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Supercontinuum generation in organic liquid-liquid core-cladding photonic crystal fiber in visible and near infrared regions

rasoul raei

Doc ID: 305293 Received 31 Aug 2017; Accepted 15 Dec 2017; Posted 15 Dec 2017  View: PDF

Abstract: In this paper, we propose liquid core-cladding photonic crystal fiber (PCF), which engineered with different available organic optofluidics to generate supercontinuum in visible and near infrared (NIR) regime by using symmetrized split-step Fourier method (S-SSFM). Simulations reveal, in response to launching 50 fs input pulses of 10 kW peak power, centered about λ0=1032 and 1560 nm, into 10 mm long liquid core-cladding PCF, maximum 2 μm supercontinua from 500 to 2500 nm can be achieved. Our numerical study is important for the novel field of visible and near-IR supercontinuum generation in liquid-core optical fibers.

An perturbation-iteration method for multi-peak solitons in nonlocal nonlinear media

Weiyi Hong, B Tian, Rui Li, Qi Guo, and Wei Hu

Doc ID: 306447 Received 05 Sep 2017; Accepted 13 Dec 2017; Posted 15 Dec 2017  View: PDF

Abstract: An perturbation-iteration method is developed for the computation of the Hermite-Gauss-like solitons with arbitrary peak numbers in nonlocal nonlinear media. This method is based on the perturbed model of the Schrödinger equation for the harmonic oscillator, in which the minimum perturbation is obtained by the iteration. This method takes a few tens of iteration loops to achieve enough high accuracy, and never involves the initial condition problem. The method we developed might also be extended to the numerical integration of the Schrödinger equations in any type of potentials.

High-gain, Low threshold and Small footprint Optical Parametric Amplifier for Photonic Integrated Circuits

Shatrughna Kumar and Mrinal Sen

Doc ID: 312553 Received 06 Nov 2017; Accepted 13 Dec 2017; Posted 15 Dec 2017  View: PDF

Abstract: A new model of an optical parametric amplifier is proposed based on silicon-slab slotted photonic crystal waveguide (SPCW). The slot is considered to be filled with silicon nanocrystal material (SiNC/SiO2) having a high Kerr nonlinearity. The extreme optical confinement (spatial and temporal) of the SPCW has enhanced the optical nonlinearity and, thus, a high parametric gain is attained in a small length of the waveguide. Further, for analyses of pulse propagation, the coupled nonlinear Schrodinger’s equations have been modified to incorporate the enhancements in the linear and the nonlinear coefficients due to the slow-light effect. Simulations have been performed both on the high group index region and the low dispersion regions of the guided band. The simulations on the high group index region, centered at ≈ 1584 nm, depicts a 22.6 dB parametric gain and a 20.9 dB conversionefficiency at a waveguide length of 152 μm; with an effective pump power and peak input signal power of 700 mW and 0.25 mW respectively. The pulsating signal, with a pulse width of 5 ps, also experienced a negligible deterioration in their pulse shapes in this length of the SPCW. On the other hand, the simulations on the region of negligible dispersion, centered at 1530 nm, have produced an over 10 dB parametric gain and conversionefficiency through a long range of wavelengths, i.e. 1490 − 1568 nm, which covers half of the S-band and the complete C-band of the optical communication windows. The significant gain at a micron scale lengthof the waveguide is expected to advance the possibility of on-chip integration of high-speed all-optical amplifier in photonic integrated circuits.

Experimental simulation of a decohering Schrödinger's cat state in wave optics

Makoto Takeuchi, Keisuke Nishimura, and Takahiro Kuga

Doc ID: 313504 Received 15 Nov 2017; Accepted 13 Dec 2017; Posted 15 Dec 2017  View: PDF

Abstract: The study of decoherence properties improves our understanding of the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics and advances the study of quantum information processing.Herein, we report a wave-optical experiment that can simulate the decoherence process of a Schrödinger's cat state (SCS) by photon loss.The method is based on an analogy between image rotation in wave optics and a beam splitter in quantum optics.Experimental results show that the SCS rapidly decays into a statistical mixture of two Gaussian distributions with approximately 10 % photon loss.This behavior can be well described within the framework of quantum optics.

