Abstract

We evaluated the optical properties required for the design of a solar-pumped laser for Nd3+-doped ZrF4-BaF2-LaF3-AlF3-NaF (ZBLAN) glass. The quantum efficiency (QE) of near-infrared emission from the F3/24 state of Nd3+ using sunlight as an excitation source was 70%. The product of the stimulated emission cross section and the radiative lifetime (σseτr) of the F3/24I11/24 was 1.5×1023cm2·s. The integrated absorption strength in the 450900nm region was the largest among Nd3+-doped fluoride glasses. The high QE, large σseτr product, and large integrated absorption strength indicate that Nd3+-doped ZBLAN is one of the most promising materials for solar-pumped lasers.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

1. INTRODUCTION

A solar-pumped laser is a device that converts incoherent sunlight into a coherent laser beam. In recent years, solar-pumped lasers have been attracting much attention as novel renewable energy sources in optical communications, energy transfer in space [1], and an energy cycle using magnesium [2]. The development of solar-pumped lasers has a long history. Kiss et al. have achieved continuous wave laser action at 2.36μm in the Dy2+:CaF2 system at liquid neon temperature (27K) using the Sun as the pumping source in 1963 [3]. That was soon after the first laser oscillation using ruby by Maiman in 1960 [4]. Since then, solar-pumped lasers have been attained with Nd3+:glass [5, 6], Nd3+:Y3Al5O12 garnet (YAG) single crystal [1, 6, 7], and Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+:YAG [8]. Recently, a solar-pumped laser with an output of about 80W and an optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 4.3% was achieved using Cr3+, Nd3+:YAG transparent ceramic [9].

The reliability, cost performance, and optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of the solar-pumped laser system must be raised considerably, in order to expand the use of solar-pumped lasers worldwide. We believe these issues can be resolved by utilizing Nd3+-doped fiber lasers made of glass materials because of the optical confinement provided by the waveguide structure combined with the excellent laser properties of Nd3+. It is necessary for fiber lasers to make use of glass material, which can be drawn into an optical fiber easily. Nd3+-doped glass laser media has been used in laser fusion and fiber laser applications. However, the possibility of using a low-energy pumping source, such as the Sun, has not been considered, because one of the main targets of these applications is to obtain high-irradiance light sources. It should be elucidated which properties of the host glass dominate the efficiency under sunlight pumping. As the first trial, we have chosen SiO2-B2O3-Na2O-Al2O3-CaO-ZrO2 (borosilicate) glass, which has excellent rare-earth solubility and can hold up to 30wt.%Nd2O3 without evidence of Nd clustering [10]. However, the quantum efficiency (QE) of the near-infrared emission of the Nd3+-doped borosilicate glass under sunlight excitation was as low as 21% due to the high phonon energy 1500cm1.

ZrF4-BaF2-LaF3-AlF3-NaF (ZBLAN) glass, found in 1975 [11], has the wide transparent window between about 0.22 and 8μm [12], minimum loss as low as 1db/km [13], low effective phonon energy less than 600cm1 [14], and high allowable doping levels up to 10mol.% of rare-earth ions [12]. These properties should make ZBLAN glass a promising candidate as a host medium for a solar-pumped laser. In this paper, we present the optical properties of Nd3+-doped ZBLAN glass required for the design of a solar-pumped laser. In particular, we focus on the QE of near-infrared emission under sunlight excitation and discuss the dependence of the QE using the Sun and monochromatic light sources on Nd3+ concentration.

2. PROCEDURES

2A. Experimental

Glass compositions prepared in this study were 51ZrF4-20BaF3-4.5LaF3-4.5AlF3-20NaF-xNdF3 (x=0.03, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0), in mole percent. The raw materials were mixed thoroughly in an alumina mortar and then melted in an electric furnace at 800°C for 30min with an N2 atmosphere in platinum crucibles. Subsequently, the glass melts were quenched by pouring them onto stainless steel plates preheated to 250°C. Each glass was then annealed at 250°C for 4h. The glasses were cut to a thickness of around 2.5mm and then polished to optical quality to optical measurements.

The density of the glass was measured by the Archimedes method.

Optical absorption spectra were recorded by a double-beam monochromator (PerkinElmer, Lambda 900) over a range of 1753300nm.

The refractive indices were measured by a prism coupler (Metricon, 2010) at the wavelengths of 632.8, 974, 1320 and 1544nm.

Judd–Ofelt (JO) analysis [15, 16] was carried out to calculate the radiative lifetime τr and the stimulated emission cross section σse for Nd3+ ions. The parameters used in the JO analysis were taken from Refs. [17, 18].

The emission lifetime (τf) of the F3/24 state of Nd3+ was estimated from the e-folding time of a emission decay curve. Emission from the sample excited by a Ti:sapphire laser (Coherent, 890) was dispersed by a single monochromator with a diffraction grating blazed at 1000nm and detected by a near-infrared photomultiplier tube (Hamamatsu Photonics, H9170-75). The decay curve of the emission was obtained by a digital oscilloscope (Yokogawa, DL-1620).

The procedure of QE measurement using an integrating sphere was the in same manner described elsewhere [19]. A schematic figure of the QE measurement system is shown in Fig. 1. Sunlight was focused onto the tip of an optical fiber bundle by a lens with a focal length of 100mm and a diameter of 50mm. They were fixed on an altazimuth mount with an automatic Sun tracking system (Vixen, SKYPOD) on a tripod. Two different photonic multichannel analyzers (PMAs) were used sequentially as spectrometers and detectors for the QE measurements. One is a visible PMA (Hamamatsu, C9220-02) covering the wavelength range of 200950nm with a resolution of 2nm, and the other is a near-infrared PMA (Ohtsuka Denshi, Photal MCPD-5000) covering the wavelength range of 9001600nm with a resolution of 3.4nm. The spectral sensitivities of these PMAs were calibrated with standard light sources by the manufacturers. The QE measurement for one sample was completed within 2min. It was confirmed that the spectral intensity and the shape of sunlight was unchanged during a series of the QE measurements. All QE measurements using sunlight were performed between 11 o’clock in the morning and 2 o’clock in the afternoon on bright and clear days.

The QE measurements under monochromatic wavelength excitation was also done using a xenon lamp and a Ti:sapphire laser as excitation sources in the excitation wavelength ranges of 450700nm and 700900nm, respectively.

2B. Analysis of Concentration Quenching Parameters

The decreasing QE as Nd3+ concentration increases is found to be accurately described by the decay function

I(t)=I(0)exp(ArtW0tγtW¯t),
where Ar(1/τr) is the total rate of the spontaneous emission and W0 is the zero-concentration nonradiative relaxation rate due to multiphonon emission. Ar and W0 are both independent of the Nd3+ concentration. The nonexponential term exp(γt), called the classical Förster decay function, describes cross-relaxation processes without energy migration, also known as static disordered decay [20, 21]. According to the Förster model [20], γ is given by
γ=43π3/2nNdRDAAr1/3,
where nNd is the Nd3+ concentration and RDA is the critical range at which the nonradiative cross-relaxation energy transfer rate from a donor to an acceptor equals the spontaneous emission rate. For Nd3+, the cross-relaxation processes from a donor to an acceptor are (F3/24,I9/24)(I15/24,I15/24) or (F3/24,I9/24)(I13/24,I15/24). The last exponential term exp(W¯t) in Eq. (1) describes cross-relaxation processes enhanced by energy migration. In order to explain energy migration between donors, Burshtein introduced the hopping model [22], in which the excited-state population redistributes randomly over the donors at a characteristic hopping rate given by
τ01=(2π3)3nNd2RDD2Ar,
where RDD is the critical range of nonradiative energy transfer between donors. The energy migration process between donors is (F3/24,I9/24)(I9/24,F3/24), for which there is strong donor–donor interaction due to the large overlap of the absorption and emission spectra. On the other hand, the donor– acceptor interaction results from an accidental resonance. Thus it is thought that RDD is much larger than RDA. In such a case, the emission intensity decays at a rate given by [22]
W¯=γπ/4τ0=π(2π3)5/2RDA3RDD3nNd2Ar.
The Nd3+ concentration dependence of the radiative QE (ηrτf/τr) can be formulated from the integration of Eq. (1) as [23]
ηr=(Ar/W){1πzexp(z2)[1erfz]},
where W=Ar+W0+W¯, z=γ/2W, and erf is the error function. RDD can be obtained from the Dexter mode by [21, 24]
RDD6=3c8πn2ArσemDσabsD(λ)dλ,
where σemD is the stimulated emission cross section of donors and σabsD is the absorption cross section of donors. Ar is obtained from JO analysis, and RDD can be obtained from the stimulated emission and absorption cross sections of the wavelength range within 7001000nm. In addition to that, W0 can be assumed to be negligibly small [25] for Nd3+-doped ZBLAN glass. Thus RDA is treated as the only fitting parameter in the fitting of Eq. (5) to the experimental results.

