Abstract

Femtosecond laser ablation mechanism was systematically investigated on sodalime glass in ambient conditions. The ablation crater diameter was measured for varying numbers of laser pulses as for varying well as the laser fluence. The analysis of the results with a one dimensional spatial Gaussian fluence distribution reveals that the inherent ablation mechanism has been altered from a multi-photon process to a single photon excitation due to defect sites that have been accumulated by successive laser pulses. Furthermore, the transition between the two regimes was found to be a function of both the laser fluence and the number of laser shots.

© 2003 Optical Society of Korea

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  1. P. P. Pronko, S. K. Dutta, J. Squier, J. V. Rudd, D. Du, and G. Mourou, “Machining of sub-micron holes using a femtosecond Laser at 800 nm,” Optics Comm., vol. 114, pp. 106-110, 1995.
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Juhasz, R. Kurtz, C .Horvath, C. Suarez, F. Raks, and G. Spooner, “Photonic device fabrication with femtosecond laser oscillators,” Optics & Photonics News, vol. 24, pp. 55-49, 2002.
  3. K. Minoshima, A.M. Kowalwviz, I. Hartl, E.P. Ippen, and J.G. Fujimoto, “Photonic device fabrication with femtosecond laser oscillators,” Optics & Photonics News, vol. 14, pp. 44-49, 2003.
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. Korte, J. Serbin, J. Kochi, A. Egbert, C. Fallnich, A. Ostendorf, and B.N. Chichkov, “Towards nanostructuring with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. A, vol.77, pp. 229-235, 2003.
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Haight, D. Hayden, P. Longo, T. Neary, and A. Wagner, “Implementation and performance of a femtosecond laser mask repair system in manufacturing,” Pro. SPIE, issue. 3546, pp. 477-484, 1998.
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. Shani, I. Melnick, S. Yoffe, Y. Sharon, K. Liebermann, and H. Terkel, “High-resolution near-field mask repair with femtosecond laser,” Pro. SPIE, issue. 3546, pp. 112-120, 1998.
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Serbin, T. Bauer, C. Fallnich, A. Kasenbacher, and W. H. Arnold, “Femtosecond laser as novel tool in dental surgery,” Appl. Surf. Sci., vol. 197-198, pp. 737-740, 2002.
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. N. Chickkov, C. Momman, S. Nolte, F. Von Alvenslebe, and A. Tunnermann, “Femtosecond, picosecond and nanosecond laser ablation of solids,” Appl. Phys. A, vol. 63, pp. 109-115, 1996.
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. Ashkenasi, G. Muller, A. Rosenfeld, R. Stoian, I. V. Hertel, N. M. Bugakova, and E. E. B. Campbell, “Fundamentals and advantages of ultrafast microstructuring of transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. A, vol. 77, pp. 223-228, 2003
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. Venkatakrishinan, B. Tan, and N. R. Sivakumar, “Sub-micron ablation of metalic thin film by femtosecond pulse laser, ” Optics & Laser Technol., vol. 34, pp. 575-578, 2002.
    [CrossRef]
  11. X. Liu, D. Du, and G. Mourou, “Laser ablation and micromachining with ultrashort laser pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron, vol. 33, pp. 1706-1716, 1997.
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. Hirayama and M. Obara, “Heat effects of metals ablated with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Surf. Sci., vol. 197-198, pp. 741-745, 2002.
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. Y. Tzou, J. K. Chen, and J. E. Beraun, “Hotelectron blast induced by ultrashort-pulsed lasers in layered media,” Int. J. Heat and Mass Trans., vol. 45, pp. 3369-3382, 2002.
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Chimmalgi, T. Y. Choi, C. P. Grigoropoulos, and K. Komvopoulos, “Femtosecond laser apertureless near-field nanomachining of metals assisted by scanning probe microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 82, pp. 1146-1148, 2003.
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. A. House II and A. H. Guenther, Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials (NBS Spec. Pub., 1976), pp. 338-340.
  16. M. Li, M. Ishizuka, X. Liu, Y. Sugimoto, N. Ikeda, and K. Asakawa, “Nanostructuring in submicronlevel waveguides with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Comm., vol. 212, pp. 159-163, 2002.
    [CrossRef]
  17. W. Koshinski, A. Schirmacher, and E. Sutter, “Induced transmittance of eye-protective laser filters,” J. Laser Appl., vol. 10, pp. 126-130, 1998.
  18. J. Kruger, M. Lenzner, S.Martin, M. Lenner, C. Spielmann, A. Fiedler, and W. Kautek, “Single-and multipulse femtosecond laser ablation of optical filter materials,” Appl. Surf. Sci., vol. 208-209, pp. 233-237, 2003.
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. Nolte, C. Momma, H. Jacobs, A. Tunnermann, B. N. Chichkov, B. Wellegehausen, and H. Welling, “Ablation of metals by ultrashort laser pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, vol. 14, pp. 2716-2722, 1997.
    [CrossRef]
  20. S. S. Wellershoff, J. Hohlfeld, J. Gudde, and E. Matthias, “The role of electron-phonon coupling in femtosecond laser damage of metals,” Appl. Phys. A, vol. 69, pp. S99-S107, 1999.
    [CrossRef]
  21. R. Stoian, M. Boyle, A. Thoss, A. Rosenfeld, G. Korn, I. V. Hertel, and E. E. B. Campbell, “Laser ablation of dielectrics with temporally shaped femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 80, pp. 353-355, 2002.
    [CrossRef]
  22. E. G. Gamaly, A. V. Rode, and B. Luther-Davies, “Ablation of solids by femtosecond laser: ablation mechanism and ablation thresholds for metals and dielectrics,” Phys. Plasmas, vol. 9, pp. 949-957, 2002.
    [CrossRef]
  23. R. Stoian, D. Ashkenasi, A. Rosenfeld, and E. E. B. Campbell, “Coulomb explosion in ultrashort pulsed laser ablation of <TEX>$Al_2O_3$<TEX>,” Phys. Rev. B, vol. 62, pp. 13167-13173, 2001.
    [CrossRef]
  24. S. Preuss, A. Demchuk, and M. Stuke, “Subpicosecond UV laser ablation of metals,” Appl. Phys. A, vol. 61, pp. 33-37, 1995.
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. Kruger and W. Kautek, “In Laser-Induced Thin Film Processing,” J. J. Dubowski, Ed. Proc. SPIE, vol. 2403, pp. 436-439, 1995.
  26. S. Kim, D. W. Chang, S. Y. Park, S. C. Jeoung, and D. Kim, “Excited-state intramolecular proton transfer and stimulated emission from phototautomerizable polyquinoline film,” Macromolecules, vol. 35 pp. 6064-6066, 2002.
    [CrossRef]
  27. M. Lenzner, J. Kruger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, C. Spielmann, G. Mourou, W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, “Femtosecond optical breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 80, pp. 4076-4079, 1998.
    [CrossRef]
  28. W. Kautek and J. Kruger, “Laser ablation of dielectrics with pulse durations between 20 fs and 3 ps,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 69, pp. 3146-3148, 1996.
    [CrossRef]
  29. P. Rudolph, J. Bonse, J. Kruger, and W. Kautek, “Femtosecond- and nanosecond-pulse laser ablation of bariumalumoborosilicate glass,” Appl. Phys. A, vol. 69, pp. S763-S766, 1999.
    [CrossRef]

