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Fresnel zone-like moiré patterns: Optical generation and plasmonic modulation with proposed surface profilometry application

Mahua Bera, Jayeta Banerjee, and Mina Ray

Doc ID: 261149 Received 14 Mar 2016; Accepted 27 May 2016; Posted 27 May 2016  View: PDF

Abstract: A novel scheme of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) assisted Fresnel-zone like moiré pattern (FZMP) generation has been theoretically and experimentally investigated under dual shearing environment. Lateral shear is followed by radial shear with the help of a Wollaston prism and a birefringent lens respectively. Superposition of two contrast-reversed Fresnel zone-like patterns (FZP) with parallel equi-spaced straight lines interestingly generates the displaced replication of the original FZP particularly when the lateral shear is of sufficient amount. Modulation due to plasmonic excitation has also been observed on such patterns for two different substrate materials. Binary representation of radially sheared images has been illustrated and further utilized for proposed non-contact surface profilometry of metal coating.

Solid state based analog of optomechanics

Nicolas Naumann, Leon Droenner, Alexander Carmele, Weng Chow, and Julia Kabuss

Doc ID: 261351 Received 17 Mar 2016; Accepted 27 May 2016; Posted 27 May 2016  View: PDF

Abstract: We investigate a semiconductor quantum dot as a microscopic analogof a basic optomechanical setup.We show, that optomechanical features can be reproduced by the solid-state platform, arising from parallels of theunderlying interaction processes, which in the optomechanical case is the radiation pressure coupling and in thesemiconductor case the electron-phonon coupling.There are analogous effects present for both systems, featuring bistabilities, optically induced phonon lasing and enhanced phonon loss. In case of the bistability, the optomechanical system can be understood as the limitingcase of the semiconductor systems for a large number of quantum dots, as suggested by the Holstein-Primakoffapproximation. For Lasing, this behavior is still present qualitatively but in contrastto the optomechanical case distinct signatures of higher order processes arise. This allows a direct addressing of n-phonon processes and higher order control of phonon statistics.To complete the picture, we discuss phonon damping and recover the qualitative same behaviorfor semiconductor and optomechanical case, expected for low driving strengths.Therefore, the semiconductor analog of optomechanics covers essential features oftypical optomechanical systems, but with increased control in terms of quantum nonlinearities.

Aperture transmission measurements for characterization of focusing of sub-THz radiation

Osamu Morikawa, Kohji Yamamoto, Kazuyoshi Kurihara, Masahiko Tani, FUMIYOSHI KUWASHIMA, and Masanori Hangyo

Doc ID: 259276 Received 11 Feb 2016; Accepted 26 May 2016; Posted 27 May 2016  View: PDF

Abstract: Aperture-transmission measurements have been investigated as a way to characterize the focus the sub-THz beam in a time-domain spectroscopic system. Although measurement methods with a fixed time delay, like the knife-edge measurement, are often used to characterize the focusing of THz or sub-THz beams, such methods sometimes produce data that is difficult to interpret, for example, negative beam intensity. On the other hand, the data obtained by the aperture-transmission measurement is simple; the beam is considered tightly focused if the transmittance is high. However, unintentional effects occur when a metal aperture is used to characterize the focusing and a metal structure is used to assist the beam focusing, because parts of the metal structure are placed adjacent to the metal aperture. Here, we used an insulator aperture and found that it could be used for the characterization of focusing without the unintentional effects.

Transient power characteristics of a compact singly-resonantintracavity OPO pumped by a semiconductor disk laser

Yuri Morozov

Doc ID: 259401 Received 17 Feb 2016; Accepted 26 May 2016; Posted 27 May 2016  View: PDF

Abstract: The multi-mode transient and steady-state characteristics of thesingly-resonant intracavity optical parametric oscillator (ICSRO) pumped by asemiconductor disk laser have been numerically analyzed. Nonlinear parametric interaction in the ICSRO was shown to stimulate multi-mode lasing with an intensity dip at central frequency of emission. The insertion of an etalon makes the device exhibit a single-mode operation.