3. RESULTS

3A. Absorption and Emission Cross Sections and Emission Lifetime

The density was 4.352g/cm3 for undoped glass and linearly increased with x to 4.461g/cm3 for x=5%. The refractive indices were 1.500, 1.494, 1.492, and 1.490 for 632.8, 974, 1330, and 1544nm, respectively. The JO parameters obtained from the integrated absorption intensities, density, and refractive indices were Ω2=(1.46±0.24)×1020cm2, Ω4=(3.47±0.36)×1020cm2, and Ω6=(3.73±0.18)×1020cm2. The JO parameters of ZBLAN glass were smaller than those of high-index glasses, such as lead bismuth gallate and chalcogenide [26], but were comparable with those of the other fluoride glasses [27].

Figure 2 shows the absorption and stimulated emission cross-section spectra of Nd3+ doped in ZBLAN glass. The absorption cross section was calculated by

σabs(λ)=αNddoped(λ)αundoped(λ)nNd,
where αNddoped and αundoped are the absorption coefficients for Nd3+-doped and undoped glasses, respectively.

The integrated Nd3+ absorption in the 400950nm region has been used a measure of the absorption strengths, which is related to absorption efficiency for broadband exci tation sources [28]. The integration absorptions relative to 1.583×1018cm2·nm of ED-2 (or LG670), a high-gain lithium calcium aluminosilicate glass [28], are shown in Table 1. The relative integrated absorption of ZBLAN in the present work was 0.91, which is slightly lower than those of silicate (ED-2) and phosphate (LG750) glasses but larger than those of the other fluoride glasses, such as ZrF4-BaF2-NaF (ZBN) and ZrF4-BaF2-LaF3 (ZBL). This means that Nd3+-doped ZBLAN can absorb sunlight most effectively among these Nd3+-doped fluoride glasses.

The stimulated emission cross section of the F3/24I11/24 transition was (2.95±0.18)×1020cm2 at 1050nm, which is about twice as large as that of silica glass and almost similar to those of the other fluoride glasses, such as ZBN and ZBL, as shown in Table 1. The stimulated emission cross sections of the F3/24I9/24 and F3/24I13/24 for ZBLAN were (1.00±0.10)×1020cm2 at 867nm and (0.77±0.04)×1020cm2 at 1318nm.

Figure 3 shows the emission lifetime of the F3/24 state of Nd3+ doped in ZBLAN glass. The emission lifetime was about 525μs at low x and decreased at more than x3mol.%, showing the occurrence of concentration quenching in the high x regime.

The product of the stimulated emission cross section and the radiative lifetime (σseτr) of a laser transition is recognized as a figure of merit of the laser transition, because σseτr is proportional to the slope efficiency and inversely proportional to the threshold pump power of a laser. σseτrs of the F3/24I11/24 transition of Nd3+ for several glasses are tabulated in Table 1. σseτr for ZBLAN was (1.45±0.19)×1023cm2·s, which is more than twice as large as that for silica glass and comparable to that for LG750. This indicates that ZBLAN glass is one of the most preferable glass materials for Nd3+-doped lasers.

3B. Quantum Efficiencies

Figure 4 shows (a) the spectral intensities from the integrating sphere with a fluoride glass sample of x=0.5mol.% and without the sample under sunlight irradiation and (b) the difference spectrum. The sharp absorption and emission lines due to Nd3+ can be seen in Fig. 4b. Though broad absorption due to the host (including defects and impurities) was found for the absorption spectrum of Nd3+-doped borosilicate glass [19], such broad absorption seems negligibly small for ZBLAN glass.

Figure 5 shows the radiative QE (ηr) of the F3/24 state of Nd3+ and the internal quantum efficiencies under 793nm excitation (η793) and under sunlight (ηs).

ηr was about 106±7% in the low x regime and decreased with x due to the concentration quenching for x3%. The inconsistency that ηr exceeds 100% (that is, τf>τr) for the low x regime is most probably due to the intrinsic inaccuracy of 10%15% in JO analysis [30] and the low nonradiative transition rate due to the low phonon energy of ZBLAN glass (600cm1). Similar inconsistencies were found also for several glasses [21, 26, 27]. Thus ηr is thought to be 100% for the low x regime.

η793 was as high as 88% in the low x regime, which is comparable to 90% of the QE of Czochralski grown Nd3+:YAG crystal for 514.5nm excitation [31] but is lower than 94% [32] obtained by the thermal lens methods for Nd3+-doped ZBLAN glass. η793 decreased with increase in x to 25% at x=5% due to concentration quenching.

ηs reached a maximum of 70% at x=0.5%. This high ηs shows that ZBLAN glass is very attractive for solar-pumped laser applications. For the higher x, ηs decreased with increase in x due to concentration quenching as well as ηr and η793. In contrast, ηs decreased with the decrease in x in the low x regime, which was not found for ηr and η793.

4. DISCUSSION

4A. Effects of Nonradiative Transition and Ion–Ion Interactions on Quantum Efficiency

The nonradiative relaxation processes of excited rare-earth ions are usually attributed to multiphonon emission relaxation, concentration quenching through energy migration between rare-earth ions and the energy transfer to hydroxyl (OH) groups.

The nonradiative relaxation rate via multiphonon emission is given by [33]

Wmp=C{[exp(ωkT)1]1+1}pexp(αΔE),
where C is a constant characteristic of the host materials; ω is the energy of the involved phonon; ΔE is the energy gap between two successive states; p is the number of phonons emitted in the process, namely p=ΔE/ω; k is the Boltzmann’s constant; T is temperature; and α is a host-dependent parameter related to the electron-phonon coupling. Wmp of the F3/24 of Nd3+ in ZBLAN glass is calculated to be 0.6s1 using the host- dependent parameters C=1.6×1010s1, α=5.2×103cm [34], and ω600cm1. The glass was prepared in dry atmosphere, and any evidence of the presence of OH in the samples was not observed in the absorption spectrum in the infrared region. This indicates that the rate of nonradiative energy transfer to OH groups (WOH) is negligibly small. As shown in Table 1, τr was 496μs, which corresponds to Ar=1/τr=2304s1. Thus, the QE defined by Ar/(Ar+W0+WOH) is expected to be 100% in the low x regime in which the concentration quenching does not occur.

The concentration quenching in the high x regime was evaluated by fitting of Eq. (5) to the measured radiative QE. W0 was fixed at 0 during the fitting because the nonradiative transitions due to the multiphonon emission and the energy transfer to OH groups were negligible as mentioned above. The best fitting was obtained as RDA=0.35±0.10nm from a pa rameter set of Ar=2304±145s1, W0=0s1, RDD=1.20±0.12nm (Table 2). RDD>RDA validates the applications of Burshtein’s hopping model to Nd3+ doped in ZBLAN glass. RDD and RDA of ZBLAN glass in the present work were comparable to those of the previously reported ZBLAN glass [25] and phosphate [21] glasses within the experimental errors.

4B. Effects of Absorptions by Other Than Nd3+ on Quantum Efficiency under Sunlight Excitation

The internal QE (ηint) of photoluminescence is given by

ηint=NemNabs=ηabsηrelηrηesc,
where Nabs is the number of absorbed photons, Nem is the number of emitted photons, ηabs is the absorption efficiency, ηrel is the relaxation efficiency, and ηesc is the escaping efficiency.