2003

F. Korte, J. Serbin, J. Kochi, A. Egbert, C. Fallnich, A. Ostendorf, and B.N. Chichkov, “Towards nanostructuring with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. A, vol.77, pp. 229-235, 2003.
[CrossRef]

D. Ashkenasi, G. Muller, A. Rosenfeld, R. Stoian, I. V. Hertel, N. M. Bugakova, and E. E. B. Campbell, “Fundamentals and advantages of ultrafast microstructuring of transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. A, vol. 77, pp. 223-228, 2003
[CrossRef]

A. Chimmalgi, T. Y. Choi, C. P. Grigoropoulos, and K. Komvopoulos, “Femtosecond laser apertureless near-field nanomachining of metals assisted by scanning probe microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 82, pp. 1146-1148, 2003.
[CrossRef]

J. Kruger, M. Lenzner, S.Martin, M. Lenner, C. Spielmann, A. Fiedler, and W. Kautek, “Single-and multipulse femtosecond laser ablation of optical filter materials,” Appl. Surf. Sci., vol. 208-209, pp. 233-237, 2003.
[CrossRef]

2002

M. Li, M. Ishizuka, X. Liu, Y. Sugimoto, N. Ikeda, and K. Asakawa, “Nanostructuring in submicronlevel waveguides with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Comm., vol. 212, pp. 159-163, 2002.
[CrossRef]

