Abstract

We report the formation of inner cladding modes in the optical fiber having an inner cladding structure. The inner cladding layer located between the core- and the cladding- layers of a conventional fiber might have, so called, inner cladding mode(s). The brief history of the inner cladding fiber and the spectral properties of the inner cladding mode are presented. By utilizing fiber gratings, the spectral properties of the inner cladding mode formed in Dispersion Compensating Fiber (DCF) are discussed. It was observed that one resonant peak of a long-period fiber grating was not sensitive to the variation on the cladding surface. With a fiber Bragg grating, a small group of unusual resonant Peaks was observed between the main Bragg Peak and the series of usual Peaks resulted from the mode coupling to counter-propagating cladding modes. Within the DCF by using fiber gratings, it is noted, at least one mode can be coupled to the inner cladding mode and a few outer cladding modes are severely affected by the inner cladding of the fiber.

© 2003 Optical Society of Korea

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  1. T. Erdogan, “Fiber grating spectra,” J. of Lightwave Technol., vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 1277-1294, 1997.
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. -J. Eom, Y. -J. Kim, Y. Chung, W. -T. Han, U. -C. Paek, and B. H. Lee, “Asymmetric transmission spectrum of a long-period fiber grating and its removal using a beam scanning method,” IEICE Trans. Commun., vol. E84-B, no. 5, pp. 1241-1245, 2001.
  3. B. H. Lee and J. Nishii, “Cladding-surrounding interface insensitive long-period grating,” Electron. Lett., vol. 34, no. 11, pp. 1129-1130, 1998.
    [CrossRef]
  4. E. M. Dianov, S. A. Vasiliev, A. S. Kurkov, O. I. Medvedkov, and V. N. Protopopov, “In-fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on a pair of long- period gratings,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication "96, Belgium, pp. 65-68, 1996.
  5. B. H. Lee and J. Nishii, “Dependence of fringe spacing on the grating separation in a long-period fiber grating pair,” Applied Optics, vol. 38, no. 16, pp. 3450-3459, 1999.
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Ramachandran, B. Mikkelsen, L. C. Cowsar, M. F. Yan, G. Raybon, L. Boivin, M. Fishteyn, W. A. Reed, P. Wisk, D. Brownlow, R. G. Huff, and Gruner- Nielsen, “All-fiber grating-based higher order mode dispersion compensator for broad-band compensation and 1000-km transmission at 40 Gb/s,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 632-634, 2001.
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. -L. Auguste, R. Jindal, J. -M. Blondy, M. Clapeau, J. Marcou, B. Dussardier, G. Monnom, D. B. Ostrowsky, B. P. Pal, and K. Thyagarajan, “- 1800ps/(nm.km) chromatic dispersion at 1.55<TEX>$\mu$</TEX>m in dual concentric core fibre,” Electron. Lett., vol. 36, no. 20, pp. 1689-1691, 2000.
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. H. Lee, Y. Liu, S. B. Lee, S. S. Choi, and J. N. Jang, “Displacements of the resonant peaks of a longperiod fiber grating induced by a change of ambient refractive index,” Opt. Lett., vol. 22, no. 23, pp. 1769-1771, 1997.
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  10. B. H. Lee, and J. Nishii, “Bending sensitivity of inseries long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Lett., vol. 23, no. 20, pp.1624-1626, 1998.
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Ramachandran, S. Ghalmi, Z. Wang, and M. Yan, “Band-selection filters with concatenated long-period gratings in few-mode fibers,” Opt. Lett., vol. 27, no. 19, pp. 1678-1680, 2002.
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. Erdogan, “Cladding-mode resonances in short- and long- period fiber grating filters,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 1760-1773, 1997.
    [CrossRef]

2002 (1)

S. Ramachandran, S. Ghalmi, Z. Wang, and M. Yan, “Band-selection filters with concatenated long-period gratings in few-mode fibers,” Opt. Lett., vol. 27, no. 19, pp. 1678-1680, 2002.
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

T. -J. Eom, Y. -J. Kim, Y. Chung, W. -T. Han, U. -C. Paek, and B. H. Lee, “Asymmetric transmission spectrum of a long-period fiber grating and its removal using a beam scanning method,” IEICE Trans. Commun., vol. E84-B, no. 5, pp. 1241-1245, 2001.

S. Ramachandran, B. Mikkelsen, L. C. Cowsar, M. F. Yan, G. Raybon, L. Boivin, M. Fishteyn, W. A. Reed, P. Wisk, D. Brownlow, R. G. Huff, and Gruner- Nielsen, “All-fiber grating-based higher order mode dispersion compensator for broad-band compensation and 1000-km transmission at 40 Gb/s,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 632-634, 2001.
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J. -L. Auguste, R. Jindal, J. -M. Blondy, M. Clapeau, J. Marcou, B. Dussardier, G. Monnom, D. B. Ostrowsky, B. P. Pal, and K. Thyagarajan, “- 1800ps/(nm.km) chromatic dispersion at 1.55<TEX>$\mu$</TEX>m in dual concentric core fibre,” Electron. Lett., vol. 36, no. 20, pp. 1689-1691, 2000.
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