Design and modelling of dispersion engineered all-chalcogenide triangular core fiber for mid-infrared region supercontinuum generation

Harith Ahmad, Mohammad Karim, and Azizur Rahman

Doc ID: 308537 Received 03 Oct 2017; Accepted 12 Dec 2017; Posted 13 Dec 2017  View: PDF

Abstract: An ultrabroadband mid-infrared supercontinuum (SC) source has been designed and modelled using a 10-mm-long all-chalcogenide triangular core fiber (TCF). The TCF structure is fabricated from Ge₁₁.₅As₂₄Se₆₄.₅ chalcogenide glass as a core and Ge₁₁.₅As₂₄S₆₄.₅ chalcogenide glass for its cladding running along the length of the fiber instead of air-holes. Assuming the pump operates at 4 μm, the TCF is optimized by varying its side length both anomalous and all-normal dispersion SC generation. Mid-infrared region SC evolution of more than 15 μm could be generated with a low peak power of 3 kW by the proposed TCF structure optimized with varying its side length between 7 and 8 μm in anomalous dispersion pumping. On the other hand, the TCF side length has to be decreased to 5.5 μm and below to optimize it for pumping in all-normal dispersion region SC generation. A coherent flat-top SC evolution in the mid-infrared region of up to 7 μm could be observed by this design with the same pump peak power and pulse duration applied before. The ultrawide optical bandwidth obtained by the proposed TCF design can be an effective tool for mid-infrared region applications such as optical coherence tomography, molecular fingerprint spectroscopy and biomedical imaging.

Seeded intermodal four-wave mixing in a highly multimode fiber

Abdelkrim Bendahmane, Katarzyna Krupa, Alessandro Tonello, Daniele Modotto, Thibaut Sylvestre, Vincent COUDERC, Stefan Wabnitz, and Guy Millot

Doc ID: 309780 Received 23 Oct 2017; Accepted 12 Dec 2017; Posted 13 Dec 2017  View: PDF

Abstract: We experimentally and theoretically investigate the process of seeded intermodal four-wave mixing in a graded-index multimode fiber, pumped in the normal dispersion regime. By using a fiber with a 100 µm core diameter, we generate a parametric sideband in the C-band (1530–1565 nm), hence allowing the use of an Erbium-based laser to seed the mixing process. To limit nonlinear coupling between the pump and the seed to low-order fiber modes, the waist diameter of the pump beam is properly adjusted. We observe that the superimposed seed stimulates the generation of new spectral sidebands. A detailed characterization of the spectral and spatial properties of these sidebands shows good agreement with theoretical predictions. Furthermore, temporal measurements performed with a fast photodiode reveal the generation of multiple pulse structures.

Pulse breaking through spectral filtering in dispersion-managed fiber lasers

Magda ALSALEH, Uthayakumar Thangaraj, Emmanuel FELENOU, Patrice Tchofo Dinda, Philippe Grelu, and K. Porsezian

Doc ID: 296968 Received 31 Jul 2017; Accepted 12 Dec 2017; Posted 13 Dec 2017  View: PDF

Abstract: We unveil numerically the mechanism governing the onset of multiple pulsing in dispersion-managed mode-locked fiber lasers. This mechanism mainly results from the opposition between spectral narrowing induced by intracavity filtering andspectral broadening through self-phase modulation. When spectral broadening reaches a critical point, the interplay of these two effects entails pulse breaking, followed by a relaxation process that brings back the pulse spectrum within the filter bandwidth limits.

Holograms for power-efficient excitation of optical surface waves

Anton Ignatov and Alexander Merzlikin

Doc ID: 305618 Received 24 Aug 2017; Accepted 11 Dec 2017; Posted 13 Dec 2017  View: PDF

Abstract: A method for effective excitation of optical surface waves based on holography principles has been proposed. For a particular example of excitation of a plasmonic wave in a dielectric layer on metal the efficiency of proposed volume holograms in the dielectric layer has been analyzed in comparison with optimized periodic gratings in the dielectric layer. Conditions when the holograms are considerably more efficient than the gratings have been found out. In addition, holograms recorded in two iterations have been proposed and studied. Such holograms are substantially more efficient than the optimized periodic gratings for all incidence angles of an exciting Gaussian beam. The proposed method is universal: it can be extended for efficient excitation of different types of optical surface waves and optical waveguide modes.