Study of the GH shift behavior of partially coherent light in the presence of giant Kerr nonlinearity in a triple quantum-dot

Sajid Qamar and Muqaddar Abbas

Doc ID: 255957 Received 21 Jan 2016; Accepted 23 May 2016; Posted 24 May 2016  View: PDF

Abstract: The coherent coupling between three quantum dots via tunneling fields leads to double tunneling-induced transparency and giant Kerr nonlinearity with vanishing absorption can be obtained. This generates possibility to obtain self-phase modulation in semiconductor nanostructures via controllable tunneling under the conditions of low light levels. As a result a considerably high refractive index can be obtained. We suggest an intracavity medium consists of triple quantum dot molecules to control the Goos-H$\ddot {\text{a}}$nchen shift behavior of the reflected light. For a suitable design of quantum dot structure, the results show that relatively large positive and negative Goos-H$\ddot {\text{a}}$nchen shifts are achievable for reflected light, without much distortion, for incident partial coherent light.


Andrei Gaidash, Vladimir Egorov, and Artur Gleym

Doc ID: 258047 Received 22 Jan 2016; Accepted 20 May 2016; Posted 25 May 2016  View: PDF

Abstract: We discuss a method of revealing photon-number-splitting (PNS) attack in quantum key distribution (QKD) system, which is based on analyzing statistical distribution of photon numbers detected in each time interval. A relation for estimating the difference between the expected photon number distribution and the one appearing in course of PNS attack is derived. An equation defining the minimum number of counts necessary for revealing the attack with desired probability is given. Formulas for calculating the amount of raw key known to illegitimate user due to PNS attack are obtained depending on the system total loss. The main advantage of the method is the possibility of using it in QKD systems without significant modifications in the protocol or experimental setup.

Double Split-Loop Resonators as Building Blocks of Metasurfaces for Light Manipulation: Bending, Focusing, and Flat-top Generation

Ali Forouzmand, Shifei Tao, Samad Jafar-Zanjani, Jierong Cheng, Mohammad Mahdi Salary, and Hossein Mosallaei

Doc ID: 255430 Received 09 Dec 2015; Accepted 18 May 2016; Posted 19 May 2016  View: PDF

Abstract: In this paper, we demonstrate the concept of simultaneous controlling of the phase and the polarization handedness of a circularly polarized (CP) incident beam over an array of bilayer double split-loop resonators (DSLRs). The physical parameters are optimized by means of the finite-difference time-domain method in such a way that each unit-cell exhibits the half-wave plate response. By simply rotating the unit-cell, the phase shift of the transmitted cross polarized beam can be controlled in the range of 0-2π without any restrictions. This plasmonic metasurface provides optimal cross polarization transmission efficiency at 1.55 μm wavelength. An array of DSLRs with helicity-dependency and spatially varying phase response offers the possibility of designing anomalous bending and bi-functional (convergence/divergence) metasurfaces in which the bending direction and convergence/divergence feature can be directly controlled by the handedness of the impinging CP wave. Furthermore, a metalens with the capability of converting a CP Gaussian beam into a uniform irradiance profile (flat-top beam) is designed and the performance of the whole structure is evaluated by using an in-house developed array integral equation fast Fourier transform (AIEFFT) solver. All the designs are composed of the same DSLR elements with space-variant orientations. The rotation does not add any difficulties to the fabrication process and significantly relaxes the resolution limit, making the proposed structures promising for the practical implementation.

Improvement in medium-long term frequency stability of integrating sphere cold atom clock

Peng Liu, Huadong Cheng, Yanling Meng, Jinyin Wan, Ling Xiao, Xiumei Wang, Yanling Wang, and Liang Liu

Doc ID: 260436 Received 03 Mar 2016; Accepted 18 May 2016; Posted 19 May 2016  View: PDF

Abstract: The medium-long term frequency stability of the integrating sphere cold atom clock was improved. During the clock operation, Rb atoms were cooled and manipulated using cooling light diffusely reflected by the inner surface of a microwave cavity in the clock. This light heated the cavity and caused a frequency drift from the resonant frequency of the cavity. Power fluctuations of the cooling light led to atomic density variations in the cavity’s central area, which increased the clock frequency instability through a cavity pulling effect. We overcame these limitations with appropriate solutions. A frequency stability of 3.5E-15 was achieved when the integrating time τ increased to 2×10⁴ s.

