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Metallic nanolayers -- a sub-visible wonderland of optical properties

Alexander Kaplan

Doc ID: 324598 Received 20 Feb 2018; Accepted 20 Apr 2018; Posted 20 Apr 2018  View: PDF

Abstract: It was predicted long ago that ultra-thin metallic filmsmust exhibit unusual optical properties for radiation frequencies from rf to infrared domain.A film would remain highly reflective even when it is orders of magnitude thinner than a skin depth at any frequency.Only when it is a few nanometers thick (depending on materialbut not on the frequency), its reflectivity and transmittivity get equal, while its absorption peaks at 50%.It has been confirmed experimentally and new directions and applications were proposed. We review the EM theory of the phenomenon and recent developments in the field,and present some new results.

Light scattering in glass-ceramics: revision of the concept

Mikhail Shepilov, Olga Dymshits, and Alexander Zhilin

Doc ID: 322870 Received 13 Feb 2018; Accepted 19 Apr 2018; Posted 20 Apr 2018  View: PDF

Abstract: Transparency of glass-ceramics is limited by light scattering connected with their structure (nano(micro)-sized crystals distributed within the residual glass). We digitized and analyzed graphical data on transparency of glass-ceramics presented in literature and demonstrated that, for most glass-ceramics, wavelength dependence of scattering coefficient is described by the power law with the constant exponent (-p). The values of p are often markedly greater than the Rayleigh value 4 and may be as much as 9. This conclusion is extremely important for the development of new materials and contradicts the generally accepted opinion that p ≤ 4 for glass-ceramics. Similar behavior of light scattering was observed earlier in phase-separated glasses and is known as anomalous light scattering.

Plasmonic Tamm states in insulator-metal-insulatorwaveguides

Linyu Niu, Yinxiao Xiang, Wei Cai, xiaomin zhao, NI Zhang, Qi Jiwei, Xinzheng Zhang, and Jingjun Xu

Doc ID: 323006 Received 12 Feb 2018; Accepted 19 Apr 2018; Posted 19 Apr 2018  View: PDF

Abstract: Plasmonic Tamm states configuration is proposed for field enhancement in insulator-metal-insulator Bragg reflector by periodic modulation of the dielectrics surrounding the metal core. Finite difference time domain simulation is carried out for the structure optimization and the dispersion relation of plasmonic Tamm states. In the metal-Bragg reflector interface, two orders of magnitude of electromagnetic field intensity enhancement and four orders of magnitude of decay rate enhancement are obtained. Besides the field enhancement, there are two plasmonic Tamm states that are related to the even and odd modes in the insulator-metal-insulator waveguide. The two plasmonic Tamm states show large difference in the reflection spectra. The proposed structure would provide promising potentials for electromagnetic nanofocusing, all-optical computing and communication technologies.

Propagation properties of the radially polarizedchirped-Airy vortex beams through slabs of theright-handed materials and left-handed materials

Tianfen Zhong, Jianbin Zhang, Liyan Feng, Zihao Pang, Linyi Wang, and Dongmei Deng

Doc ID: 322815 Received 08 Feb 2018; Accepted 18 Apr 2018; Posted 20 Apr 2018  View: PDF

Abstract: With the transfer matrix method, the analytical expressions of the radially polarized chirped-Airy vortex beams (RPCAiVBs) through the right-handed materials and the left-handed materials are derived. We mainly discuss the effects of the radial polarization and the chirped parameter on the propagation properties including the propagation trajectory, the transverse intensity and the phase distributions, the peak intensity, the transverse orbital and the spin currents, and the radiation forces of the RPCAiVBs in x-direction, y- direction and their synthesizing direction. It is shown that the x-, y- and the synthesizing directions of the RPCAiVBs satisfy the vector synthesis rule owning to the radial polarization and the intensity modulation of the RPCAiVBs can be achieved by varying the chirped parameter.