The quantum delayed-choice protocol by means of the polarization degree of freedom of a photon

Firat Diker

Doc ID: 307613 Received 20 Sep 2017; Accepted 11 Dec 2017; Posted 13 Dec 2017  View: PDF

Abstract: In this work, we revisit the previously demonstrated experiment called The Quantum Delayed-Choice Experiment [R. Ionicioiu, and D. R. Terno, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 0406, 2011] which shows that it is possible to reveal the wave and particle nature of photons simultaneously. After discussing the main points of this article concerning the fundamental aspect of wave-particle duality, we theoretically show that the same observation can be achieved by operating on the polarization state of a photon. For this purpose, we apply the same operators except they transform the polarization states whereas mode operation was performed in the previous work.

Plasmonic Second Harmonic Generation in Gold:Lithium Niobate Thin Films

Vincent Ng, Aravindan Warrier, Ji Lin, David Spence, James Downes, David Coutts, and Judith Dawes

Doc ID: 307857 Received 25 Sep 2017; Accepted 11 Dec 2017; Posted 13 Dec 2017  View: PDF

Abstract: Using a sample consisting of a thin gold film on lithium niobate, the plasmonic second harmonic response of gold is measured simultaneously with the optical second harmonic response of lithium niobate. The non-phase-matched, bulk optical second harmonic response of the lithium niobate is used to calibrate the plasmonic signal, and these are found to be of comparable intensity over the short propagation distances which arise in this system.

Tailoring thermal radiation with Ag/SiO2 photonic crystal: A study with experimental dielectric dispersion

A Huang, Xiao Zhang, yi Lou, Hua Chen, Xin Li, and Yu Wang

Doc ID: 312899 Received 06 Nov 2017; Accepted 10 Dec 2017; Posted 11 Dec 2017  View: PDF

Abstract: With experimentally-reported dielectric data for metallic sublayer, the breakdown of Drude dielectric model is shown here in accurately predicting the performances of Ag/SiO2 photonic crystal filter, and realistic spectral efficiency of reshaped spectrum is only a half of that calculated with Drude model. In comparison to unshaped thermal spectrum, even two-fold strong enhancement of spectral efficiency can be expected for thermal spectrum reshaped by Ag/SiO2 filter, and meanwhile effective above-bandgap transmission can be as high as 66%, displaying comparable performances as those observed in all-dielectric Si/SiO2 photonic crystal filter while using the lesser number of sublayers. These observations provide some attractive characteristics to develop the efficient thermophotovoltaic optical filters.

Dissipative Soliton Mediated Radiations in Active Silicon-Based Waveguides

Ambaresh Sahoo and samudra roy

Doc ID: 308688 Received 06 Oct 2017; Accepted 08 Dec 2017; Posted 08 Dec 2017  View: PDF

Abstract: The Ginzburg-Landau (GL) equation is in general not integrable by the inverse scattering method and support solitary-wave solution, called dissipative soliton (DS). We numerically demonstrate that, a DS can radiate dispersive waves (DWs) in presence of third-order dispersion (TOD). We propose a silicon-based active waveguide that excites stable DSs. Energy can be transferred from these stable DS to linear DWs when a resonance condition is achieved. The dynamics of the DS is governed by the complex GL equation which we solve numerically for different operational parameters. Numerical solution of the perturbed GL equation exhibits multiple radiations, when the stable DS is allowed to propagate through a large distance. We theoretically derive a special phase-matching relation that can predict the frequencies of these multiple radiations, which are found numerically. The energy of the radiated wave is also calculated semi-analytically by adopting plane wave superposition technique. In our theoretical and numerical calculations we include the role of free carriers which appear inside semiconductor waveguides as a consequence of two-photon absorption (TPA). We demonstrate that apart from TOD, TPA and gain dispersion are two additional parameters that can control the energy and frequency of the radiation emitted by DS. The DS-mediated radiation is characteristically different from ordinary Kerr-soliton mediated radiation and demands an insightful understanding. In this work we try to provide detail insights of this fascinating phenomenon by adopting elaborate analytical and numerical calculations.

