D. M. Mittleman, "Enhanced depth resolution is terahertz imaging using phase shift interferometry," Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 78, pp. 835, 200l.
[CrossRef]

M. T. Reiten, K. McClatchey, D. Grischkowsky, and R. A. Cheville, "Incidence-angle selection and spatial reshaping of terahertz pulses in optical tunneling," Opt. Lett., vol. 26, pp. 1900-1902, 200l.
[CrossRef]

P. Y. Han and X. C. Zhang, "Free-space coherent broadband terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Meas. Sci. Tech., vol. 12, pp. 1747-1756, 200l.
[CrossRef]

M. T. Reiten, D. Grischkowsky, and R. A. Cheville, "Properties of surface waves determined via bistatic terahertz impulse ranging," Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 78, pp. 1146-1148, 200l.
[CrossRef]

J. A. Lock, "Semiclassical scattering of an electric dipole source inside a spherical particle," J. Opt. Soc.Am. A, vol. 18, pp. 3085-3097, 200l.
[CrossRef]

2000 (8)

L. Duvillaret, F. Garet, and J. L. Coutaz, "Influence of noise on the characterization of materials by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, vol. 17, pp. 452-461, 2000.
[CrossRef]

R. W. McGowan, R. A. Cheville, and D. Grischkowsky, "Direct observation of the Gouy phase shift in THz impulse ranging," Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 76, pp. 670-672, 2000.
[CrossRef]

J. Peatross, S. A. Glasgow, and M. Ware, "Average energy flow of optical pulses in dispersive media," Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 84, pp. 2370-2373, 2000.
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Jiang, M. Li, and X. C. Zhang, "Dielectric constant measurement of thin films by differential timedomain spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 76, pp. 3221-3223, 2000.
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Jiang, X. G. Xu, and X. C. Zhang, "Improvement of terahertz imaging with a dynamic subtraction technique," Appl. Opt., vol. 39, pp. 2982-2987, 2000.
[CrossRef]

P. D. Coleman, "Reminiscences on selected millennium higWights in the quest for tunable terahertz-submillimeter wave oscillators," IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 6, pp. 1000-1007, 2000.
[CrossRef]

M. Mojahedi, E. Schamiloglu, K. Agi, and K. J. Malloy, "Frequency-domain detection of superluminal group velocity in a distributed Bragg reflector," IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 36, pp. 418-424, 2000.
[CrossRef]

J. J. Carey, J. Zawadzka, D. A. Jaroszynski, K. Wynne, "Noncausal Time Response in Frustrated Total Internal Reflection?" Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 84, pp. 1431-1434, 2000.
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

T. W. Crowe, J. 1. Hesler, R. M. Weikle, and S. H. Jones, "GaAs devices and circuits for terahertz applications," Infr. Phys. Tech., vol. 40, pp. 175-189, 1999.
[CrossRef]

R. W. McGowan, R. A. Cheville, and D. Grischkowsky, "First time measurement of the coupling efficiency of the surface wave on a dielectric cylinder via THz impulse ranging," presented at CLEO, Baltimore, MD, 1999.
[CrossRef]

P. Kuzel, M. A. Khazan, and J. Kroupa, "Spatiotemporal transformations of ultrashort terahertz pulses," J. Opt.Soc. Am. B, vol. 16, pp. 1795-1800, 1999.
[CrossRef]

1998 (7)

R. A. Cheville, R. W. McGowan, and D. Grischkowsky, "Time Resolved Measurements Which Isolate the Mechanisms Responsible for Terahertz Glory Scattering from Dielectric Spheres," Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 80, pp. 269-272, 1998.
[CrossRef]

P. Goldsmith, Quasioptical Systems. (Piscataway, NJ:IEEE Press, 1998.)

T. I. Jeon and D. Grischkowsky, "Characterization of optically dense, doped semiconductors by reflection THz time domain spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 72, pp. 3032-3034, 1998.
[CrossRef]