Line-current model for linear and nonlinear optical properties of thin elongated metallic rod antennas

Maxim Nesterov, Martin Schäferling, Ksenia Weber, Frank Neubrech, Harald Giessen, and Thomas Weiss

Doc ID: 319861 Received 16 Jan 2018; Accepted 16 Apr 2018; Posted 19 Apr 2018  View: PDF

Abstract: Thin elongated rod antennas with a diameter smaller than the skin depth exhibit surface plasmon polariton modes that can propagate along the antenna while being reflected at the antenna ends. In the line-current model, a current is associated with these modes in order to approximate the optical properties of the antennas. We find that it is crucial to correctly derive the reflection of the surface plasmon polariton modes at the antenna ends for predicting the resonance position and shape accurately. Thus, the line-current model allows for deriving the wavelength scaling behavior of plasmonic near fields as well as the emitted third-harmonic intensity efficiently. Neglecting the frequency dependence of the nonlinear susceptibility, we find that the third-harmonic intensity of such metallic rod antennas scales as the fourth power of the frequency, whereas it decreases with the twelfth power within the limit of the generalized Miller's rule.

Dispersion Measurement of Ultra-High Numerical Aperture Fibers covering Thulium, Holmium, and Erbium Emission Wavelengths

Piotr Ciacka, Anupamaa Rampur, Alexander Heidt, Thomas Feurer, and Mariusz Klimczak

Doc ID: 324555 Received 21 Feb 2018; Accepted 12 Apr 2018; Posted 13 Apr 2018  View: PDF

Abstract: We present broadband group velocity dispersion (GVD) measurements of commercially available ultra-high numerical aperture fibers (UHNA1, UHNA3, UHNA4, UHNA7 and PM2000D from Coherent-Nufern). Although these fibers are attractive for dispersion management in ultrafast fiber laser systems in the 2 μm wavelength region, experimental dispersion data in literature is scarce and inconsistent. Here we demonstrate the measurements using the spectral interferometry technique covering the typically used erbium, thulium and holmium emission bands. The results are characterized in terms of the standard-deviation uncertainty and compared with previous literature reports. Fitting parameters are provided for each fiber allowing for the straightforward replication of the measured dispersion profiles. This work is intended to facilitate the design of ultrafast fiber laser sources and the investigations of nonlinear optical phenomena.

Optical study of calcium precipitates in additively colored CaF₂ crystals

Aleksandr Angervaks, Andrei Veniaminov, Maksim Stolyarchuk, Vyacheslav Vasilev, Irina Kudryavtseva, Pavel Fedorov, and Aleksandr Ryskin

Doc ID: 325228 Received 01 Mar 2018; Accepted 11 Apr 2018; Posted 13 Apr 2018  View: PDF

Abstract: The absorption spectra and microscopic images of calcium precipitates in CaF₂ crystals additively colored in a heat-pipe set-up at various coloring regimes are studied. The effect of two main parameters of coloring procedure, calcium vapor pressure and temperature, is found to be different. Higher values of both parameters increase the number of anion vacancies and electrons introduced into the crystal at the procedure, hence increasing also the concentration of calcium precipitates formed at the transformation of accumulations of these components. However, the pressure rise results in the concentration growth of calcium ions converted into colloidal particles, while the increase of temperature produces mainly calcium rods. The specific features of a surface layer of colored crystal depending on coloring regime are discussed.

High-efficiency metasurface grating constituted by new Huygens particles with wide tuning ranges of transmission magnitudes and phases

Yang Xu, Nianxi Xu, hai liu, Dongzhi Shan, Naitao Song, and Jinsong Gao

Doc ID: 326183 Received 16 Mar 2018; Accepted 11 Apr 2018; Posted 13 Apr 2018  View: PDF

Abstract: A subwavelength-scale Huygens particle utilizing both electric and magnetic responses is proposed here. As the electric and magnetic responses of the proposed particle are independent of each other, arbitrary complex transmission coefficients covering all magnitudes from 0 to 0.9 and all phases (360o) can be achieved by varying its structural parameters. By properly engineering the distribution of transmission magnitudes and phases, a Huygens metasurface grating with excitation of +1 order harmonic is designed and fabricated. The measurement results are in agreement with the simulations, further demonstrating the validity of designed Huygens particle and metasurface.