Bandwidth tunable microstrip bandstop filters based on localized spoof surface plasmons

Zhuo Li, Bingzheng Xu, Liangliang Liu, Jia Xu, Chen Chen, and Changqing Gu

Doc ID: 262069 Received 30 Mar 2016; Accepted 18 May 2016; Posted 19 May 2016  View: PDF

Abstract: In this work, a bandwidth tunable microstrip bandstop filter is theoretically investigated and experimentally verified based on the concept of localized spoof surface plasmons. By placing a conventional microstrip at the bottom center of a symmetrically periodically corrugated metallic strip which support spoof surface plasmons with a single defect or a series of defects of continuously variable dimensions, localization of the quasistatic field propagating along the microstrip can be realized, thus facilitating the control of the central frequency, bandwidth and absorption level of the microstrip bandstop filter. A band-notched microstrip and a band-stop one are cautiously designed and verified through simulations and experiments, which can find potential applications in microwave band-stop circuits.

Characterization of FM actively mode-locked fiber optical parametric oscillator

Jianpeng Zhao, Bing Luo, Wei Pan, Lianshan Yan, Liyang Shao, Xihua Zou, Jia Ye, Hongna Zhu, and Zhiyu Chen

Doc ID: 260413 Received 02 Mar 2016; Accepted 13 May 2016; Posted 16 May 2016  View: PDF

Abstract: The characteristics of the frequency modulation (FM) actively mode-locked fiber optical parametric oscillator (FOPO) have been demonstrated experimentally. In particular, the effects of pump power and modulation frequency on the features of the generated pulses (e.g., output power, RMS timing jitter, pulse width and time-bandwidth product) are analyzed. Moreover, a stable pulse train with the wavelength of 1567.38nm and the repetition rate of 10GHz is generated. The pulse width is 37ps and the RMS timing jitter is 2.51ps, which verifies the effectiveness of the proposed oscillator structure. The results show that pulse trains with narrow pulse width and low RMS timing jitter are achievable when the modulation frequency increases. The corresponding time-bandwidth products at different pump power are 0.61~0.66. In addition, stable optical pulses at 1567.38, 1551.92, 1544.29 and 1536.73nm are generated simultaneously based on multiple four-wave mixing processes.


Susana Orozco and Alejandro Sanchez

Doc ID: 263057 Received 12 Apr 2016; Accepted 12 May 2016; Posted 16 May 2016  View: PDF

Abstract: The devices formed using photonic crystals are based on the response to physical stimuli and depend on the properties of the media. Recently there has been an increase in the application of photonic crystals in several fields with innovative techniques. In particular, the multilayer films are used as filters and reflectors at THz range, and as pressure sensors. The band structure of a one-dimensional photonic crystal under hydrostatic pressure was studied. The materials used for the alternating layers structures were considered homogeneous, isotropic, elastic and non-magnetic. The change in permittivity of the materials was calculated using the elasto-optical effect. The frequency spectrum of the photonic crystal was determined from the eigenvalues equation for the magnetic intensity vector using the plane wave expansion method. Two photonic arrangements with different mechanical properties were proposed: Poly(methyl methacrylate)-polystyrene, and poly(methyl methacrylate)-silica. The numerical results showed that the band gap of both arrangements tend towards higher frequencies when the hydrostatic pressure increases, and that the band gap width varies with the hydrostatic pressure. It was concluded that, if the mechanical properties of both layers are similar, such as in the case of polymers, the band gap width is constant. If the layer with the higher permittivity is less rigid than the other layer, such as in the second arrangement, the band gap width reaches a minimum at a determined value of the pressure.

Single mode 0 W output power 1018 nm fiber laser and ASE competition suppression

Yaakov Glick, Yoav Sintov, roey zuitlin, Shaul Pearl, Yariv Shamir, revital feldman, zvi horvitz, and noam shafir

Doc ID: 262748 Received 08 Apr 2016; Accepted 12 May 2016; Posted 13 May 2016  View: PDF

Abstract: We present a high power single-mode (SM) monolithic fiber laser centered at 1018 nm, producing 0 W CW, with an M² of 1.17 and light to light efficiency of 75%. To the best of our knowledge this is the highest power described in the open literature from a SM fiber laser at this wavelength. Careful simulations were employed taking into account the various wavelength dependent parameters such as the doped fiber absorption, emission, saturation effects and the cavity mirrors’ reflection, in addition to the fiber geometrical parameters. Parameters that were found to be most critical for suppressing the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) at higher wavelengths were the fiber length and the extinction ratio of the FBG reflectivity between 1018 nm and above 1030 nm.