T. I. Jeon and D. Grischkowsky, "Observation of a Cole-Davidson type complex conductivity in the limit of very low carrier densities in doped silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 72, pp. 2259-2261, 1998.
[CrossRef]

R. A. Cheville and D. R. Grischkowsky, "Far infrared foreign and self broadened rotational linewidths of high temperature water vapor," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, vol. 16, pp. 317-322, 1998.
[CrossRef]

R. A. Cheville and D. Grischkowsky, "Observation of pure rotational absorption spectra in the v2 band of hot <TEX>$H2_O$</TEX> in flames," Opt. Lett., vol. 23, pp. 531-533, 1998.
[CrossRef]

Committee on Optical Science and Engineering, Harnessing light: Optical science and engineering in the 21st century. Washington, D. C.: National Academy Press, 1998.

1997 (8)

P. Balcou and L. Dutriaux, "Dual optical tunneling times in frustrated total internal reflection," Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 78, pp. 851-854, 1997.
[CrossRef]

T. I. Jeon and D. Grischkowsky, "Nature of conduction in doped silicon," Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 78, pp. 1106-1109, 1997.
[CrossRef]

H. Harde, R. A. Cheville, and D. Grischkowsky, "Terahertz studies of collision-broadened rotational lines," J.Phys. Chem. A, vol. 101, pp. 3646-3660, 1997.
[CrossRef]

H. Harde, R. A. Cheville, and D. Grischkowsky, "Collision-induced tunneling in methyl halides," J. of Opt. Soc. Am. B-Optical Physics, vol. 14, pp. 3282-3293, 1997.
[CrossRef]

R. Y. Chiao and A. M. Steinberg, "Tunneling times and superluminality," in Progress in Optics, vol. 37, (E. Wolf, Ed. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1997), pp. 345-405.

D. M. Mittleman, S. Hunsche, 1. Boivin, and M. C. Nuss, "T-ray tomography," Opt. Lett., vol. 22, pp. 904-906, 1997.
[CrossRef]

R. A. Cheville, R. W. McGowan, and D. R. Grischkmvsky, "Late-time target response measured with terahertz impulse ranging," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 45, pp. 1518-1524, 1997.
[CrossRef]

D. You and P. H. Bucksbaum, "Propagation of halfcycle far infrared pulses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, vol. 14, pp. 1651-1655, 1997.
[CrossRef]

1996 (6)

P. U. Jepsen, R. H. Jacobsen, and S. R. Keiding, "Generation and detection of terahertz pulses from biased semiconductor antennas," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, vol. 13, pp. 2424-2436, 1996.
[CrossRef]

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, (2nd ed. Boston: McGraw Hill, 1996).

R. H. Jacobsen, D. M. MIttleman, and M. C. Nuss, "Chemical recognition of gases and gas mixtures with terahertz waves," Opt. Lett., vol. 21, pp. 2011-2013, 1996.
[CrossRef]

B. N. Flanders, R. A. Cheville, D. Grischkowsky, and N. F. Scherer, "Pulsed terahertz transmission spectroscopy of liquid <TEX>$CHCI_3$</TEX>, <TEX>$CCI_4$</TEX>, and their mixtures," J. Phys. Chem., vol. 100, pp. 11824-35, 1996.
[CrossRef]

J. T. Kindt and C. A. Schrnuttenrnaer, "Far-infrared Dielectric Properties of Polar Liquids Probed by Femtosecond THz Pulse Spectroscopy," J. Phys. Chem, vol. 100, pp. 10373, 1996.
[CrossRef]

C. M. Snowden and D. P. Steenson, "Circuits and simulations at 1 THz," Phil Trans. R. Soc. Land. A, vol. 354, pp. 2435-2446, 1996.
[CrossRef]

1995 (4)

A. Ulman, Characterization of Organic Thin Films. (Boston: Butterworth-Heineman, 1995).

R. A. Cheville and D. Grischkowsky, "Far-infrared terahcrtz time-domain spectroscopy of flames," Opt. Lett., vol. 20, pp. 1646-8, 1995.
[CrossRef]