B. H. Lee and J. Nishii, “Dependence of fringe spacing on the grating separation in a long-period fiber grating pair,” Applied Optics, vol. 38, no. 16, pp. 3450-3459, 1999.
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

B. H. Lee and J. Nishii, “Cladding-surrounding interface insensitive long-period grating,” Electron. Lett., vol. 34, no. 11, pp. 1129-1130, 1998.
[CrossRef]

B. H. Lee, and J. Nishii, “Bending sensitivity of inseries long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Lett., vol. 23, no. 20, pp.1624-1626, 1998.
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

T. Erdogan, “Cladding-mode resonances in short- and long- period fiber grating filters,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 1760-1773, 1997.
[CrossRef]

T. Erdogan, “Fiber grating spectra,” J. of Lightwave Technol., vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 1277-1294, 1997.
[CrossRef]

B. H. Lee, Y. Liu, S. B. Lee, S. S. Choi, and J. N. Jang, “Displacements of the resonant peaks of a longperiod fiber grating induced by a change of ambient refractive index,” Opt. Lett., vol. 22, no. 23, pp. 1769-1771, 1997.
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

E. M. Dianov, S. A. Vasiliev, A. S. Kurkov, O. I. Medvedkov, and V. N. Protopopov, “In-fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on a pair of long- period gratings,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication "96, Belgium, pp. 65-68, 1996.

1987 (1)

N. Kuwaki, M. Ohashi, C. Tanaka, N. Uesugi, S. Seikai, and Y. Negishi, “Characteristics of dispersionshifted dual shape core single-mode fibers,” J. of Lightwave Technol., LT-5, pp. 792-797, 1987.
[CrossRef]

Applied Optics (1)

B. H. Lee and J. Nishii, “Dependence of fringe spacing on the grating separation in a long-period fiber grating pair,” Applied Optics, vol. 38, no. 16, pp. 3450-3459, 1999.
[CrossRef]

Electron.Lett. (1)

J. -L. Auguste, R. Jindal, J. -M. Blondy, M. Clapeau, J. Marcou, B. Dussardier, G. Monnom, D. B. Ostrowsky, B. P. Pal, and K. Thyagarajan, “- 1800ps/(nm.km) chromatic dispersion at 1.55<TEX>$\mu$</TEX>m in dual concentric core fibre,” Electron. Lett., vol. 36, no. 20, pp. 1689-1691, 2000.
[CrossRef]

Electron.Lett., (1)

B. H. Lee and J. Nishii, “Cladding-surrounding interface insensitive long-period grating,” Electron. Lett., vol. 34, no. 11, pp. 1129-1130, 1998.
[CrossRef]

European Conf. on Optical Communication`96, (1)

E. M. Dianov, S. A. Vasiliev, A. S. Kurkov, O. I. Medvedkov, and V. N. Protopopov, “In-fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on a pair of long- period gratings,” in European Conf. on Optical Communication "96, Belgium, pp. 65-68, 1996.

IEICE Trans.Commun (1)

T. -J. Eom, Y. -J. Kim, Y. Chung, W. -T. Han, U. -C. Paek, and B. H. Lee, “Asymmetric transmission spectrum of a long-period fiber grating and its removal using a beam scanning method,” IEICE Trans. Commun., vol. E84-B, no. 5, pp. 1241-1245, 2001.

JOSA A (1)

T. Erdogan, “Cladding-mode resonances in short- and long- period fiber grating filters,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 1760-1773, 1997.
[CrossRef]

Lightwave Technology, Journal of (2)

N. Kuwaki, M. Ohashi, C. Tanaka, N. Uesugi, S. Seikai, and Y. Negishi, “Characteristics of dispersionshifted dual shape core single-mode fibers,” J. of Lightwave Technol., LT-5, pp. 792-797, 1987.
[CrossRef]

T. Erdogan, “Fiber grating spectra,” J. of Lightwave Technol., vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 1277-1294, 1997.
[CrossRef]

Optics Letters (3)

B. H. Lee, Y. Liu, S. B. Lee, S. S. Choi, and J. N. Jang, “Displacements of the resonant peaks of a longperiod fiber grating induced by a change of ambient refractive index,” Opt. Lett., vol. 22, no. 23, pp. 1769-1771, 1997.
[CrossRef]

B. H. Lee, and J. Nishii, “Bending sensitivity of inseries long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Lett., vol. 23, no. 20, pp.1624-1626, 1998.
[CrossRef]

S. Ramachandran, S. Ghalmi, Z. Wang, and M. Yan, “Band-selection filters with concatenated long-period gratings in few-mode fibers,” Opt. Lett., vol. 27, no. 19, pp. 1678-1680, 2002.
[CrossRef]

Photonics Technology Letters, IEEE (1)

S. Ramachandran, B. Mikkelsen, L. C. Cowsar, M. F. Yan, G. Raybon, L. Boivin, M. Fishteyn, W. A. Reed, P. Wisk, D. Brownlow, R. G. Huff, and Gruner- Nielsen, “All-fiber grating-based higher order mode dispersion compensator for broad-band compensation and 1000-km transmission at 40 Gb/s,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 632-634, 2001.
[CrossRef]

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