Y. Hirayama and M. Obara, “Heat effects of metals ablated with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Surf. Sci., vol. 197-198, pp. 741-745, 2002.
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Tzou, J. K. Chen, and J. E. Beraun, “Hotelectron blast induced by ultrashort-pulsed lasers in layered media,” Int. J. Heat and Mass Trans., vol. 45, pp. 3369-3382, 2002.
[CrossRef]

K. Venkatakrishinan, B. Tan, and N. R. Sivakumar, “Sub-micron ablation of metalic thin film by femtosecond pulse laser, ” Optics & Laser Technol., vol. 34, pp. 575-578, 2002.
[CrossRef]

J. Serbin, T. Bauer, C. Fallnich, A. Kasenbacher, and W. H. Arnold, “Femtosecond laser as novel tool in dental surgery,” Appl. Surf. Sci., vol. 197-198, pp. 737-740, 2002.
[CrossRef]

T. Juhasz, R. Kurtz, C .Horvath, C. Suarez, F. Raks, and G. Spooner, “Photonic device fabrication with femtosecond laser oscillators,” Optics & Photonics News, vol. 24, pp. 55-49, 2002.

K. Minoshima, A.M. Kowalwviz, I. Hartl, E.P. Ippen, and J.G. Fujimoto, “Photonic device fabrication with femtosecond laser oscillators,” Optics & Photonics News, vol. 14, pp. 44-49, 2003.
[CrossRef]

R. Stoian, M. Boyle, A. Thoss, A. Rosenfeld, G. Korn, I. V. Hertel, and E. E. B. Campbell, “Laser ablation of dielectrics with temporally shaped femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 80, pp. 353-355, 2002.
[CrossRef]

E. G. Gamaly, A. V. Rode, and B. Luther-Davies, “Ablation of solids by femtosecond laser: ablation mechanism and ablation thresholds for metals and dielectrics,” Phys. Plasmas, vol. 9, pp. 949-957, 2002.
[CrossRef]

S. Kim, D. W. Chang, S. Y. Park, S. C. Jeoung, and D. Kim, “Excited-state intramolecular proton transfer and stimulated emission from phototautomerizable polyquinoline film,” Macromolecules, vol. 35 pp. 6064-6066, 2002.
[CrossRef]

2001

R. Stoian, D. Ashkenasi, A. Rosenfeld, and E. E. B. Campbell, “Coulomb explosion in ultrashort pulsed laser ablation of <TEX>$Al_2O_3$<TEX>,” Phys. Rev. B, vol. 62, pp. 13167-13173, 2001.
[CrossRef]

1999

S. S. Wellershoff, J. Hohlfeld, J. Gudde, and E. Matthias, “The role of electron-phonon coupling in femtosecond laser damage of metals,” Appl. Phys. A, vol. 69, pp. S99-S107, 1999.
[CrossRef]

P. Rudolph, J. Bonse, J. Kruger, and W. Kautek, “Femtosecond- and nanosecond-pulse laser ablation of bariumalumoborosilicate glass,” Appl. Phys. A, vol. 69, pp. S763-S766, 1999.
[CrossRef]

1998

M. Lenzner, J. Kruger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, C. Spielmann, G. Mourou, W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, “Femtosecond optical breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 80, pp. 4076-4079, 1998.
[CrossRef]

R. Haight, D. Hayden, P. Longo, T. Neary, and A. Wagner, “Implementation and performance of a femtosecond laser mask repair system in manufacturing,” Pro. SPIE, issue. 3546, pp. 477-484, 1998.
[CrossRef]

Y. Shani, I. Melnick, S. Yoffe, Y. Sharon, K. Liebermann, and H. Terkel, “High-resolution near-field mask repair with femtosecond laser,” Pro. SPIE, issue. 3546, pp. 112-120, 1998.
[CrossRef]

W. Koshinski, A. Schirmacher, and E. Sutter, “Induced transmittance of eye-protective laser filters,” J. Laser Appl., vol. 10, pp. 126-130, 1998.