The absorption efficiency (ηabs) is given by

ηabs=NNdNNd+Nhost=NNdNabs,
where NNd is the number of photons absorbed by Nd3+, Nhost is the number of photons absorbed by the host glass (including defects and impurities), and Nabs is the total number of the photons absorbed by the Nd3+ ions and glass host.

The relaxation efficiency (ηrel) is the efficiency that the excited Nd3+ relaxes to the initial state of emission (F3/24) and is given by

ηrel=NF3/24NNd,
where NF3/24 is the number of the Nd3+ ions excited to the F3/24 state. ηrel can decrease by radiative relaxation from excited states higher than the F3/24 state to the lower lying I13/2,11/2,9/24 states passing through the F3/24 state. However, the energy gaps between the excited states higher than the F3/24 state are so narrow that the cascading nonradiative decays to the F3/24 state with multiphonon emission will occur immediately after a pumping photon is absorbed by Nd3+. Thus, ηrel can usually be assumed to be almost 100% for near-infrared emission of Nd3+. The validation of the as sumption has been confirmed by the QE measurements of Nd-doped fluoride glass by thermal lens methods [35].

The escaping efficiency (ηesc) is the efficiency that the photons emitted by excited Nd3+ escape out of the sample. ηesc decreases by reabsorption by Nd3+ ions and glass host and thus a function of emission wavelength.

We can discuss η793 and ηs using Eq. (9), because they are internal QEs for different excitation wavelengths. ηabs, ηrel, and ηesc do not exceed 100% by definition. Thus η793 and ηs are always lower than ηr. ηrel can be assumed to 100% for near-infrared emission from Nd3+ as mentioned above. Both ηr and ηext terms in Eq. (9) are common to η793 and ηs. Thus, the difference between η793 and ηs arises from the dependence of the remaining ηabs term on wavelength. It is thought that ηabs is nearly 100% at the wavelengths of the absorption peak of Nd3+ and is considerably lower at other wavelengths. Consequently, ηs is always lower than η793 for the same host and for the same Nd3+ concentration (x).

The dependences of η793 and ηs on the Nd3+ concentration can be understood from the dependence of ηabs on the Nd3+ concentration and concentration quenching. As the Nd3+ concentration increases, NNd in Eq. (10) increases although Nhost is constant. Thus, ηabs increases with increasing of the Nd3+ concentration. On the other hand, ηr decreases with increasing of the Nd3+ concentration by concentration quenching. Because NNdNhost for 793nm excitation, the ηabs term in η793 would be almost 100% even for lower Nd3+ concentrations, and η793 decreases monotonically with increasing in the Nd3+ concentration. In contrast, as a consequence that ηs is determined by the product of ηr and ηabs, ηs gives a maximum at a specific Nd3+ concentration (x=0.5% in this case).

There is other evidence that the absorption of host affects QE. Figure 6 shows the excitation wavelength dependence of QEs of near-infrared emission from F3/24 state of Nd3+ doped in ZBLAN glass of x=0.5%. The curve in Fig. 6 is the absorption spectrum of the glass. Apparently, the positive correlation with the QE and the absorption coefficient can be seen. That is, the QE at an absorption peak wavelength of Nd3+ is higher than that at around the peak. Thus, in principle, the QE obtained using a broadband excitation source, such as sunlight, becomes lower than that obtained using a monochromatic light source at the absorption peak wavelength of Nd3+.

5. SUMMARY

Optical properties required for the design of a solar-pumped laser were evaluated for Nd3+-doped ZBLAN glass. The QE of the near-infrared emission from the F3/24 state of Nd3+-doped ZBLAN glass was directly measured by an integrating sphere method using sunlight as an excitation source was as high as 70%. The stimulated emission cross section of the F3/24I11/24 emission was σse=2.96×1020cm2, and the radiative lifetime obtained by JO analysis was τr=496μs. Thus, their product is σseτr1.45×1023cm2·s, which is the largest among those of Nd3+ doped in glass media. The integrated absorption strength in the 450900nm region of Nd3+-doped ZBLAN was the largest among Nd3+-doped fluoride glasses. These optical properties show that Nd3+-doped ZBLAN glass is one of the most promising gain media for solar-pumped lasers. It was revealed that the QE decreased more remarkable for sunlight excitation than for monochromatic excitations at the wavelength of a Nd3+ absorption peak. The reduction in QE under sunlight is mainly due to optical loss by the host glass (including defects and impurities) in the case of Nd3+- doped ZBLAN glass. This fact would be a clue to design more efficient glass host for solar-pumped lasers.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This work was supported by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science as a part of the Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research for Young Scientists (B) (20760039) and by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Tech nology as part of the Private University High-Tech Research Center Program (2011–2015).

Tables Icon

Table 1. Stimulated Emission Cross Section (σse), Radiative Lifetime (τr), and σseτr of Nd3+ and the F3/24I11/24 Radiative Transition and the Relative Integration Absorption of Nd3+ in the 400–950 nm Region

Tables Icon

Table 2. Spectroscopic Parameters for Nd3+ Doped in Glasses

 

Fig. 1 Measurement system of the QE using an integrating sphere.

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Fig. 2 Absorption and stimulated emission cross- section spectra of Nd3+ doped in ZBLAN glass. The term symbols show the final states of the transitions. The initial states are the I2/94 for absorption and the F3/24 for emission.

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Fig. 3 Emission lifetime of the F3/24 state of Nd3+ doped in ZBLAN glass. The dotted curve is a guide for the eye.

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Fig. 4 (a) Spectral intensities from an integrating sphere with Nd3+-doped ZBLAN glass sample of x=0.5 (solid curve) and without the sample (dotted curve) under sunlight irradiation. (b) Difference spectrum. The dashed–dotted line shows the baseline.

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Fig. 5 Quantum efficiencies of near-infrared emission from the F3/24 state of Nd3+ doped in ZBLAN glass as functions of NdF3 concentration x. The dotted curves are guides for the eye.

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Fig. 6 Excitation wavelength dependence of quantum efficiencies of near-infrared emission from the F3/24 state of Nd3+ doped in ZBLAN glass of x=0.5. The curve shows the absorption spectra of the glass.

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28. S. E. Stokowski, R. A. Saroyan, and M. J. Weber, “Nd-doped laser glass spectroscopic and physical properties,” Technical Report M-095 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 1981).

29. K. Arai, H. Namikawa, K. Kumata, T. Honda, Y. Ishii, and T. Hanada, “Aluminum or phosphorus co-doping effects on the fluorescence and structural properties of neodymium-doped silica glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3430–3436 (1986). [CrossRef]  

30. W. J. Miniscalco, “Optical and electronic properties of rare earth ions in glasses,” in Rare Earth Doped Fiber Lasers and Amplifiers, 2nd ed., M. J. F. Digonnet, ed. (Stanford Univ. Press, 2001), pp. 17–112.