Design of an all-fiber Multimode Interference based multimode optical beam generator: Theory and Experiment

Nitin Bhatia and Shailendra Varshney

Doc ID: 320161 Received 25 Jan 2018; Accepted 11 Apr 2018; Posted 19 Apr 2018  View: PDF

Abstract: We show an all-fiber multimode interference method for achieving pre-determined free-space propagation of multimode optical beams exiting from the fiber end-facet. This method provides an independent control over the relative amplitudes and the relative phase difference between the LP₀,₁ and LP₀,₂ modes of the output few mode fiber, ensuring predictable free-space propagation behavior. We also show that the LP₀,₁ beam suffers greater unpredictability in the free-space propagation, as compared to the LP₀,₂ beam, if the phase difference between the two modes is not controlled. The negative effect of mode-mixing can be avoided if both the modes are in-phase at the fiber end-facet. We also demonstrate significant features in the free-space propagation behavior for different optical beams, justifying the theory.

Ultrafast Photocarrier Dynamics in Single-Layer Graphene Driven by Strong Terahertz Pulses

Ali Mousavian, Byounghwak Lee, Andrew Stickel, and Yun-Shik Lee

Doc ID: 319656 Received 12 Jan 2018; Accepted 10 Apr 2018; Posted 11 Apr 2018  View: PDF

Abstract: Time-resolved high-field terahertz (THz) spectroscopy of photoexcited graphene demonstrates extraordinary photocarrier dynamics in single-layer graphene. Strong THz fields and photoexcitation simultaneously enhance the THz transmission of graphene mainly due to the increase of carrier scattering rates. A theoretical analysis confirms that the graphene conductivity undergoes transient decreases to the large extent under the THz and optical excitations, indicating that both the strong THz fields and photoexcitation effectively elevate the carrier scattering rates. The relaxation of photocarriers, on the other hand, shows opposite effects of the THz fields and photoexcitation. Photoexcitation increases the relaxation time via the reabsorption of optical phonons by photocarriers, while strong THz fields reduce the relaxation time because the field induced redistribution of electrons opens up unoccupied states in the conduction band and consequently enhances the relaxation and the phonon emission.

High-precision two- and three-dimensional atom localization via spatial dependent probe absorption in a closed-loop M-type atomic system

Ajay Wasan and Neeraj Singh

Doc ID: 320705 Received 25 Jan 2018; Accepted 10 Apr 2018; Posted 11 Apr 2018  View: PDF

Abstract: We propose a scheme for high-precision two- and three-dimensional atom localization in coherently driven closed-loop five-level M-type atomic system by using a density matrix formalism. Our system not only consists strong and probe fields but also a microwave field to form a close loop in taken atomic system. Due to position-dependent interaction of atom in standing-wave field, the absorption spectra of the probe field provide the precise information about atom localization in a subspace of one wavelength. While numerically solving the density matrix equations, various kinds of localization patterns are obtained such as parallel wave-, crater-, valley-, and bellshape-like in case of two-dimensional atom localization. Further, three-dimensional atom localization case is also discussed under different parametric conditions. High-precession and high-resolution of atom localization are observed for our case and the localization can be tuned to desired subspace by proper adjusting external parameters. Moreover, maximum conditional probability distribution of atom is also achieved, i.e, $1$ in both two- and three-dimensional localization cases under appropriate conditions.

Liquid Surface Tension and Refractive Index Measurement by using a Tilted Fiber Bragg Grating

Zexu Liu, Yu Shen, Yike xiao, jiaqi gong, Jianfeng Wang, tingting lang, chunliu zhao, Changqing Huang, yongxing jin, Xinyong Dong, Yang Zhang, Zhenguo Jing, Wei Peng, and Yuliya Semenova

Doc ID: 321088 Received 31 Jan 2018; Accepted 10 Apr 2018; Posted 13 Apr 2018  View: PDF