1997

X. Liu, D. Du, and G. Mourou, “Laser ablation and micromachining with ultrashort laser pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron, vol. 33, pp. 1706-1716, 1997.
[CrossRef]

1996

B. N. Chickkov, C. Momman, S. Nolte, F. Von Alvenslebe, and A. Tunnermann, “Femtosecond, picosecond and nanosecond laser ablation of solids,” Appl. Phys. A, vol. 63, pp. 109-115, 1996.
[CrossRef]

W. Kautek and J. Kruger, “Laser ablation of dielectrics with pulse durations between 20 fs and 3 ps,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 69, pp. 3146-3148, 1996.
[CrossRef]

1995

P. P. Pronko, S. K. Dutta, J. Squier, J. V. Rudd, D. Du, and G. Mourou, “Machining of sub-micron holes using a femtosecond Laser at 800 nm,” Optics Comm., vol. 114, pp. 106-110, 1995.
[CrossRef]

S. Preuss, A. Demchuk, and M. Stuke, “Subpicosecond UV laser ablation of metals,” Appl. Phys. A, vol. 61, pp. 33-37, 1995.
[CrossRef]

J. Kruger and W. Kautek, “In Laser-Induced Thin Film Processing,” J. J. Dubowski, Ed. Proc. SPIE, vol. 2403, pp. 436-439, 1995.

1977

S. Nolte, C. Momma, H. Jacobs, A. Tunnermann, B. N. Chichkov, B. Wellegehausen, and H. Welling, “Ablation of metals by ultrashort laser pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, vol. 14, pp. 2716-2722, 1997.
[CrossRef]

1976

R. A. House II and A. H. Guenther, Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials (NBS Spec. Pub., 1976), pp. 338-340.

Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing

F. Korte, J. Serbin, J. Kochi, A. Egbert, C. Fallnich, A. Ostendorf, and B.N. Chichkov, “Towards nanostructuring with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. A, vol.77, pp. 229-235, 2003.
[CrossRef]

B. N. Chickkov, C. Momman, S. Nolte, F. Von Alvenslebe, and A. Tunnermann, “Femtosecond, picosecond and nanosecond laser ablation of solids,” Appl. Phys. A, vol. 63, pp. 109-115, 1996.
[CrossRef]

D. Ashkenasi, G. Muller, A. Rosenfeld, R. Stoian, I. V. Hertel, N. M. Bugakova, and E. E. B. Campbell, “Fundamentals and advantages of ultrafast microstructuring of transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. A, vol. 77, pp. 223-228, 2003
[CrossRef]

S. S. Wellershoff, J. Hohlfeld, J. Gudde, and E. Matthias, “The role of electron-phonon coupling in femtosecond laser damage of metals,” Appl. Phys. A, vol. 69, pp. S99-S107, 1999.
[CrossRef]

S. Preuss, A. Demchuk, and M. Stuke, “Subpicosecond UV laser ablation of metals,” Appl. Phys. A, vol. 61, pp. 33-37, 1995.
[CrossRef]

P. Rudolph, J. Bonse, J. Kruger, and W. Kautek, “Femtosecond- and nanosecond-pulse laser ablation of bariumalumoborosilicate glass,” Appl. Phys. A, vol. 69, pp. S763-S766, 1999.
[CrossRef]

Applied Physics Letters

W. Kautek and J. Kruger, “Laser ablation of dielectrics with pulse durations between 20 fs and 3 ps,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 69, pp. 3146-3148, 1996.
[CrossRef]

R. Stoian, M. Boyle, A. Thoss, A. Rosenfeld, G. Korn, I. V. Hertel, and E. E. B. Campbell, “Laser ablation of dielectrics with temporally shaped femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 80, pp. 353-355, 2002.
[CrossRef]

A. Chimmalgi, T. Y. Choi, C. P. Grigoropoulos, and K. Komvopoulos, “Femtosecond laser apertureless near-field nanomachining of metals assisted by scanning probe microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 82, pp. 1146-1148, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Applied Surface Science

J. Serbin, T. Bauer, C. Fallnich, A. Kasenbacher, and W. H. Arnold, “Femtosecond laser as novel tool in dental surgery,” Appl. Surf. Sci., vol. 197-198, pp. 737-740, 2002.
[CrossRef]

Y. Hirayama and M. Obara, “Heat effects of metals ablated with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Surf. Sci., vol. 197-198, pp. 741-745, 2002.
[CrossRef]