Zero-lag Intensity Correlation Properties in Small Ring Laser Network with Heterogeneous Delays

Shuiying Xiang, Junkai Gong, Hao Zhang, Xingxing Guo, Haoning Wang, Yahui Zhang, and Aijun Wen

Doc ID: 303621 Received 28 Jul 2017; Accepted 07 Dec 2017; Posted 07 Dec 2017  View: PDF

Abstract: The zero lag correlation properties of intensity chaos in ring networks consisting of three semiconductor lasers mutually coupled with heterogeneous delays are numerically investigated. The role of heterogeneous coupling delays on the zero lag chaotic intensity correlation is revealed for the first time, and the effects of coupling strength and frequency detuning are also considered. Furthermore, by introducing imaginary nodes to map the heterogeneous ring network to equivalent homogeneous (EHM) ring network with identical delay, the relationship between such zero lag correlation properties of intensity chaos and the greatest common divisor (GCD) of the EHM ring network loop length is revealed. It is shown that, when the coupling strength is sufficiently large, both the zero lag global synchronization and zero lag cluster synchronization can be found in the ring network, depending on the GCD of the delay loops composing the network. By carefully adjusting the coupling delays one can deliberately switch between different zero lag synchrony patterns of the laser ring network, which opens up the possibility to design advanced chaos-based communication and sensing networks, and also has implication in the neuronal synchrony.

Absorption Enhancement in Thin-Film Solar Cells using an Integrated Metasurface Lens

Mohammad Shameli and Leila Yousefi

Doc ID: 305445 Received 07 Sep 2017; Accepted 05 Dec 2017; Posted 05 Dec 2017  View: PDF

Abstract: A new method is proposed to focus and trap sunlight inside thin film solar cells. In this method, a nanostructure metasurface-based flat lens is integrated inside the silicon thin film solar cell, to focus the light in the active area of the cell. The flat lens is designed using generalized Snell’s laws, and its characteristics are investigated using 3-dimensional numerical full wave analysis. The designed flat lens is integrated in the solar cell, and the performance of the cell is numerically studied at different wavelengths as well as different angles of incidence, for both TM and TE polarizations. The numerical results show that the proposed method significantly enhances the absorption in the cell in the visible and infrared range of the solar spectrum. The short circuit current is numerically calculated, and the results show that it is increased for both TM and TE polarizations by a factor of 2.6 and 2.4, respectively.

Plasmonic Nano-arrays for Enhanced Photoemission and Photodetection

Shiva Piltan and Daniel Sievenpiper

Doc ID: 308464 Received 02 Oct 2017; Accepted 04 Dec 2017; Posted 05 Dec 2017  View: PDF

Abstract: Efficient conversion of photons to electrical energy has a wide variety of applications including imaging, energy harvesting, and infrared detection. The coupling of electromagnetic radiation to free electron oscillations at a metal interface results in enhanced electric fields tightly confined to the surface. Taking advantage of this nonlinear light-matter interaction, this work presents resonant surfaces optimized for combining electrical and photonic excitations in order to liberate electrons in a vacuum-channel device for applications ranging from enhanced photoemission to infrared photodetection.

An alternate theoretical formulation of optical force on a dielectric sphere in the ray optics limit

Arijit De and Anita Devi

Doc ID: 305481 Received 23 Aug 2017; Accepted 03 Dec 2017; Posted 06 Dec 2017  View: PDF

Abstract: In past, the optical force on a micron-sized dielectric sphere in a single-beam gradient laser trap was formulated by considering two-dimensional distribution of rays for a plane-wave excitation. However, laser beams usually have Gaussian transverse intensity profile which, up on tight focusing, leads to a three-dimensional optical trap. Here we systematically formulate a general method for estimating force (and potential) for a Gaussian laser beam using three-dimensional distribution of rays and show that the previous theoretical formulation considering two-dimensional distribution of rays underestimates the trapping force (and potential). In addition, we also present a detailed discussion on the nature of force (and potential) considering optical Kerr effect under high repetition-rate ultrafast pulsed excitation.

Wireless Quantum Key Distribution in Indoor Environments

Osama Elmabrok and Mohsen Razavi

Doc ID: 302742 Received 19 Jul 2017; Accepted 01 Dec 2017; Posted 04 Dec 2017  View: PDF

Abstract: We propose and study the feasibility of wireless quantum key distribution (QKD) in indoor environments. Such systems are essential in providing wireless access to the developing quantum communications networks. We find a practical regime of operation, where, in the presence of external light sources and loss, secret keys can be exchanged. Our findings identify the trade-off between the acceptable amount of background light and the receiver field of view, where the latter specifies the type of equipment needed for the end user and its range of movements. In particular, we show that, using a proper setting, we can provide mobility for the QKD users without imposing stringent conditions on beam steering.