J. T. Verdeyen, Laser Electronics. (Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, 1995).

P. U. Jepsen and S. R. Keiding, "Radiation patterns from lens-coupled terahertz antennas," Opt. Lett., vol. 20, pp. 807-809, 1995.
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

R. Landauer and T. Martin, "Barrier interaction time in tunneling," Rev. Mod. Phys., vol. 66, pp. 217-221, 1994.
[CrossRef]

1992 (4)

T. Martin and R. Landauer, "Time delay of evansecent electromagnetic waves and the analogy to particle tunneling," Phys. Rev. A, vol. 45, pp. 2611-2617, 1992.
[CrossRef]

V. I. Ar"nold, Catastrophe Theory. (Berlin: Springer Verlag, 1992).

P. L. Marston, "Geometrical and Catastrophe Optics Methods in Scattering," in Physical Acoustics, vol. 2l. (New York: Academic Press, 1992), pp. 2-22l.

G. M Rebeiz, "Millimeter-Wave and Terahertz Integrated Circuit Antennas," Proc. IEEE, vol. 80, pp. 1748-1770, 1992.
[CrossRef]

1991 (3)

S. E. Ralph and D. Grischkowsky, "Trap-enhanced electric fields in semiinsulators: the role of electrical and optical carrier injection," Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 59, pp. 1972-4, 1991.
[CrossRef]

N. Katzenellenbogen and D. Grischkowsky, "Efficient generation of 380 fs pulses of THz radiation by ultrafast laser pulse excitation of a biased metal-semiconductor interface," Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 58, pp. 222-4, 1991.
[CrossRef]

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics. (New York: J. Wiley and Sons, 1991).

1990 (4)

D. Grischkowsky, S. Keiding, M. van Exter, and C. Fattinger, "Far-infrared time-domain spectroscopy with terahertz beams of dielectrics and semiconductors," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, vol. 7, pp. 2006-15, 1990.
[CrossRef]

J. C. G. LeSurf, Millimetre-wave Optics, Devices, and Systems. (Bristol: Adam Hilger, 1990).

D. Guenther, Modern Optics, (2nd ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1990).

M. van Exter and D. R. Grischkowsky, "Characterization of an optoelectronic terahertz beam system," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 38, pp. 1684-91, 1990.
[CrossRef]

1989 (3)

M. van Exter, C. Fattinger, and G. Grischkowsky, "High-brightness terahertz beams characterized with an ultrafast detector," Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 55, pp. 337-339, 1989.
[CrossRef]

C. Fattinger and D. Grischkowsky, "Terahertz bearns," Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 54, pp. 490-2, 1989.
[CrossRef]

C. Fattinger and D. Grischkowsky, "Beams of Terahertz Electromagnetic Pulses," OSA Proceedings on Picosecond Electronics and Optoelectronics, vol. 4, pp. 225-231, 1989.

1988 (1)

C. Fattinger and D. Grischkowsky, "Point source terahertz optics," Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 53, pp. 1480-2, 1988.
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

A. K. Ghatak, M. R. Shenoy, I. C. Goyal, and K. Thyagarajan, "Beam propagation under frustrated total internal reflection," Opt. Comm., vol. 56, 1986.
[CrossRef]

A. E. Siegman, Lasers. (Mill Valley: University Science Books, 1986).

1982 (2)

G. Dangelmyer and W. Guttinger, "Topological approach to remote sensing," Geophys. J. R. Astr. Soc., vol. 71, pp. 79-126, 1982.
[CrossRef]

T. Tamir, "The Lateral Wave," in Electromagnetic Surface Modes, (A. D. Boardman, Ed. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1982), pp. 521-548.

1981 (2)

R. W. P. King and G. S. Smith, Antennas in Matter. (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1981.)

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, (7 ed. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999.)