31. D. P. Devor, L. G. Deshazer, and R. C. Pastor, “Nd:YAG quantum efficiency and related radiative properties,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1863–1873 (1989). [CrossRef]  

32. A. A. Andrade, T. Catunda, R. Lebullenger, A. C. Hernandes, and M. L. Baesso, “Thermal lens measurements of fluorescence quantum efficiency in Nd3+-doped floride glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 284, 255–260 (2001). [CrossRef]  

33. C. B. Layne, W. H. Lowdermilk, and M. J. Weber, “Multiphonon relaxation of rare-earth ions in oxide glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 16, 10–20 (1977). [CrossRef]  

34. R. Reisfeld and C. K. Jørgensen, “Excited-state phenomena in vitreous materials,” in Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths, Vol. 9, A. Gschneider and L. Eyring, eds. (Elsevier, 1987), Chap. 58, pp. 1–90. [CrossRef]  

35. S. M. Lima, A. A. Andrade, R. Lebullenger, A. C. Hernandes, T. Catunda, and M. L. Baesso, “Multiwavelength thermal lens determination of fluorescence quantum efficiency of solids: application to Nd3+-doped fluoride glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3220–3222 (2001). [CrossRef]  

References

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  1. H. Arashi and Y. Kaneda, “Solar-pumped laser and its second harmonic generation,” Sol. Energ. 50, 447–451 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  2. T. Yabe, S. Uchida, K. Ikuta, K. Yoshida, C. Baasandash, M. S. Mohamed, Y. Sakurai, Y. Ogata, M. Tuji, Y. Mori, Y. Satoh, T. Ohkubo, M. Murahara, A. Ikesue, M. Nakatsuka, T. Saiki, S. Motokoshi, and C. Yamanaka, “Demonstrated fossil-fuel-free energy cycle using magnesium and laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261107 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  3. Z. I. Kiss, H. R. Lewis, and R. C. Duncan, “Sun pumped continuous optical maser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 2, 93–94 (1963).
    [Crossref]
  4. T. H. Maiman, “Stimulated optical radiation in ruby,” Nature 187, 493–494 (1960).
    [Crossref]
  5. G. R. Simpson, “Continuous Sun-pumped room temperature glass laser operation,” Appl. Opt. 3, 783–784 (1964).
    [Crossref]
  6. C. G. Young, “A Sun-pumped cw one-watt laser,” Appl. Opt. 5, 993–997 (1966).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. H. Arashi, Y. Oka, N. Sasahara, A. Kaimai, and M. Ishigame, “A solar-pumped cw 18 W Nd:YAG laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 23, 1051–1053 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  8. R. M. J. Benmair, J. Kagan, Y. Kalisky, Y. Noter, M. Oron, Y. Shimony, and A. Yogev, “Solar-pumped Er, Tm, Ho:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 15, 36–38 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. T. Ohkubo, T. Yabe, K. Yoshida, S. Uchida, T. Funatsu, B. Bagheri, T. Oishi, K. Daito, M. Ishioka, Y. Nakayama, N. Yasunaga, K. Kido, Y. Sato, C. Baasandash, K. Kato, T. Yanagitani, and Y. Okamoto, “Solar-pumped 80 W laser irradiated by a Fresnel lens,” Opt. Lett. 34, 175–177 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. I. Bardez, D. Caurant, J. L. Dussossoy, P. Loiseau, C. Gervais, F. Ribot, D. R. Neuville, N. Baffier, and C. Fillett, “Development and characterization of rare earth-rich glassy matrices envisaged for the immobilization of concentrated nuclear waste solutions,” Nucl. Sci. Eng. 153, 272–284 (2006).
  11. M. Poulain, M. Poulain, J. Lucas, and P. Brun, “Verres fluores au tetrafluorure de zirconium proprietes optiques d’un verre dope au Nd3+,” Mat. Res. Bull. 10, 243–246 (1975).
    [Crossref]
  12. X. Zhu and N. Peyghambarian, “High-power ZBLAN glass fiber lasers: review and prospect,” Adv. Opt. Electron. 2010, 501956(2010).
    [Crossref]
  13. T. Kanamori and S. Sakaguchi, “Preparation of elevated NA fluoride optical fibers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25, L468–L470(1986).
    [Crossref]
  14. F. Gan, “Optical properties of fluoride glasses: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 184, 9–20 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  15. B. R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev. 127, 750–761 (1962).
    [Crossref]
  16. G. S. Ofelt, “Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511–520 (1962).
    [Crossref]
  17. A. A. Kaminskii, Crystalline Lasers: Physical Processes and Operating Schemes (CRC Press, 1996).
  18. K. Rajnak, “Configuration-interaction on the “free-ion” energy levels of Nd3+ and Er3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 43, 847–855 (1965).
    [Crossref]
  19. T. Suzuki, H. Nasu, M. Hughes, S. Mizuno, K. Hasegawa, H. Ito, and Y. Ohishi, “Quantum efficiency measurements on Nd-doped glasses for solar pumped lasers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356, 2344–2349 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  20. T. Förster, “Experimentelle und Theoretische Untersuchung des Zwischenmolekularen Ubergangs von Elektronenanregungsenergie,” Z. Naturforsch. B 4a, 321–327 (1949).
  21. J. A. Caird, A. J. Ramponi, and P. R. Staver, “Quantum efficiency and excited-state relaxation dynamics in neodymium-doped phosphate laser glasses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1391–1403 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  22. A. I. Burshtein, “Concentration self-quenching,” Sov. Phys. JETP 57, 1165–1171 (1983).
  23. M. Inokuti and F. Hirayama, “Influence of energy transfer by the exchange mechanism on donor luminescence,” J. Chem. Phys. 43, 1978–1989 (1965).
    [Crossref]
  24. D. L. Dexter, “A theory of sensitized luminescence in solids,” J. Chem. Phys. 21, 836–850 (1953).
    [Crossref]
  25. C. Jacinto, S. L. Oliveira, L. A. O. Nunes, J. D. Myers, M. J. Myers, and T. Catunda, “Normalized-lifetime thermal-lens method for the determination of luminescence quantum efficiency and thermo-optical coefficients: application to Nd3+-doped glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 125107 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  26. H. Takebe, K. Yoshino, T. Murata, K. Morinaga, J. Hector, W. S. Brocklesby, D. W. Hewak, J. Wang, and D. N. Payne, “Spectroscopic properties of Nd3+ and Pr3+ in gallate glasses with low phonon energies,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5839–5843 (1997).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. A. Tesar, J. Campbell, M. Weber, C. Weinzapfel, Y. Lin, H. Meissner, and H. Toratani, “Optical properties and laser parameters of Nd3+-doped fluoride glasses,” Opt. Mater. 1, 217–234(1992).
    [Crossref]
  28. S. E. Stokowski, R. A. Saroyan, and M. J. Weber, “Nd-doped laser glass spectroscopic and physical properties,” Technical Report M-095 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 1981).
  29. K. Arai, H. Namikawa, K. Kumata, T. Honda, Y. Ishii, and T. Hanada, “Aluminum or phosphorus co-doping effects on the fluorescence and structural properties of neodymium-doped silica glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3430–3436 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  30. W. J. Miniscalco, “Optical and electronic properties of rare earth ions in glasses,” in Rare Earth Doped Fiber Lasers and Amplifiers, 2nd ed., M.J. F.Digonnet, ed. (Stanford Univ. Press, 2001), pp. 17–112.
  31. D. P. Devor, L. G. Deshazer, and R. C. Pastor, “Nd:YAG quantum efficiency and related radiative properties,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1863–1873 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  32. A. A. Andrade, T. Catunda, R. Lebullenger, A. C. Hernandes, and M. L. Baesso, “Thermal lens measurements of fluorescence quantum efficiency in Nd3+-doped floride glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 284, 255–260 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  33. C. B. Layne, W. H. Lowdermilk, and M. J. Weber, “Multiphonon relaxation of rare-earth ions in oxide glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 16, 10–20 (1977).
    [Crossref]
  34. R. Reisfeld and C. K. Jørgensen, “Excited-state phenomena in vitreous materials,” in Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths, Vol. 9, A.Gschneider and L.Eyring, eds. (Elsevier, 1987), Chap. 58, pp. 1–90.
    [Crossref]
  35. S. M. Lima, A. A. Andrade, R. Lebullenger, A. C. Hernandes, T. Catunda, and M. L. Baesso, “Multiwavelength thermal lens determination of fluorescence quantum efficiency of solids: application to Nd3+-doped fluoride glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3220–3222 (2001).
    [Crossref]

2010 (2)

X. Zhu and N. Peyghambarian, “High-power ZBLAN glass fiber lasers: review and prospect,” Adv. Opt. Electron. 2010, 501956(2010).
[Crossref]

T. Suzuki, H. Nasu, M. Hughes, S. Mizuno, K. Hasegawa, H. Ito, and Y. Ohishi, “Quantum efficiency measurements on Nd-doped glasses for solar pumped lasers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356, 2344–2349 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

T. Ohkubo, T. Yabe, K. Yoshida, S. Uchida, T. Funatsu, B. Bagheri, T. Oishi, K. Daito, M. Ishioka, Y. Nakayama, N. Yasunaga, K. Kido, Y. Sato, C. Baasandash, K. Kato, T. Yanagitani, and Y. Okamoto, “Solar-pumped 80 W laser irradiated by a Fresnel lens,” Opt. Lett. 34, 175–177 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

I. Bardez, D. Caurant, J. L. Dussossoy, P. Loiseau, C. Gervais, F. Ribot, D. R. Neuville, N. Baffier, and C. Fillett, “Development and characterization of rare earth-rich glassy matrices envisaged for the immobilization of concentrated nuclear waste solutions,” Nucl. Sci. Eng. 153, 272–284 (2006).