Observation of Whispering Gallery Modes in ElasticLight Scattering from Microdroplets Optically Trappedin a Microfluidic Channel

Alper Kiraz, suman anand, Alexandr Jonas, Mustafa Eryürek, yasin karadag, Ali Serpenguzel, and Ahmet Erten

Doc ID: 264968 Received 10 May 2016; Accepted 11 May 2016; Posted 13 May 2016  View: PDF

Abstract: Optical whispering gallery modes (WGMs) were observed in elastic scattering spectra recorded from oil-in-water emulsion droplets in a microfluidic channel. Droplets with diameters ranging between 15-50 μm were trapped by optical tweezers near the tip of a single mode fiber that enabled the excitation of the WGMs using a tunable laser. Quality factors of the WGMs were observed to increase with droplet size. WGMs with quality factors of more than 10⁴ were observed for droplets with diameters around 45 μm. In some cases, recorded WGMs drifted monotonically to the blue end of the spectrum due to droplet dissolution in the host liquid. Fluctuating spectral shifts to both blue and red ends of the spectrum were also observed. These were attributed to the presence of randomly diffusing particulate contaminants in the droplet liquid, indicating the potential of optically trapped droplet resonators for optical sensing applications.

Multiphoton Stimulated Emission Microscopy for In-Vivo Deep Tissue Imaging

Robert Frankel

Doc ID: 256712 Received 04 Jan 2016; Accepted 11 May 2016; Posted 11 May 2016  View: PDF

Abstract: It is proposed to use 2-4 photons for both excitation and stimulated emission processes from moderate concentrations of fluorophores. The approach, called Multiphoton Stimulated Emission Microscopy (MP-STEM), red shifts the stimulated emission providing less scattering and absorption in deep tissue imaging. With use of 3-4 photon MP-STEM, the emission spot becomes small enough to generate dipole backscatter photons that may ballistically transported to the surface. Use of multiple time delays between the excitation and emission processes, enables the computation of the concentrations of molecular species with multiple lifetimes, such as free and bound NAD(P)H. MP-STEM should find many applications in label-free imaging of metabolic cofactors and weakly fluorescent UV emitting molecules including nucleic acids and proteins.

Quantum theory of phase-sensitive heterodyne detection

Sheng Feng, Dechao He, and Boya Xie

Doc ID: 256405 Received 29 Dec 2015; Accepted 10 May 2016; Posted 11 May 2016  View: PDF

Abstract: It is non-trivial to describe in theory the quantum behavior of a phase-sensitive heterodyne detector with a bichromatic local oscillator. On one hand, a 3 dB noise penalty is expected for the detector due to the existence of an image band vacuum, which was assumed in a previous theoretical study. On the other hand, as a phase-sensitive device, the detector should be free of the 3 dB extra quantum noise, as verified by a recent experiment. However, the mechanism for the absence of the 3 dB noise penalty in the experimental observation remains unknown. To understand the relevant physics, we develop a comprehensive quantum theory, in agreement with experiment, for phase-sensitive heterodyne detection. This work should be important for us to understand the origin of the quantum noise in heterodyne detection.

Oscillations between microcavity polariton spin states coupled by two-particle tunneling

Tomas Ostatnicky

Doc ID: 259439 Received 16 Feb 2016; Accepted 10 May 2016; Posted 20 May 2016  View: PDF

Abstract: We propose a theoretical model of a system of two quantum states, coupled by tunneling of correlated pairs of Bose particles. Cavity polaritons in a rectangular potential trap are considered as a model system and two-particle tunneling is provided by the particle-particle scattering. We calculate the dynamics beyond the mean-field approach, fully accounting for all quantum correlations and their temporal evolution in a simplified model, considering only the lowest-energy state of the potential trap. Different operation regimes are identified and compared with results of the bosonic Josephson junction model with single-particle tunneling. Finally we show how one may experimentally resolve whether one or two synchronized particles tunnel across the barrier.

Quantum optical interferometry via the photon-added two-mode squeezed vacuum states

Shuai Wang, Yi Ouyang, and Lijian Zhang

Doc ID: 259632 Received 17 Feb 2016; Accepted 09 May 2016; Posted 11 May 2016  View: PDF

Abstract: We investigate the sensitivity and resolution of phase estimation in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with photon-added two-mode squeezed vacuum (PA-TMSVS) with parity measurement scheme. Our results indicate that, when the phase to be estimated is small, the PA-TMSVS offers an improved phase resolution than both the two-mode squeezed vacuum and the photon-subtracted two-mode squeezed vacuum for a given initial squeezing level. In addition, we show that such precision can be achieved with a parity measurement.