Abstract: A simultaneous refractive index (RI) and liquid surface tension (ST) (at the level of 10-3 N) measurement system has been proposed by using a 1.8 cm-long, 80-tilted fiber Bragg grating (TFBG). When the TFBG is pulled up from the liquid into the air at a fixed height (corresponding to a fixed contact angle between the fiber and the liquid), the ST acting upon the TFBG depends on the length of the TFBG covered with the liquid film along the fiber axis direction. The liquid film covering the grating results in the shifts of the resonant cladding modes of the TFBG. For the liquid with an RI in the range from 1.33 to 1.44, its RI and ST can be obtained simultaneously through measurement of shifts in the resonant wavelengths and changes of the intensities of the resonant wavelengths dips in the TFBG spectrum by using the known ST and RI of water as a reference.

Stability and Dynamics of Microring Combs: Elliptic function solutions of the Lugiato-Lefever equation

J. Kutz, Chang Sun, and Travis Askham

Doc ID: 314784 Received 01 Dec 2017; Accepted 10 Apr 2018; Posted 11 Apr 2018  View: PDF

Abstract: We consider a new class of periodic solutions to the Lugiato-Lefever equations (LLE) that govern the electromagnetic field in a microresonator cavity. Specifically, we rigorously characterize the stability and dynamics of the Jacobi elliptic function solutions of LLE and show that the $\dn$ solution is stabilized by the pumping of the microresonator. In analogy with soliton perturbation theory, we also derive a microcomb perturbation theory that allows one to consider the effects of physically realizable perturbations on the comb line stability, including effects of Raman scattering and stimulated emission. Our results are verified through full numerical simulations of the LLE cavity dynamics. The perturbation theory gives a simple analytic platform for potentially engineering new resonator designs.

Rate equation reformulation including coherent excitation: application to periodic protocols based on spectral holeburning

Yoann Attal, Perrine Berger, Loic Morvan, Pascale Nouchi, Daniel Dolfi, Thierry Chaneliere, and Anne Louchet-Chauvet

Doc ID: 321016 Received 16 Feb 2018; Accepted 09 Apr 2018; Posted 11 Apr 2018  View: PDF

Abstract: A large number of signal processing protocols are based on recording a spectral pattern via spectral holeburning in an inhomogeneously broadened absorption profile. We present a simulation method specifically designed for periodic excitation sequences leading to the creation of a spectral pattern. This method is applicable to any multilevel atomic structure. The atomic variables' coherent dynamics is solved for a single temporal excitation step. The result is expressed as an equivalent population transfer rate. This way, the whole sequence is described as a matrix product and the steady-state of the system under periodic excitation is easily derived. The propagation through the atomic medium is fully decoupled from the temporal evolution. We apply this method to the engraving of a spectral grating in optically thick Tm:YAG for wideband spectral analysis.

Manipulating group velocity of multi-frequency light in a five-level cascade-type atomic medium associated with giant self-Kerr nonlinearity

Bang Nguyen, Doai Le, and Anh Nguyen Tuan

Doc ID: 319164 Received 08 Jan 2018; Accepted 06 Apr 2018; Posted 11 Apr 2018  View: PDF

Abstract: We proposed a model to manipulate group velocity of a multi-frequency probe light in an electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) medium consisting of five-level cascade-type atoms associated with a giant self-Kerr nonlinearity. An analytic expression of group index for the probe light is derived as a function of parameters of the probe and coupling fields, atomic density, and life-times of excited atomic states. In the presence of the self-Kerr, both probe and controlling fields can be used as knobs to manipulate the probe light between the subluminal and superluminal propagation modes in three separated frequency regions. The theoretical model agrees with experimental observation, and it is helpful to find the optimized parameters and related applications. Furthermore, using such a cascade excitation scheme it could be possible choose the uppermost excited electronic states having long life-times, as Rydberg states, to slow the light down to few mm/s.