T. Yabe, S. Uchida, K. Ikuta, K. Yoshida, C. Baasandash, M. S. Mohamed, Y. Sakurai, Y. Ogata, M. Tuji, Y. Mori, Y. Satoh, T. Ohkubo, M. Murahara, A. Ikesue, M. Nakatsuka, T. Saiki, S. Motokoshi, and C. Yamanaka, “Demonstrated fossil-fuel-free energy cycle using magnesium and laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261107 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. Jacinto, S. L. Oliveira, L. A. O. Nunes, J. D. Myers, M. J. Myers, and T. Catunda, “Normalized-lifetime thermal-lens method for the determination of luminescence quantum efficiency and thermo-optical coefficients: application to Nd3+-doped glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 125107 (2006).
[Crossref]

2001 (3)

W. J. Miniscalco, “Optical and electronic properties of rare earth ions in glasses,” in Rare Earth Doped Fiber Lasers and Amplifiers, 2nd ed., M.J. F.Digonnet, ed. (Stanford Univ. Press, 2001), pp. 17–112.

A. A. Andrade, T. Catunda, R. Lebullenger, A. C. Hernandes, and M. L. Baesso, “Thermal lens measurements of fluorescence quantum efficiency in Nd3+-doped floride glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 284, 255–260 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. M. Lima, A. A. Andrade, R. Lebullenger, A. C. Hernandes, T. Catunda, and M. L. Baesso, “Multiwavelength thermal lens determination of fluorescence quantum efficiency of solids: application to Nd3+-doped fluoride glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3220–3222 (2001).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

H. Takebe, K. Yoshino, T. Murata, K. Morinaga, J. Hector, W. S. Brocklesby, D. W. Hewak, J. Wang, and D. N. Payne, “Spectroscopic properties of Nd3+ and Pr3+ in gallate glasses with low phonon energies,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5839–5843 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

A. A. Kaminskii, Crystalline Lasers: Physical Processes and Operating Schemes (CRC Press, 1996).

1995 (1)

F. Gan, “Optical properties of fluoride glasses: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 184, 9–20 (1995).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

H. Arashi and Y. Kaneda, “Solar-pumped laser and its second harmonic generation,” Sol. Energ. 50, 447–451 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

A. Tesar, J. Campbell, M. Weber, C. Weinzapfel, Y. Lin, H. Meissner, and H. Toratani, “Optical properties and laser parameters of Nd3+-doped fluoride glasses,” Opt. Mater. 1, 217–234(1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

J. A. Caird, A. J. Ramponi, and P. R. Staver, “Quantum efficiency and excited-state relaxation dynamics in neodymium-doped phosphate laser glasses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1391–1403 (1991).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

R. M. J. Benmair, J. Kagan, Y. Kalisky, Y. Noter, M. Oron, Y. Shimony, and A. Yogev, “Solar-pumped Er, Tm, Ho:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 15, 36–38 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

D. P. Devor, L. G. Deshazer, and R. C. Pastor, “Nd:YAG quantum efficiency and related radiative properties,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1863–1873 (1989).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

R. Reisfeld and C. K. Jørgensen, “Excited-state phenomena in vitreous materials,” in Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths, Vol. 9, A.Gschneider and L.Eyring, eds. (Elsevier, 1987), Chap. 58, pp. 1–90.
[Crossref]

1986 (2)

K. Arai, H. Namikawa, K. Kumata, T. Honda, Y. Ishii, and T. Hanada, “Aluminum or phosphorus co-doping effects on the fluorescence and structural properties of neodymium-doped silica glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3430–3436 (1986).
[Crossref]

T. Kanamori and S. Sakaguchi, “Preparation of elevated NA fluoride optical fibers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25, L468–L470(1986).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

H. Arashi, Y. Oka, N. Sasahara, A. Kaimai, and M. Ishigame, “A solar-pumped cw 18 W Nd:YAG laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 23, 1051–1053 (1984).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

A. I. Burshtein, “Concentration self-quenching,” Sov. Phys. JETP 57, 1165–1171 (1983).

1981 (1)

S. E. Stokowski, R. A. Saroyan, and M. J. Weber, “Nd-doped laser glass spectroscopic and physical properties,” Technical Report M-095 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 1981).

1977 (1)

C. B. Layne, W. H. Lowdermilk, and M. J. Weber, “Multiphonon relaxation of rare-earth ions in oxide glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 16, 10–20 (1977).
[Crossref]

1975 (1)

M. Poulain, M. Poulain, J. Lucas, and P. Brun, “Verres fluores au tetrafluorure de zirconium proprietes optiques d’un verre dope au Nd3+,” Mat. Res. Bull. 10, 243–246 (1975).
[Crossref]

1966 (1)

C. G. Young, “A Sun-pumped cw one-watt laser,” Appl. Opt. 5, 993–997 (1966).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1965 (2)

K. Rajnak, “Configuration-interaction on the “free-ion” energy levels of Nd3+ and Er3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 43, 847–855 (1965).
[Crossref]

M. Inokuti and F. Hirayama, “Influence of energy transfer by the exchange mechanism on donor luminescence,” J. Chem. Phys. 43, 1978–1989 (1965).
[Crossref]

1964 (1)

G. R. Simpson, “Continuous Sun-pumped room temperature glass laser operation,” Appl. Opt. 3, 783–784 (1964).
[Crossref]

1963 (1)

Z. I. Kiss, H. R. Lewis, and R. C. Duncan, “Sun pumped continuous optical maser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 2, 93–94 (1963).
[Crossref]

1962 (2)

B. R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev. 127, 750–761 (1962).
[Crossref]

G. S. Ofelt, “Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511–520 (1962).
[Crossref]

1960 (1)

T. H. Maiman, “Stimulated optical radiation in ruby,” Nature 187, 493–494 (1960).
[Crossref]

1953 (1)

D. L. Dexter, “A theory of sensitized luminescence in solids,” J. Chem. Phys. 21, 836–850 (1953).
[Crossref]

1949 (1)

T. Förster, “Experimentelle und Theoretische Untersuchung des Zwischenmolekularen Ubergangs von Elektronenanregungsenergie,” Z. Naturforsch. B 4a, 321–327 (1949).

Andrade, A. A.

A. A. Andrade, T. Catunda, R. Lebullenger, A. C. Hernandes, and M. L. Baesso, “Thermal lens measurements of fluorescence quantum efficiency in Nd3+-doped floride glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 284, 255–260 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. M. Lima, A. A. Andrade, R. Lebullenger, A. C. Hernandes, T. Catunda, and M. L. Baesso, “Multiwavelength thermal lens determination of fluorescence quantum efficiency of solids: application to Nd3+-doped fluoride glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3220–3222 (2001).
[Crossref]

Arai, K.

K. Arai, H. Namikawa, K. Kumata, T. Honda, Y. Ishii, and T. Hanada, “Aluminum or phosphorus co-doping effects on the fluorescence and structural properties of neodymium-doped silica glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3430–3436 (1986).
[Crossref]

Arashi, H.

H. Arashi and Y. Kaneda, “Solar-pumped laser and its second harmonic generation,” Sol. Energ. 50, 447–451 (1993).
[Crossref]

H. Arashi, Y. Oka, N. Sasahara, A. Kaimai, and M. Ishigame, “A solar-pumped cw 18 W Nd:YAG laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 23, 1051–1053 (1984).
[Crossref]

Baasandash, C.