1979 (1)

1978 (1)

T. Poston and I. N. Stewart, Catastrophe theory and its applications. (London: Pitnam Publishing Ltd., 1978).

1976 (3)

M. J. Gans, "Cross polarization in reflector type beam waveguides and antennas," Bell Sys. Tech. Jour., vol. 55, pp. 289-316, 1976.

N. W. Ashcroft and N. D. Mermin, Solid State Physics. (New York: Holt, Rhinehart, and Winston, 1976).

L. Feisen, "Evanescent Waves," J. Opt. Soc. Am, vol. 66, pp. 751-760, 1976.
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

L. Allen and J. H. Eberly, Optical resonance and two-level atoms. (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1975).

1971 (1)

1970 (1)

H. K. V. Lotsch, "Beam displacement at total internal reflection: The Goos- Hanchen effect II," Optik Zeitschrft fur Licht und Elektronenoptik, vol. 32, pp. 189-204, 1970.

Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on (1)

R. A. Cheville, R. W. McGowan, and D. R. Grischkmvsky, "Late-time target response measured with terahertz impulse ranging," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 45, pp. 1518-1524, 1997.
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (14)

R. W. McGowan, R. A. Cheville, and D. Grischkowsky, "Direct observation of the Gouy phase shift in THz impulse ranging," Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 76, pp. 670-672, 2000.
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Jiang, M. Li, and X. C. Zhang, "Dielectric constant measurement of thin films by differential timedomain spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 76, pp. 3221-3223, 2000.
[CrossRef]

M. Brucherseifer, P. H. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, "Combined optical and spatial modulation THz-spectroscopy for the analysis of thin-layered systems," Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 81, pp. 1791-1793, 2002.
[CrossRef]

S. Krishnamurthy, M. T. Reiten, S. A. Harmon, and R. A. Cheville, "Characterization of thin polymer films using terahertz time-domain interferometry," Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 79, pp. 875-877, 200l.
[CrossRef]

J. L. Johnson, T. D. Dorney, and D. M. Mittleman, "Enhanced depth resolution is terahertz imaging using phase shift interferometry," Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 78, pp. 835, 200l.
[CrossRef]

T. I. Jeon and D. Grischkowsky, "Characterization of optically dense, doped semiconductors by reflection THz time domain spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 72, pp. 3032-3034, 1998.
[CrossRef]

T. I. Jeon and D. Grischkowsky, "Observation of a Cole-Davidson type complex conductivity in the limit of very low carrier densities in doped silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 72, pp. 2259-2261, 1998.
[CrossRef]

M. Nagel, P. H. Bolivar, M. Brucherseifer, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Buttner, "Integrated THz technology for label-free genetic diagnostics," Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 80, pp. 154-156, 2002.
[CrossRef]

C. Fattinger and D. Grischkowsky, "Point source terahertz optics," Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 53, pp. 1480-2, 1988.
[CrossRef]

C. Fattinger and D. Grischkowsky, "Terahertz bearns," Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 54, pp. 490-2, 1989.
[CrossRef]

M. van Exter, C. Fattinger, and G. Grischkowsky, "High-brightness terahertz beams characterized with an ultrafast detector," Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 55, pp. 337-339, 1989.
[CrossRef]

S. E. Ralph and D. Grischkowsky, "Trap-enhanced electric fields in semiinsulators: the role of electrical and optical carrier injection," Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 59, pp. 1972-4, 1991.
[CrossRef]

N. Katzenellenbogen and D. Grischkowsky, "Efficient generation of 380 fs pulses of THz radiation by ultrafast laser pulse excitation of a biased metal-semiconductor interface," Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 58, pp. 222-4, 1991.
[CrossRef]

M. T. Reiten, D. Grischkowsky, and R. A. Cheville, "Properties of surface waves determined via bistatic terahertz impulse ranging," Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 78, pp. 1146-1148, 200l.
[CrossRef]

Applied Optics (1)

Z. P. Jiang, X. G. Xu, and X. C. Zhang, "Improvement of terahertz imaging with a dynamic subtraction technique," Appl. Opt., vol. 39, pp. 2982-2987, 2000.
[CrossRef]

Bell Sys. Tech. Jour. (1)

M. J. Gans, "Cross polarization in reflector type beam waveguides and antennas," Bell Sys. Tech. Jour., vol. 55, pp. 289-316, 1976.