Nonlinear optical model for plasmonic waveguides

Oleg Lysenko, Morten Bache, and Andrei Lavrinenko

Doc ID: 261343 Received 16 Mar 2016; Accepted 09 May 2016; Posted 11 May 2016  View: PDF

Abstract: This paper presents a theoretical model of nonlinear optical properties for plasmonic waveguides. The particular waveguides geometry that we investigate contains a gold core, adhesion layers and silicon dioxide cladding. It is shown that the third-order susceptibility of the gold core significantly depends on the layer thickness and has the dominant contribution to the effective third-order susceptibility of the long-range plasmon polariton mode. This results in two nonlinear optical effects in plasmonic waveguides, which we experimentally observed and reported in Opt. Lett. 41, 317 (2016). The first effect is the nonlinear power saturation of the plasmonic mode, and the second effect is the spectral broadening of the plasmonic mode. Both nonlinear plasmonic effects can be used for practical applications and their appropriate model will be important for further developments in communication approaches.

Analysis of subwavelength Au and Ag slit transmittances at terahertz frequencies

Fernando Teixeira, Jong-Eon Park, and Ben-Hur Borges

Doc ID: 259654 Received 17 Feb 2016; Accepted 08 May 2016; Posted 16 May 2016  View: PDF

Abstract: We provide a detailed characterization of the transmittance properties of subwavelength slit apertures on Ag and Au plates, as a function of the slit width and plate thickness, for frequencies ranging from 1.2 THz to 500 terahertz. As method of analysis, we choose a mode matching technique incorporating both discrete and continuum spectra because of its accuracy and suitability to this geometry. The transmittance behavior is shown to be strongly impacted by the variability of the electromagnetic bulk properties of Ag and Au across the terahertz range. The results obtained here constitute a useful compendium of reference data for subwavelength slit transmittances on metal plates at terahertz frequencies.

Controllable optical bistability in a hybrid optomechanical system

Amarendra Sarma and Bijita Sarma

Doc ID: 253735 Received 11 Nov 2015; Accepted 08 May 2016; Posted 11 May 2016  View: PDF

Abstract: We investigate theoretically the effect of optical feedback from a cavity containing an ultracold two level atomic ensemble, on the bistable behavior shown by mean intracavity optical field in an optomechanical cavity resonator. It turns out that the optical bistability can be controlled by tuning the frequency and power of the driving laser and is largely affected by the presence of the atomic ensemble in the feedback cavity. In essence, our work emphasizes the possibility of realization of a controllable optical switch depending on the hybrid interaction, commanding lower threshold power than a single optomechanical cavity.

Measurement induced nonclassical states from coherent state heralded by Knill-Laflamme-Milburn-type interference

Hong-chun Yuan, Xue-xiang Xu, and Shan-jun Ma

Doc ID: 259515 Received 16 Feb 2016; Accepted 06 May 2016; Posted 06 May 2016  View: PDF

Abstract: We theoretically generate nonclassical states from coherent state heralded by Knill-Laflamme-Milburn (KLM)-type interference. Injecting a coherent state in signal mode and two single-photon sources in other two auxiliary modes of KLM-type interferometry, a broad class of useful nonclassical states are obtained in the output signal port after making two single-photon-counting measurements in the two output auxiliary modes. The nonclassical properties, in terms of anti-bunching effect and squeezing effect as well as the negativity of the Wigner function, are studied in detail by adjusting the interaction parameters. The results show that the input coherent state can be transformed into non-Gaussian states with higher nonclassicality after measurement induction. The maximum squeezing of our generated states can be arrived at about 1.9 dB.