T. Ohkubo, T. Yabe, K. Yoshida, S. Uchida, T. Funatsu, B. Bagheri, T. Oishi, K. Daito, M. Ishioka, Y. Nakayama, N. Yasunaga, K. Kido, Y. Sato, C. Baasandash, K. Kato, T. Yanagitani, and Y. Okamoto, “Solar-pumped 80 W laser irradiated by a Fresnel lens,” Opt. Lett. 34, 175–177 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Yabe, S. Uchida, K. Ikuta, K. Yoshida, C. Baasandash, M. S. Mohamed, Y. Sakurai, Y. Ogata, M. Tuji, Y. Mori, Y. Satoh, T. Ohkubo, M. Murahara, A. Ikesue, M. Nakatsuka, T. Saiki, S. Motokoshi, and C. Yamanaka, “Demonstrated fossil-fuel-free energy cycle using magnesium and laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261107 (2006).
[Crossref]

Baesso, M. L.

A. A. Andrade, T. Catunda, R. Lebullenger, A. C. Hernandes, and M. L. Baesso, “Thermal lens measurements of fluorescence quantum efficiency in Nd3+-doped floride glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 284, 255–260 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. M. Lima, A. A. Andrade, R. Lebullenger, A. C. Hernandes, T. Catunda, and M. L. Baesso, “Multiwavelength thermal lens determination of fluorescence quantum efficiency of solids: application to Nd3+-doped fluoride glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3220–3222 (2001).
[Crossref]

Baffier, N.

I. Bardez, D. Caurant, J. L. Dussossoy, P. Loiseau, C. Gervais, F. Ribot, D. R. Neuville, N. Baffier, and C. Fillett, “Development and characterization of rare earth-rich glassy matrices envisaged for the immobilization of concentrated nuclear waste solutions,” Nucl. Sci. Eng. 153, 272–284 (2006).

Bagheri, B.

T. Ohkubo, T. Yabe, K. Yoshida, S. Uchida, T. Funatsu, B. Bagheri, T. Oishi, K. Daito, M. Ishioka, Y. Nakayama, N. Yasunaga, K. Kido, Y. Sato, C. Baasandash, K. Kato, T. Yanagitani, and Y. Okamoto, “Solar-pumped 80 W laser irradiated by a Fresnel lens,” Opt. Lett. 34, 175–177 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bardez, I.

I. Bardez, D. Caurant, J. L. Dussossoy, P. Loiseau, C. Gervais, F. Ribot, D. R. Neuville, N. Baffier, and C. Fillett, “Development and characterization of rare earth-rich glassy matrices envisaged for the immobilization of concentrated nuclear waste solutions,” Nucl. Sci. Eng. 153, 272–284 (2006).

Benmair, R. M. J.

R. M. J. Benmair, J. Kagan, Y. Kalisky, Y. Noter, M. Oron, Y. Shimony, and A. Yogev, “Solar-pumped Er, Tm, Ho:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 15, 36–38 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brocklesby, W. S.

H. Takebe, K. Yoshino, T. Murata, K. Morinaga, J. Hector, W. S. Brocklesby, D. W. Hewak, J. Wang, and D. N. Payne, “Spectroscopic properties of Nd3+ and Pr3+ in gallate glasses with low phonon energies,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5839–5843 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brun, P.

M. Poulain, M. Poulain, J. Lucas, and P. Brun, “Verres fluores au tetrafluorure de zirconium proprietes optiques d’un verre dope au Nd3+,” Mat. Res. Bull. 10, 243–246 (1975).
[Crossref]

Burshtein, A. I.

A. I. Burshtein, “Concentration self-quenching,” Sov. Phys. JETP 57, 1165–1171 (1983).

Caird, J. A.

J. A. Caird, A. J. Ramponi, and P. R. Staver, “Quantum efficiency and excited-state relaxation dynamics in neodymium-doped phosphate laser glasses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1391–1403 (1991).
[Crossref]

Campbell, J.

A. Tesar, J. Campbell, M. Weber, C. Weinzapfel, Y. Lin, H. Meissner, and H. Toratani, “Optical properties and laser parameters of Nd3+-doped fluoride glasses,” Opt. Mater. 1, 217–234(1992).
[Crossref]

Catunda, T.

C. Jacinto, S. L. Oliveira, L. A. O. Nunes, J. D. Myers, M. J. Myers, and T. Catunda, “Normalized-lifetime thermal-lens method for the determination of luminescence quantum efficiency and thermo-optical coefficients: application to Nd3+-doped glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 125107 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. M. Lima, A. A. Andrade, R. Lebullenger, A. C. Hernandes, T. Catunda, and M. L. Baesso, “Multiwavelength thermal lens determination of fluorescence quantum efficiency of solids: application to Nd3+-doped fluoride glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3220–3222 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. A. Andrade, T. Catunda, R. Lebullenger, A. C. Hernandes, and M. L. Baesso, “Thermal lens measurements of fluorescence quantum efficiency in Nd3+-doped floride glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 284, 255–260 (2001).
[Crossref]

Caurant, D.

I. Bardez, D. Caurant, J. L. Dussossoy, P. Loiseau, C. Gervais, F. Ribot, D. R. Neuville, N. Baffier, and C. Fillett, “Development and characterization of rare earth-rich glassy matrices envisaged for the immobilization of concentrated nuclear waste solutions,” Nucl. Sci. Eng. 153, 272–284 (2006).

Daito, K.

T. Ohkubo, T. Yabe, K. Yoshida, S. Uchida, T. Funatsu, B. Bagheri, T. Oishi, K. Daito, M. Ishioka, Y. Nakayama, N. Yasunaga, K. Kido, Y. Sato, C. Baasandash, K. Kato, T. Yanagitani, and Y. Okamoto, “Solar-pumped 80 W laser irradiated by a Fresnel lens,” Opt. Lett. 34, 175–177 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deshazer, L. G.

D. P. Devor, L. G. Deshazer, and R. C. Pastor, “Nd:YAG quantum efficiency and related radiative properties,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1863–1873 (1989).
[Crossref]

Devor, D. P.

D. P. Devor, L. G. Deshazer, and R. C. Pastor, “Nd:YAG quantum efficiency and related radiative properties,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1863–1873 (1989).
[Crossref]

Dexter, D. L.

D. L. Dexter, “A theory of sensitized luminescence in solids,” J. Chem. Phys. 21, 836–850 (1953).
[Crossref]

Duncan, R. C.

Z. I. Kiss, H. R. Lewis, and R. C. Duncan, “Sun pumped continuous optical maser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 2, 93–94 (1963).
[Crossref]

Dussossoy, J. L.

I. Bardez, D. Caurant, J. L. Dussossoy, P. Loiseau, C. Gervais, F. Ribot, D. R. Neuville, N. Baffier, and C. Fillett, “Development and characterization of rare earth-rich glassy matrices envisaged for the immobilization of concentrated nuclear waste solutions,” Nucl. Sci. Eng. 153, 272–284 (2006).

Fillett, C.

I. Bardez, D. Caurant, J. L. Dussossoy, P. Loiseau, C. Gervais, F. Ribot, D. R. Neuville, N. Baffier, and C. Fillett, “Development and characterization of rare earth-rich glassy matrices envisaged for the immobilization of concentrated nuclear waste solutions,” Nucl. Sci. Eng. 153, 272–284 (2006).

Förster, T.

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S. E. Stokowski, R. A. Saroyan, and M. J. Weber, “Nd-doped laser glass spectroscopic and physical properties,” Technical Report M-095 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 1981).

Sasahara, N.

H. Arashi, Y. Oka, N. Sasahara, A. Kaimai, and M. Ishigame, “A solar-pumped cw 18 W Nd:YAG laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 23, 1051–1053 (1984).
[Crossref]

Sato, Y.