Geophysical Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society (1)

G. Dangelmyer and W. Guttinger, "Topological approach to remote sensing," Geophys. J. R. Astr. Soc., vol. 71, pp. 79-126, 1982.
[CrossRef]

Infrared Physics & Technology (1)

T. W. Crowe, J. 1. Hesler, R. M. Weikle, and S. H. Jones, "GaAs devices and circuits for terahertz applications," Infr. Phys. Tech., vol. 40, pp. 175-189, 1999.
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (5)

J. Phys. Chem. (2)

B. N. Flanders, R. A. Cheville, D. Grischkowsky, and N. F. Scherer, "Pulsed terahertz transmission spectroscopy of liquid <TEX>$CHCI_3$</TEX>, <TEX>$CCI_4$</TEX>, and their mixtures," J. Phys. Chem., vol. 100, pp. 11824-35, 1996.
[CrossRef]

J. T. Kindt and C. A. Schrnuttenrnaer, "Far-infrared Dielectric Properties of Polar Liquids Probed by Femtosecond THz Pulse Spectroscopy," J. Phys. Chem, vol. 100, pp. 10373, 1996.
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. A (1)

H. Harde, R. A. Cheville, and D. Grischkowsky, "Terahertz studies of collision-broadened rotational lines," J.Phys. Chem. A, vol. 101, pp. 3646-3660, 1997.
[CrossRef]

Journal of Biological Physics (1)

M. F. Kimmitt, "Restrahlen to T-rays - 100 years of terahertz radiation," J. Bioi. Phys., vol. 29, pp. 77-85, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Journal of Nonlinear Optical Physics & Materials (1)

J. Shan, A. Nahata, and T. F. Heinz, "Terahertz timedomain spectroscopy based on nonlinear optics," J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mat., vol. 11, pp. 31-48, 2002.
[CrossRef]

Journal of the Optical Society of America B (4)

H. Harde, R. A. Cheville, and D. Grischkowsky, "Collision-induced tunneling in methyl halides," J. of Opt. Soc. Am. B-Optical Physics, vol. 14, pp. 3282-3293, 1997.
[CrossRef]

J. Van Rudd and D. M. Mittleman, "Influence of substrate-lens design in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, vol. 19, pp. 319-329, 2002.
[CrossRef]

D. Grischkowsky, S. Keiding, M. van Exter, and C. Fattinger, "Far-infrared time-domain spectroscopy with terahertz beams of dielectrics and semiconductors," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, vol. 7, pp. 2006-15, 1990.
[CrossRef]

R. A. Cheville and D. R. Grischkowsky, "Far infrared foreign and self broadened rotational linewidths of high temperature water vapor," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, vol. 16, pp. 317-322, 1998.
[CrossRef]

Lasers and Electro-Optics, 1999. CLEO '99. Summaries of Papers Presented at the Conference on (1)

R. W. McGowan, R. A. Cheville, and D. Grischkowsky, "First time measurement of the coupling efficiency of the surface wave on a dielectric cylinder via THz impulse ranging," presented at CLEO, Baltimore, MD, 1999.
[CrossRef]

Materials Science Forum (1)

P. H. Bolivar, M. Brucherseifer, M. Nagel, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Buttner, "Label-free probing of the binding state of DNA by time-domain terahertz sensing," in Ultrafast Phenomena in Semiconductors 2001, vol. 384-3, (Materials Science Forum, 2002), pp. 253-258.
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Tech. (2)

P. Y. Han and X. C. Zhang, "Free-space coherent broadband terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Meas. Sci. Tech., vol. 12, pp. 1747-1756, 200l.
[CrossRef]