J. Kruger, M. Lenzner, S.Martin, M. Lenner, C. Spielmann, A. Fiedler, and W. Kautek, “Single-and multipulse femtosecond laser ablation of optical filter materials,” Appl. Surf. Sci., vol. 208-209, pp. 233-237, 2003.
[CrossRef]

International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer

D. Y. Tzou, J. K. Chen, and J. E. Beraun, “Hotelectron blast induced by ultrashort-pulsed lasers in layered media,” Int. J. Heat and Mass Trans., vol. 45, pp. 3369-3382, 2002.
[CrossRef]

J. Laser Appl.

W. Koshinski, A. Schirmacher, and E. Sutter, “Induced transmittance of eye-protective laser filters,” J. Laser Appl., vol. 10, pp. 126-130, 1998.

JOSA B

S. Nolte, C. Momma, H. Jacobs, A. Tunnermann, B. N. Chichkov, B. Wellegehausen, and H. Welling, “Ablation of metals by ultrashort laser pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, vol. 14, pp. 2716-2722, 1997.
[CrossRef]

Macromolecules

S. Kim, D. W. Chang, S. Y. Park, S. C. Jeoung, and D. Kim, “Excited-state intramolecular proton transfer and stimulated emission from phototautomerizable polyquinoline film,” Macromolecules, vol. 35 pp. 6064-6066, 2002.
[CrossRef]

Optics & Laser Technology

K. Venkatakrishinan, B. Tan, and N. R. Sivakumar, “Sub-micron ablation of metalic thin film by femtosecond pulse laser, ” Optics & Laser Technol., vol. 34, pp. 575-578, 2002.
[CrossRef]

Optics and Photonics News

T. Juhasz, R. Kurtz, C .Horvath, C. Suarez, F. Raks, and G. Spooner, “Photonic device fabrication with femtosecond laser oscillators,” Optics & Photonics News, vol. 24, pp. 55-49, 2002.

K. Minoshima, A.M. Kowalwviz, I. Hartl, E.P. Ippen, and J.G. Fujimoto, “Photonic device fabrication with femtosecond laser oscillators,” Optics & Photonics News, vol. 14, pp. 44-49, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Optics Communications

M. Li, M. Ishizuka, X. Liu, Y. Sugimoto, N. Ikeda, and K. Asakawa, “Nanostructuring in submicronlevel waveguides with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Comm., vol. 212, pp. 159-163, 2002.
[CrossRef]

P. P. Pronko, S. K. Dutta, J. Squier, J. V. Rudd, D. Du, and G. Mourou, “Machining of sub-micron holes using a femtosecond Laser at 800 nm,” Optics Comm., vol. 114, pp. 106-110, 1995.
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

R. Stoian, D. Ashkenasi, A. Rosenfeld, and E. E. B. Campbell, “Coulomb explosion in ultrashort pulsed laser ablation of <TEX>$Al_2O_3$<TEX>,” Phys. Rev. B, vol. 62, pp. 13167-13173, 2001.
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

M. Lenzner, J. Kruger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, C. Spielmann, G. Mourou, W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, “Femtosecond optical breakdown in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 80, pp. 4076-4079, 1998.
[CrossRef]

Physics of Plasmas

E. G. Gamaly, A. V. Rode, and B. Luther-Davies, “Ablation of solids by femtosecond laser: ablation mechanism and ablation thresholds for metals and dielectrics,” Phys. Plasmas, vol. 9, pp. 949-957, 2002.
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

J. Kruger and W. Kautek, “In Laser-Induced Thin Film Processing,” J. J. Dubowski, Ed. Proc. SPIE, vol. 2403, pp. 436-439, 1995.

R. Haight, D. Hayden, P. Longo, T. Neary, and A. Wagner, “Implementation and performance of a femtosecond laser mask repair system in manufacturing,” Pro. SPIE, issue. 3546, pp. 477-484, 1998.
[CrossRef]

Y. Shani, I. Melnick, S. Yoffe, Y. Sharon, K. Liebermann, and H. Terkel, “High-resolution near-field mask repair with femtosecond laser,” Pro. SPIE, issue. 3546, pp. 112-120, 1998.
[CrossRef]

Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of

X. Liu, D. Du, and G. Mourou, “Laser ablation and micromachining with ultrashort laser pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron, vol. 33, pp. 1706-1716, 1997.
[CrossRef]

Other

R. A. House II and A. H. Guenther, Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials (NBS Spec. Pub., 1976), pp. 338-340.

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