T. Ohkubo, T. Yabe, K. Yoshida, S. Uchida, T. Funatsu, B. Bagheri, T. Oishi, K. Daito, M. Ishioka, Y. Nakayama, N. Yasunaga, K. Kido, Y. Sato, C. Baasandash, K. Kato, T. Yanagitani, and Y. Okamoto, “Solar-pumped 80 W laser irradiated by a Fresnel lens,” Opt. Lett. 34, 175–177 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Satoh, Y.

T. Yabe, S. Uchida, K. Ikuta, K. Yoshida, C. Baasandash, M. S. Mohamed, Y. Sakurai, Y. Ogata, M. Tuji, Y. Mori, Y. Satoh, T. Ohkubo, M. Murahara, A. Ikesue, M. Nakatsuka, T. Saiki, S. Motokoshi, and C. Yamanaka, “Demonstrated fossil-fuel-free energy cycle using magnesium and laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261107 (2006).
[Crossref]

Shimony, Y.

R. M. J. Benmair, J. Kagan, Y. Kalisky, Y. Noter, M. Oron, Y. Shimony, and A. Yogev, “Solar-pumped Er, Tm, Ho:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 15, 36–38 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Simpson, G. R.

G. R. Simpson, “Continuous Sun-pumped room temperature glass laser operation,” Appl. Opt. 3, 783–784 (1964).
[Crossref]

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J. A. Caird, A. J. Ramponi, and P. R. Staver, “Quantum efficiency and excited-state relaxation dynamics in neodymium-doped phosphate laser glasses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1391–1403 (1991).
[Crossref]

Stokowski, S. E.

S. E. Stokowski, R. A. Saroyan, and M. J. Weber, “Nd-doped laser glass spectroscopic and physical properties,” Technical Report M-095 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 1981).

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T. Suzuki, H. Nasu, M. Hughes, S. Mizuno, K. Hasegawa, H. Ito, and Y. Ohishi, “Quantum efficiency measurements on Nd-doped glasses for solar pumped lasers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356, 2344–2349 (2010).
[Crossref]

Takebe, H.

H. Takebe, K. Yoshino, T. Murata, K. Morinaga, J. Hector, W. S. Brocklesby, D. W. Hewak, J. Wang, and D. N. Payne, “Spectroscopic properties of Nd3+ and Pr3+ in gallate glasses with low phonon energies,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5839–5843 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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A. Tesar, J. Campbell, M. Weber, C. Weinzapfel, Y. Lin, H. Meissner, and H. Toratani, “Optical properties and laser parameters of Nd3+-doped fluoride glasses,” Opt. Mater. 1, 217–234(1992).
[Crossref]

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A. Tesar, J. Campbell, M. Weber, C. Weinzapfel, Y. Lin, H. Meissner, and H. Toratani, “Optical properties and laser parameters of Nd3+-doped fluoride glasses,” Opt. Mater. 1, 217–234(1992).
[Crossref]

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T. Yabe, S. Uchida, K. Ikuta, K. Yoshida, C. Baasandash, M. S. Mohamed, Y. Sakurai, Y. Ogata, M. Tuji, Y. Mori, Y. Satoh, T. Ohkubo, M. Murahara, A. Ikesue, M. Nakatsuka, T. Saiki, S. Motokoshi, and C. Yamanaka, “Demonstrated fossil-fuel-free energy cycle using magnesium and laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261107 (2006).
[Crossref]

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T. Ohkubo, T. Yabe, K. Yoshida, S. Uchida, T. Funatsu, B. Bagheri, T. Oishi, K. Daito, M. Ishioka, Y. Nakayama, N. Yasunaga, K. Kido, Y. Sato, C. Baasandash, K. Kato, T. Yanagitani, and Y. Okamoto, “Solar-pumped 80 W laser irradiated by a Fresnel lens,” Opt. Lett. 34, 175–177 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Yabe, S. Uchida, K. Ikuta, K. Yoshida, C. Baasandash, M. S. Mohamed, Y. Sakurai, Y. Ogata, M. Tuji, Y. Mori, Y. Satoh, T. Ohkubo, M. Murahara, A. Ikesue, M. Nakatsuka, T. Saiki, S. Motokoshi, and C. Yamanaka, “Demonstrated fossil-fuel-free energy cycle using magnesium and laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261107 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

H. Takebe, K. Yoshino, T. Murata, K. Morinaga, J. Hector, W. S. Brocklesby, D. W. Hewak, J. Wang, and D. N. Payne, “Spectroscopic properties of Nd3+ and Pr3+ in gallate glasses with low phonon energies,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5839–5843 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weber, M.

A. Tesar, J. Campbell, M. Weber, C. Weinzapfel, Y. Lin, H. Meissner, and H. Toratani, “Optical properties and laser parameters of Nd3+-doped fluoride glasses,” Opt. Mater. 1, 217–234(1992).
[Crossref]

Weber, M. J.

S. E. Stokowski, R. A. Saroyan, and M. J. Weber, “Nd-doped laser glass spectroscopic and physical properties,” Technical Report M-095 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 1981).

C. B. Layne, W. H. Lowdermilk, and M. J. Weber, “Multiphonon relaxation of rare-earth ions in oxide glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 16, 10–20 (1977).
[Crossref]

Weinzapfel, C.

A. Tesar, J. Campbell, M. Weber, C. Weinzapfel, Y. Lin, H. Meissner, and H. Toratani, “Optical properties and laser parameters of Nd3+-doped fluoride glasses,” Opt. Mater. 1, 217–234(1992).
[Crossref]

Yabe, T.

T. Ohkubo, T. Yabe, K. Yoshida, S. Uchida, T. Funatsu, B. Bagheri, T. Oishi, K. Daito, M. Ishioka, Y. Nakayama, N. Yasunaga, K. Kido, Y. Sato, C. Baasandash, K. Kato, T. Yanagitani, and Y. Okamoto, “Solar-pumped 80 W laser irradiated by a Fresnel lens,” Opt. Lett. 34, 175–177 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Yabe, S. Uchida, K. Ikuta, K. Yoshida, C. Baasandash, M. S. Mohamed, Y. Sakurai, Y. Ogata, M. Tuji, Y. Mori, Y. Satoh, T. Ohkubo, M. Murahara, A. Ikesue, M. Nakatsuka, T. Saiki, S. Motokoshi, and C. Yamanaka, “Demonstrated fossil-fuel-free energy cycle using magnesium and laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261107 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yamanaka, C.

T. Yabe, S. Uchida, K. Ikuta, K. Yoshida, C. Baasandash, M. S. Mohamed, Y. Sakurai, Y. Ogata, M. Tuji, Y. Mori, Y. Satoh, T. Ohkubo, M. Murahara, A. Ikesue, M. Nakatsuka, T. Saiki, S. Motokoshi, and C. Yamanaka, “Demonstrated fossil-fuel-free energy cycle using magnesium and laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261107 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yanagitani, T.

T. Ohkubo, T. Yabe, K. Yoshida, S. Uchida, T. Funatsu, B. Bagheri, T. Oishi, K. Daito, M. Ishioka, Y. Nakayama, N. Yasunaga, K. Kido, Y. Sato, C. Baasandash, K. Kato, T. Yanagitani, and Y. Okamoto, “Solar-pumped 80 W laser irradiated by a Fresnel lens,” Opt. Lett. 34, 175–177 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yasunaga, N.

T. Ohkubo, T. Yabe, K. Yoshida, S. Uchida, T. Funatsu, B. Bagheri, T. Oishi, K. Daito, M. Ishioka, Y. Nakayama, N. Yasunaga, K. Kido, Y. Sato, C. Baasandash, K. Kato, T. Yanagitani, and Y. Okamoto, “Solar-pumped 80 W laser irradiated by a Fresnel lens,” Opt. Lett. 34, 175–177 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yogev, A.

R. M. J. Benmair, J. Kagan, Y. Kalisky, Y. Noter, M. Oron, Y. Shimony, and A. Yogev, “Solar-pumped Er, Tm, Ho:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 15, 36–38 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoshida, K.