T. Nagatsuma, "Photonic measurement technologies for high-speed electronics," Meas. Sci. Tech., vol. 13, pp. 1655-1663, 2002.
[CrossRef]

Microelectronics Journal (1)

K. S. Lee, T. M. Lu, and X. C. Zhang, "The measurement of the dielectric and optical properties of nano thin films by THz differential time-domain spectroscopy," Microelectronics Journal, vol. 34, pp. 63-69, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on (1)

M. van Exter and D. R. Grischkowsky, "Characterization of an optoelectronic terahertz beam system," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 38, pp. 1684-91, 1990.
[CrossRef]

Optics Communications (1)

A. K. Ghatak, M. R. Shenoy, I. C. Goyal, and K. Thyagarajan, "Beam propagation under frustrated total internal reflection," Opt. Comm., vol. 56, 1986.
[CrossRef]

Optics Letters (6)

R. A. Cheville and D. Grischkowsky, "Far-infrared terahcrtz time-domain spectroscopy of flames," Opt. Lett., vol. 20, pp. 1646-8, 1995.
[CrossRef]

R. H. Jacobsen, D. M. MIttleman, and M. C. Nuss, "Chemical recognition of gases and gas mixtures with terahertz waves," Opt. Lett., vol. 21, pp. 2011-2013, 1996.
[CrossRef]

P. U. Jepsen and S. R. Keiding, "Radiation patterns from lens-coupled terahertz antennas," Opt. Lett., vol. 20, pp. 807-809, 1995.
[CrossRef]

D. M. Mittleman, S. Hunsche, 1. Boivin, and M. C. Nuss, "T-ray tomography," Opt. Lett., vol. 22, pp. 904-906, 1997.
[CrossRef]

R. A. Cheville and D. Grischkowsky, "Observation of pure rotational absorption spectra in the v2 band of hot <TEX>$H2_O$</TEX> in flames," Opt. Lett., vol. 23, pp. 531-533, 1998.
[CrossRef]

M. T. Reiten, K. McClatchey, D. Grischkowsky, and R. A. Cheville, "Incidence-angle selection and spatial reshaping of terahertz pulses in optical tunneling," Opt. Lett., vol. 26, pp. 1900-1902, 200l.
[CrossRef]

Optik Zeitschrft fur Licht und Elektronenoptik (1)

H. K. V. Lotsch, "Beam displacement at total internal reflection: The Goos- Hanchen effect II," Optik Zeitschrft fur Licht und Elektronenoptik, vol. 32, pp. 189-204, 1970.

OSA Proceedings on Picosecond Electronics and Optoelectronics (1)

C. Fattinger and D. Grischkowsky, "Beams of Terahertz Electromagnetic Pulses," OSA Proceedings on Picosecond Electronics and Optoelectronics, vol. 4, pp. 225-231, 1989.

Phil Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A (1)

C. M. Snowden and D. P. Steenson, "Circuits and simulations at 1 THz," Phil Trans. R. Soc. Land. A, vol. 354, pp. 2435-2446, 1996.
[CrossRef]

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, and M. B. Johnston, "The development of terahertz sources and their applications," Phys. Med. Biol., vol. 47, pp. 3679-3689, 2002.
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

T. Martin and R. Landauer, "Time delay of evansecent electromagnetic waves and the analogy to particle tunneling," Phys. Rev. A, vol. 45, pp. 2611-2617, 1992.
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

M. T. Reiten, D. Grischkowsky, and R. A. Cheville, "Optical tunneling of single-cycle terahertz bandwidth pulses," Phys. Rev. E, vol. 6403, 200l.
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

J. J. Carey, J. Zawadzka, D. A. Jaroszynski, K. Wynne, "Noncausal Time Response in Frustrated Total Internal Reflection?" Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 84, pp. 1431-1434, 2000.
[CrossRef]

T. I. Jeon and D. Grischkowsky, "Nature of conduction in doped silicon," Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 78, pp. 1106-1109, 1997.
[CrossRef]