Propagating bound states in the continuum in dielectric gratings

Evgeny Bulgakov, Dmitrii Maksimov, Polina Semina, and Stanislav Skorobogatov

Doc ID: 322886 Received 08 Feb 2018; Accepted 06 Apr 2018; Posted 06 Apr 2018  View: PDF

Abstract: We consider propagating bound states in the continuum in dielectric gratings.The gratings consist of a slab with ridges periodically arrangedether on top or on the both sides of the slab. Based on the Fourier modal approach we recover theleaky zones above the line of light to identify thegeometries of the gratings supporting Bloch bound states propagating in the direction perpendicular tothe ridges. Most importantly, it is demonstrated that if a two-side grating possesses either mirror orglide symmetrythe Bloch bound states are stable to variation of parameters as far as the above symmetries are preserved.

Double-cavity optical bistability and all-optical switching in four-level N-type atomic system

Ren-Gang Wan, Yu-Yuan Chen, and Ya-Nan Li

Doc ID: 323131 Received 12 Feb 2018; Accepted 06 Apr 2018; Posted 06 Apr 2018  View: PDF

Abstract: We analyze the absorptive and hybrid absorptive-dispersive double-cavity optical bistability behavior in a four-level N-type atomic system driven by two optical fields circulating inside two independently unidirectional ring cavities and a trigger field outside the cavities. In this system, the two-photon absorption and cross Kerr nonlinearity play significant roles in the formation of bistability and can be controlled efficiently due to the quantum interference effect, and then the resulted nonlinear behavior exhibits different features from the two/three-level schemes. It is shown that the threshold values and hysteresis cycle width of the bistable curve can be manipulated via the adjustment of the system parameters. Meanwhile, we also obtain double-beam optical multistability. When adding positive and negative pulses to the cavity input, all-optical steady-state switching for the two cavity outputs can be achieved simultaneously. Therefore, the proposed scheme may have potential applications in all-optical communication and computing.

Construction and Floquet-Bloch analysis of analytically solvable Hill equations with smooth potentials

Gregory Morozov, Donald Sprung, and Alexander Ibrahim

Doc ID: 320712 Received 25 Jan 2018; Accepted 04 Apr 2018; Posted 06 Apr 2018  View: PDF

Abstract: We construct analytically solvable Hill equations with smooth potentials and smooth solutions using a method of Wu and Shih. We then use Floquet-Bloch theory to analyze the band structure and find the Floquet-Bloch fundamental system of solutions of the resulting differential equation. Three examples of constructed potentials and their corresponding solutions are worked out.

Computation of the timing jitter, phase jitter and linewidth of a similariton laser

John Zweck and Curtis Menyuk

Doc ID: 318390 Received 26 Dec 2017; Accepted 03 Apr 2018; Posted 03 Apr 2018  View: PDF

Abstract: We derive a formula for the power spectral density of the frequency comb generated by a fiber laser in terms of the power spectrum of the noise-free optical pulse, the timing jitter, and the phase jitter. We provide the first computational study of phase jitter and comb linewidths in a nonsolitonic fiber laser with large changes in the pulse each round trip. For fiber lasers operating in or near the similariton regime, we investigate how the pulse parameters and noise performance depend on the system parameters.Across a large dispersion range, the dechirped pulsewidth, timing jitter, phase jitter, and comb linewidths are smaller when the gain in the optical amplifier is larger. Over a narrow range of negative dispersion values near zero, the timing jitter and comb linewidths are smaller with a wider optical filter. However, with the wider optical filter, the pulsewidth increases significantly and the noise performance deteriorates rapidly as the dispersion increases above zero. These trends are in general agreement with experimental studies of timing jitter and the linewidth of the carrier-envelope offset frequency in Yb-fiber lasers, and are consistent with the Namiki-Haus theory of timing jitter in a stretched-pulse laser.