T. Ohkubo, T. Yabe, K. Yoshida, S. Uchida, T. Funatsu, B. Bagheri, T. Oishi, K. Daito, M. Ishioka, Y. Nakayama, N. Yasunaga, K. Kido, Y. Sato, C. Baasandash, K. Kato, T. Yanagitani, and Y. Okamoto, “Solar-pumped 80 W laser irradiated by a Fresnel lens,” Opt. Lett. 34, 175–177 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Yabe, S. Uchida, K. Ikuta, K. Yoshida, C. Baasandash, M. S. Mohamed, Y. Sakurai, Y. Ogata, M. Tuji, Y. Mori, Y. Satoh, T. Ohkubo, M. Murahara, A. Ikesue, M. Nakatsuka, T. Saiki, S. Motokoshi, and C. Yamanaka, “Demonstrated fossil-fuel-free energy cycle using magnesium and laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261107 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yoshino, K.

H. Takebe, K. Yoshino, T. Murata, K. Morinaga, J. Hector, W. S. Brocklesby, D. W. Hewak, J. Wang, and D. N. Payne, “Spectroscopic properties of Nd3+ and Pr3+ in gallate glasses with low phonon energies,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5839–5843 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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C. G. Young, “A Sun-pumped cw one-watt laser,” Appl. Opt. 5, 993–997 (1966).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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X. Zhu and N. Peyghambarian, “High-power ZBLAN glass fiber lasers: review and prospect,” Adv. Opt. Electron. 2010, 501956(2010).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Electron. (1)

X. Zhu and N. Peyghambarian, “High-power ZBLAN glass fiber lasers: review and prospect,” Adv. Opt. Electron. 2010, 501956(2010).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (3)

G. R. Simpson, “Continuous Sun-pumped room temperature glass laser operation,” Appl. Opt. 3, 783–784 (1964).
[Crossref]

C. G. Young, “A Sun-pumped cw one-watt laser,” Appl. Opt. 5, 993–997 (1966).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Takebe, K. Yoshino, T. Murata, K. Morinaga, J. Hector, W. S. Brocklesby, D. W. Hewak, J. Wang, and D. N. Payne, “Spectroscopic properties of Nd3+ and Pr3+ in gallate glasses with low phonon energies,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5839–5843 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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S. M. Lima, A. A. Andrade, R. Lebullenger, A. C. Hernandes, T. Catunda, and M. L. Baesso, “Multiwavelength thermal lens determination of fluorescence quantum efficiency of solids: application to Nd3+-doped fluoride glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3220–3222 (2001).
[Crossref]

T. Yabe, S. Uchida, K. Ikuta, K. Yoshida, C. Baasandash, M. S. Mohamed, Y. Sakurai, Y. Ogata, M. Tuji, Y. Mori, Y. Satoh, T. Ohkubo, M. Murahara, A. Ikesue, M. Nakatsuka, T. Saiki, S. Motokoshi, and C. Yamanaka, “Demonstrated fossil-fuel-free energy cycle using magnesium and laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 261107 (2006).
[Crossref]

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T. Suzuki, H. Nasu, M. Hughes, S. Mizuno, K. Hasegawa, H. Ito, and Y. Ohishi, “Quantum efficiency measurements on Nd-doped glasses for solar pumped lasers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356, 2344–2349 (2010).
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A. A. Andrade, T. Catunda, R. Lebullenger, A. C. Hernandes, and M. L. Baesso, “Thermal lens measurements of fluorescence quantum efficiency in Nd3+-doped floride glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 284, 255–260 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. A. Caird, A. J. Ramponi, and P. R. Staver, “Quantum efficiency and excited-state relaxation dynamics in neodymium-doped phosphate laser glasses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1391–1403 (1991).
[Crossref]

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T. Kanamori and S. Sakaguchi, “Preparation of elevated NA fluoride optical fibers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25, L468–L470(1986).
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H. Arashi, Y. Oka, N. Sasahara, A. Kaimai, and M. Ishigame, “A solar-pumped cw 18 W Nd:YAG laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 23, 1051–1053 (1984).
[Crossref]

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R. M. J. Benmair, J. Kagan, Y. Kalisky, Y. Noter, M. Oron, Y. Shimony, and A. Yogev, “Solar-pumped Er, Tm, Ho:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 15, 36–38 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Ohkubo, T. Yabe, K. Yoshida, S. Uchida, T. Funatsu, B. Bagheri, T. Oishi, K. Daito, M. Ishioka, Y. Nakayama, N. Yasunaga, K. Kido, Y. Sato, C. Baasandash, K. Kato, T. Yanagitani, and Y. Okamoto, “Solar-pumped 80 W laser irradiated by a Fresnel lens,” Opt. Lett. 34, 175–177 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Mater. (1)

A. Tesar, J. Campbell, M. Weber, C. Weinzapfel, Y. Lin, H. Meissner, and H. Toratani, “Optical properties and laser parameters of Nd3+-doped fluoride glasses,” Opt. Mater. 1, 217–234(1992).
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Other (4)

A. A. Kaminskii, Crystalline Lasers: Physical Processes and Operating Schemes (CRC Press, 1996).

S. E. Stokowski, R. A. Saroyan, and M. J. Weber, “Nd-doped laser glass spectroscopic and physical properties,” Technical Report M-095 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 1981).

W. J. Miniscalco, “Optical and electronic properties of rare earth ions in glasses,” in Rare Earth Doped Fiber Lasers and Amplifiers, 2nd ed., M.J. F.Digonnet, ed. (Stanford Univ. Press, 2001), pp. 17–112.

R. Reisfeld and C. K. Jørgensen, “Excited-state phenomena in vitreous materials,” in Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths, Vol. 9, A.Gschneider and L.Eyring, eds. (Elsevier, 1987), Chap. 58, pp. 1–90.
[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Measurement system of the QE using an integrating sphere.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Absorption and stimulated emission cross- section spectra of Nd 3 + doped in ZBLAN glass. The term symbols show the final states of the transitions. The initial states are the I 2 / 9 4 for absorption and the F 3 / 2 4 for emission.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Emission lifetime of the F 3 / 2 4 state of Nd 3 + doped in ZBLAN glass. The dotted curve is a guide for the eye.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Spectral intensities from an integrating sphere with Nd 3 + -doped ZBLAN glass sample of x = 0.5 (solid curve) and without the sample (dotted curve) under sunlight irradiation. (b) Difference spectrum. The dashed–dotted line shows the baseline.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Quantum efficiencies of near-infrared emission from the F 3 / 2 4 state of Nd 3 + doped in ZBLAN glass as functions of NdF 3 concentration x. The dotted curves are guides for the eye.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Excitation wavelength dependence of quantum efficiencies of near-infrared emission from the F 3 / 2 4 state of Nd 3 + doped in ZBLAN glass of x = 0.5 . The curve shows the absorption spectra of the glass.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Stimulated Emission Cross Section ( σ se ), Radiative Lifetime ( τ r ), and σ se τ r of Nd 3 + and the F 3 / 2 4 I 11 / 2 4 Radiative Transition and the Relative Integration Absorption of Nd 3 + in the 400–950 nm Region

Tables Icon

Table 2 Spectroscopic Parameters for Nd 3 + Doped in Glasses

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I ( t ) = I ( 0 ) exp ( A r t W 0 t γ t W ¯ t ) ,
γ = 4 3 π 3 / 2 n N d R D A A r 1 / 3 ,
τ 0 1 = ( 2 π 3 ) 3 n N d 2 R D D 2 A r ,
W ¯ = γ π / 4 τ 0 = π ( 2 π 3 ) 5 / 2 R D A 3 R D D 3 n N d 2 A r .
η r = ( A r / W ) { 1 π z exp ( z 2 ) [ 1 erf z ] } ,
R D D 6 = 3 c 8 π n 2 A r σ em D σ abs D ( λ ) d λ ,
σ abs ( λ ) = α N d doped ( λ ) α undoped ( λ ) n N d ,
W m p = C { [ exp ( ω k T ) 1 ] 1 + 1 } p exp ( α Δ E ) ,
η int = N em N abs = η abs η rel η r η esc ,
η abs = N N d N N d + N host = N N d N abs ,
η rel = N F 3 / 2 4 N N d ,

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