J. Peatross, S. A. Glasgow, and M. Ware, "Average energy flow of optical pulses in dispersive media," Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 84, pp. 2370-2373, 2000.
[CrossRef]

R. A. Cheville, R. W. McGowan, and D. Grischkowsky, "Time Resolved Measurements Which Isolate the Mechanisms Responsible for Terahertz Glory Scattering from Dielectric Spheres," Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 80, pp. 269-272, 1998.
[CrossRef]

Physical Review Letters (1)

P. Balcou and L. Dutriaux, "Dual optical tunneling times in frustrated total internal reflection," Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 78, pp. 851-854, 1997.
[CrossRef]

Proceedings of the IEEE (1)

G. M Rebeiz, "Millimeter-Wave and Terahertz Integrated Circuit Antennas," Proc. IEEE, vol. 80, pp. 1748-1770, 1992.
[CrossRef]

Prog. Nat. Science (1)

J. Z. Xu, C. 1. Zhang, and X. C. Zhang, "Recent progress in terahertz science and technology," Prog. Nat. Science, vol. 12, pp. 729-736, 2002.

Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of (1)

M. Mojahedi, E. Schamiloglu, K. Agi, and K. J. Malloy, "Frequency-domain detection of superluminal group velocity in a distributed Bragg reflector," IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 36, pp. 418-424, 2000.
[CrossRef]

Reviews of Modern Physics (1)

R. Landauer and T. Martin, "Barrier interaction time in tunneling," Rev. Mod. Phys., vol. 66, pp. 217-221, 1994.
[CrossRef]

Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of (1)

P. D. Coleman, "Reminiscences on selected millennium higWights in the quest for tunable terahertz-submillimeter wave oscillators," IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 6, pp. 1000-1007, 2000.
[CrossRef]

Other (19)

Committee on Optical Science and Engineering, Harnessing light: Optical science and engineering in the 21st century. Washington, D. C.: National Academy Press, 1998.

P. Goldsmith, Quasioptical Systems. (Piscataway, NJ:IEEE Press, 1998.)

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, (2nd ed. Boston: McGraw Hill, 1996).

A. E. Siegman, Lasers. (Mill Valley: University Science Books, 1986).

J. T. Verdeyen, Laser Electronics. (Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, 1995).

J. C. G. LeSurf, Millimetre-wave Optics, Devices, and Systems. (Bristol: Adam Hilger, 1990).

L. Allen and J. H. Eberly, Optical resonance and two-level atoms. (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1975).

V. I. Ar"nold, Catastrophe Theory. (Berlin: Springer Verlag, 1992).

R. W. P. King and G. S. Smith, Antennas in Matter. (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1981.)

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, (7 ed. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999.)

P. L. Marston, "Geometrical and Catastrophe Optics Methods in Scattering," in Physical Acoustics, vol. 2l. (New York: Academic Press, 1992), pp. 2-22l.

T. Poston and I. N. Stewart, Catastrophe theory and its applications. (London: Pitnam Publishing Ltd., 1978).

T. Tamir, "The Lateral Wave," in Electromagnetic Surface Modes, (A. D. Boardman, Ed. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1982), pp. 521-548.

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics. (New York: J. Wiley and Sons, 1991).

R. Y. Chiao and A. M. Steinberg, "Tunneling times and superluminality," in Progress in Optics, vol. 37, (E. Wolf, Ed. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1997), pp. 345-405.

K. Kawase, J. Shikata, and H. Ito, "Narrow-linewidth tunable terahertz-wave sources using nonlinear optics," in Solid-State Mid-Infrared Laser Sources, vol. 89, Topics in Applied Physics, 2003, pp. 397-423.
[CrossRef]

A. Ulman, Characterization of Organic Thin Films. (Boston: Butterworth-Heineman, 1995).

D. Guenther, Modern Optics, (2nd ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1990).

N. W. Ashcroft and N. D. Mermin, Solid State Physics. (New York: Holt, Rhinehart, and Winston, 1976).

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