Noisy propagation of coherent states in a lossy Kerr medium

Ludwig Kunz, Matteo Paris, and Konrad Banaszek

Doc ID: 308738 Received 10 Oct 2017; Accepted 29 Nov 2017; Posted 04 Dec 2017  View: PDF

Abstract: We identify and discuss nonlinear phase noise arising in Kerr self-phase modulation of a coherent light pulse propagating through an attenuating medium with third-order nonlinearity in a dispersion-free setting. This phenomenon, accompanying the standard unitary Kerr transformation of the optical field, is described with high accuracy as Gaussian phase diffusion with parameters given by closed expressions in terms of the system properties. We show that the irreversibility of the nonlinear phase noise ultimately limits the ability to transmit classical information in the phase variable over a lossy single-mode bosonic channel with Kerr-type nonlinearity. Our model can be also used to estimate the amount of squeezing attainable through self-phase modulation in a Kerr medium with distributed attenuation.

Stable pulse generation in bias pumped gain-switched fiber laser

Fuyong Wang

Doc ID: 304817 Received 15 Aug 2017; Accepted 29 Nov 2017; Posted 05 Dec 2017  View: PDF

Abstract: We demonstrate gain-switched fiber laser with bias pumping plays an important role in regulating chaotic relaxation spikes. Under certain conditions the profile of output pulse from gain-switched fiber laser can keep the same shape as that of pump pulse. Bias pumping technique may have significance in increasing output stable pulse energy in gain-switched fiber laser. Gain-switched fiber laser with bias pumping may be interesting for some applications in micro-processing and thin film removal.

Design Considerations of Super-Directive Nanoantennas for Core-Shell Nanowires

Abdelrahman Ghanim, MOHAMED HUSSEIN, Mohamed Hameed, and Salah Obayya

Doc ID: 307829 Received 25 Sep 2017; Accepted 28 Nov 2017; Posted 01 Dec 2017  View: PDF

Abstract: The metallodielectric Yagi antenna showed a high directivity in the visible range as compared with all dielectric nanoantennas. In this paper, two different configurations have been introduced and analyzed; the slanted nanowire optical Yagi antenna and asymmetric core shell nanoantenna. Both designs have an Ag core and Si shell. The numerical results are obtained using 3D-finite difference time domain technique (FDTD). The proposed nanoantennas show an ultra-directive radiation in the direction of propagation. It has been shown that by varying the angle Θ of the slanted nanowire directors, the directivity of the nanoantenna is enhanced and the beam width becomes very narrow in the desired direction. The directivity is improved to 21. when Θ = 18° and the radiation efficiency is enhanced to 54 % at wavelength of 500 nm. Additionally, the asymmetric core shell Yagi design enhanced the directivity to 22.4 at a wavelength of 500 nm, with an enhancement of 30% over the symmetric design. This improvement is attributed to the near field intensity enhancement of the asymmetric core shell design. The variation of the silver core position may be beneficial for various applications, including surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy, energy harvesting, photodetection and photovoltaic.

Improvement of entanglement via quantum-scissors

Xue-xiang Xu, Li-yun Hu, and Zeyang Liao

Doc ID: 308919 Received 10 Oct 2017; Accepted 27 Nov 2017; Posted 28 Nov 2017  View: PDF

Abstract: We theoretically propose a scheme for entanglement distillation of the two-mode squeezed vacuum state (TMSVS) by nondeterministic optical nonlinear amplification based on the work [Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 1 603 (2010)]. By applying the quantum-scissors operations to both modes of the TMSVS, only the twin vacuum and the twin one-photon components can survive in the resulting state. We show that both entanglement and squeezing can be enhanced in the high transmissivity and low squeezing region. In addition, a comparison with symmetrical single photon-subtraction and quantum catalysis shows that the proposed states can achieve a better entanglement enhancement than the photon-subtraction in high transmissivity region, and a similar property is shared by the catalyzed states in low transmissivity region.