Constrained Phase Retrieval: when alternating projection meets regularization

Baoshun Shi, Qiusheng Lian, Xin Huang, and Ni An

Doc ID: 318687 Received 02 Jan 2018; Accepted 03 Apr 2018; Posted 11 Apr 2018  View: PDF

Abstract: Simplicity and few parameters needed to be tuned by hand are the main advantages of alternating projection (AP) methods, a fundamental class of phase retrieval (PR) methods in optical imaging field. However, AP methods often suffer from low-quality imaging when few diffraction patterns are recorded. Regularized PR methods avoid this deficiency by using some proper regularization models, but many manually chosen parameters are needed. In this work, we propose a novel unified framework called constrained PR (ConPR), which brings the AP method and the regularization approach together. The proposed ConPR framework not only can perform high-quality imaging from few diffraction patterns, but also does not need extra hand-tuned parameter. Our proposed generalized constrained PR optimization model consists of a relation function term, a regularization term and a measurement constraint. The measurement constraint ensures that the recovered image matches with the measurement, and the regularization term can impose some desirable properties on the recovered image. The relation function promotes the approximation of the two underlying variables. The sparsity under the BM3D (block-matching and 3-D filtering) frame is incorporated into the proposed ConPR framework, which yields an image updating sub-problem and a constrained optimization sub-problem. The epigragh set of the data fidelity function is defined, and the constrained optimization sub-problem is solved via the epigragh concept. Diffraction imaging from one noisy coded diffraction pattern (CDP) demonstrates the effectiveness of our proposed ConPR algorithm. Most importantly, since the default parameters are utilized in BM3D, no additional parameter in ConPR is needed to be tuned by hand.

Sturmian-Floquet approach to high-order harmonic generation

József Kasza, Peter Dombi, and Peter Földi

Doc ID: 312515 Received 01 Nov 2017; Accepted 27 Mar 2018; Posted 30 Mar 2018  View: PDF

Abstract: We show that the Floquet approach with aSturmian basis means an efficient description of high-order harmonic generation with monochromatic excitation. This method, although involves numerical calculations, is close to analytic approaches with the corresponding deeper insight into the dynamics. As a first application, we investigate the role of atomic coherence during the process of HHG: as it is shown, different coherent superpositions of initial atomic states produce observably different HHG spectra. For linearly polarized excitation, we demonstrate that the question whether the constituents of the initial superpositions are dipole coupled or not, strongly influences the dynamics. By investigating time-dependent HHG signals, we also show that the preparation of the initial atomic state can be used for the control of the high-harmonic radiation.

Coexistence of two-photon absorption and saturable absorption in ion-implanted platinum nanoparticles in silica plates

Carlos Torres-Torres, Jhovani Bornacelli, Bonifacio Can-Uc, Héctor Silva-Pereyra, Luis Rodríguez-Fernández, Miguel Ávalos-Borja, G Labrada-Delgado, Juan Cheang-Wong, Raul Rangel-Rojo, and Alicia Oliver

Doc ID: 314676 Received 01 Dec 2017; Accepted 18 Mar 2018; Posted 19 Apr 2018  View: PDF

Abstract: Platinum nanoparticles were nucleated in a high purity silica matrix by an ion-implantation method. The third-order nonlinear optical response of the samples was studied using femtosecond pulses at 800 nm with the z-scan technique; picosecond pulses at 532 nm using a self-diffraction approach; and nanosecond pulses at 532 nm employing a vectorial two-wave mixing experiment. Nanosecond and picosecond explorations indicated an important thermal process participating in the optical Kerr effect evaluated. However, femtosecond results allowed us to distinguish a purely electronic response, related exclusively to ultrafast refractive and absorptive nonlinearities. Femtosecond experiments pointed out the possibility to switch the dominant physical mechanism responsible for the nonlinear optical absorption in the sample. This opens the potential for controlling quantum mechanisms of optical nonlinearity by femtosecond interactions.

Entangled multi-mode spin coherent states of trapped ions

Yusef Maleki and Alireza Maleki

Doc ID: 315874 Received 18 Dec 2017; Accepted 13 Feb 2018; Posted 16 Feb 2018  View: PDF

Abstract: Multi-mode macroscopic states consisting of asuperposition of spin coherent states that are generated in a trapped ion system are introduced. The role of various parameters that control the entanglement of the system are exposed and their effects are quantified.In particular, it is shown that the generated states exhibit different entanglement characteristics for odd and even $2nj$, where jis the spin of each mode and $n$ is the number of modes.

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