Quantifying Spectral Diffusion by Direct Measurement of the Correlation Function for Excitons in Semiconductor Quantum Wells

Galan Moody, Mark Siemens, Hebin Li, Steven Cundiff, and Rohan Singh

Doc ID: 260112 Received 01 Mar 2016; Accepted 04 May 2016; Posted 06 May 2016  View: PDF

Abstract: The phenomenon of spectral diffusion is common to a variety of inhomogeneously broadened systems. Spectral diffusion can be quantified through the frequency-frequency correlation function (FFCF), which is often approximated using observables from a variety of experimental techniques. We present a direct measurement of the temperature-dependent FFCF for excitons in semiconductor quantum wells using two-dimensional coherent spectroscopy. This technique enables the FFCF to be quantified without making any assumptions of the FFCF dynamics. Our results show that the Gauss-Markov approximation, which assumes exponential decay dynamics of the FFCF, is only valid for sample temperatures above 50 K. We compare our results with those obtained by the ellipticity and center line slope measurements.

High-Sensitivity And Tunable Refractive Index Sensor Based On Dual-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber

Guowen An, Shuguang Li, Xin Yan, Zhenyu Yuan, Yanan Zhang, and Xuenan Zhang

Doc ID: 261691 Received 23 Mar 2016; Accepted 02 May 2016; Posted 04 May 2016  View: PDF

Abstract: A novel refractive index sensor based on dual-core photonic crystal fiber with rectangular lattice has being proposed. The two cores of the fiber are separated by one air hole filled with analytes whose refractive index is ranging from 1.33 to 1.41. Numerical simulation results show that the highest sensitivity can reach to 14216nm/RIU(refractive index unite) when the refractive index of the analyte is 1.41 and even the lowest sensitivity can also be achieved to 6787nm/RIU. The sensor size can be as short as 300-500$ \mu m $ which make the sensor production very cost-effective. The applications of the proposed sensor can be found in blood glucose testing instrument or moisture meter especially those that need highly accurate detection.

Patterns and switching dynamics in polaritonic quantum fluids in semiconductor microcavities

Rolf Binder, Nai-Hang Kwong, C.Y. Tsang, Przemyslaw Lewandowski, Chris K. P. Chan, Pui-tang Leung, Stefan Schumacher, M Luk, and Tse Victor

Doc ID: 258437 Received 22 Feb 2016; Accepted 26 Apr 2016; Posted 27 May 2016  View: PDF

Abstract: The occurrence of instability-driven polariton density patterns in semiconductor quantum-well microcavities have been predicted and demonstrated experimentally. Simulations have shown that different patterns can become dominant under variations of excitation and structural conditions. We have devised and analyzed two low-dimensional models to help understand the physics underlying these patterns' competition. This paper reviews the results of these model studies, inluding polariton scatterings, parameter-space pattern phase diagrams, and optical switching of patterns. We also present new results on how the control beam strength required for switching and the time scale of switching vary with physical parameters.

Mesoscopic effects of a particle on quantum correlations of Raman photon pairs

Raymond Ooi and Kam Chan Hin Chan Hin

Doc ID: 255095 Received 11 Dec 2015; Accepted 20 Apr 2016; Posted 22 Apr 2016  View: PDF

Abstract: Quantum correlations of photon pairs emitted by a mesoscopicparticle (microsphere) composed of a large number of quantumparticles in double Raman scheme is studied. Quantum Langevinformalism with noise operators is used to compute the nonclassicalcorrelations between the Stokes and anti-Stokes photons,particularly the Glauber's second order cross- andself-correlations functions. The theory is developed in arealistic manner, i.e. including the focusing effect of theparticle on the pump and control laser fields as well as lineardispersion of the microsphere. The results enable us to analyzehow the photon correlations are affected by the size of themicrosphere, the morphology resonance, the detection directionrelative to the lasers, as well as the detuning and the strengthof the lasers.

Tunable plasmonic thin magneto-optical wave plate

Alexander Baryshev and Alexander Merzlikin

Doc ID: 258081 Received 22 Jan 2016; Accepted 13 Apr 2016; Posted 11 May 2016  View: PDF

Abstract: Planar periodic plasmonic structures encased in a magnetic host revealed an unexpected polarization transformation. In the proposed ultra-thin periodic gold–garnet layer, the near fields strongly modify (enhance) magneto-optical response of garnet. We show that the configuration of near-fields in the magnetized layer can be engineered so that the layer converts the linear polarization to the elliptical (or circular) one or rotates the plane of polarization over a large angle in the transmission (or Faraday) geometry. Since the helicity of elliptically (circularly) polarized light (or the polarization rotation angle) is altered by reversing the magnetization of garnet, the considered plasmonic structure acts as a tunable wave plate.

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