Towards the generation of broadband optical vortices:extending the spectral range of a q-plate bypolarization-selective filtering

Mindaugas Gecevicius, Maksym Ivanov, Martynas Beresna, Aidas Matijosius, Viktorija Tamuliene, Titas Gertus, Ausra Cerkauskaite, Kipras Redeckas, Mikas Vengris, Valerijus Smilgevicius, and Peter Kazansky

Doc ID: 306637 Received 14 Sep 2017; Accepted 26 Nov 2017; Posted 28 Nov 2017  View: PDF

Abstract: Optical vortex beams in the visible and nIR spectrum over a wide spectral region are generated by a single S-Waveplate polarization converter using polarization-selective filtering. A spectral coverage of 600 nm is demonstrated, with maximum efficiency at a wavelength of 530 nm. The broadband coverage is obtained using polarization filtering, which is applicable for any component based on geometric phase retardation. The efficiency of the filtering varies from 50% to 95% depending on the wavelength. This technique has a potential application in stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy and lithography.

Entanglement of two two-levels atoms mediated by an optical black hole

Mahnaz Tavakoli and Ehsan Amooghorban

Doc ID: 307627 Received 21 Sep 2017; Accepted 26 Nov 2017; Posted 28 Nov 2017  View: PDF

Abstract: We consider the dynamics of a system consisting of two two-level atoms interacting withthe electromagnetic field near an optical black hole.We obtain the reduced density operator of the two-atom system in the weak coupling regime for the case that one atom is in the excited state and the other in the ground state. The time evolution of the negativity between the atoms is discussed for two non-resonance and resonance cases.In both cases, we show that the two atoms can become entangled due to the indirect interaction mediated through the optical black hole.

A five-level Ar-He discharge model for characterization of a diode-pumped rare gas laser

Ben Eshel and Glen Perram

Doc ID: 308736 Received 06 Oct 2017; Accepted 25 Nov 2017; Posted 28 Nov 2017  View: PDF

Abstract: A five-level discharge kinetics model is developed to characterize the scaling potential of the diodepumpedrare gas laser. The predicted excited state populations are examined as functions of the gas pressure,gas temperature, electron density, and electron temperature. The density of the metastable Ar(1s5)level is a sensitive function of electron temperature, increasing from 10¹² cm·³ at 1 eV to 5×10¹³ cm·³ at1.2 eV, for a total pressure of 400 Torr and a gas temperature of 440 K. This is in contrast to the distributionamong excited states which are most sensitive to the electron density and result from the interplay of theelectron-impact and neutral-impact spin-orbit mixing rates. The model is bench-marked using absorption,emission and gain data from recent laser demonstrations. A metastable number-density/path-lengthproduct of 1×10¹⁴ cm·² is required for optimal lasing performance at a strong pump intensity of 20kW/cm2. This system requires an aperture of 6.9 cm² in order to sustain 100 kW performance in the totalvolume of 69 cm³. The primary difficulty in the development of such a discharge system is due to thecombined requirements of a large-volume, homogeneous, atmospheric pressure discharge with sufficientelectron temperature to sustain significant production of the metastable 1s5 state.

Dual-channel narrowband polarization absorber with high field enhancement and refractive index sensitivity based on nanorod array

Wenli Cui, Yuzhang Liang, qiao Wang, Yun Liu, Lixia Li, Mengdi Lu, ZHIDONG ZHANG, Jean-François Masson, and Wei Peng

Doc ID: 304288 Received 08 Aug 2017; Accepted 17 Nov 2017; Posted 20 Nov 2017  View: PDF

Abstract: In this paper, we present a dual-channel narrowband polarization absorber based on a metal-dielectric-metal (MDM) structure, which consists of a top metallic nanorod array, a metal substrate, and an ultrathin middle dielectric spacer. The proposed structure can achieve high absorptance above 96% in a wider angular range of incidence around ±20° at two remarkable absorption peaks for transverse magnetic(TM) polarization under normal incidence. Most significantly, the extremely highly confined enhancement of electromagnetic fields between Au film and nanorods has been observed by employing numerical simulation based on a finite element method, which is up to 110 times compared to incident electric field. The underlying physics mechanism of a strong gap plasmon resonance is analyzed, and it is primarily attributed to the simultaneous excitation of multiple localized electric dipole and magnetic dipole resonance modes in this film-coupled nanorods system. Additionally, we investigate the dependence of dual resonance peaks on structural parameters, as well as their sensitivities to the refractive index of the media surrounding the nanorods. The functions of wavelength modulation and intensity modulation are shown. This structure has great potential in various measurement and analyzing applications such as near-perfect absorption device, plasmonic refractive index bio-sensor and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

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