Abstract

We investigate in detail the grating properties of a recently discovered organic photorefractive polymer as a function of electric field by using two-beam coupling. Using an oblique-incidence geometry, we present measurements of index and absorption grating phase relative to the intensity interference pattern as well as measurements of the amplitude of both the absorption and index gratings. We find that in low electric fields a weak in-phase grating (possibly photochromic) and the low electro-optic coefficient prevent observation of a phase-shifted photorefractive grating. However, in moderate-to-high electric fields a much stronger photorefractive index grating with a phase shift approaching 90° dominates. The presence of an index grating with a 90° phase shift at high fields provides strong evidence that these polymers are indeed photorefractive.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. K. Sutter, J. Hullinger, and P. Günter, Solid State Commun. 74, 867 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  2. S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, OSA Annual Meeting, Vol. 15 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), postdeadline paper PDP28-1, p. 359.
  3. S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. J. S. Schildkraut, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 340 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  5. J. Feinberg, Phys. Today 41(10), 46 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  6. SeeP. Günter and J.-P. Huignard, eds., Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications I and II (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988, 1989).
    [Crossref]
  7. M. Cronin-Golomb and A. Yariv, J. Appl. Phys. 57, 4906 (1985).
    [Crossref]
  8. D. Z. Anderson, D. M. Lininger, and J. Feinberg, Opt. Lett. 12, 123 (1987).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. D. Z. Anderson and J. Feinberg, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 635 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  10. J. Feinberg, Opt. Lett. 7, 486 (1982).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. J. Feinberg, in Optical Phase Conjugation, R. A. Fisher, ed. (Academic, New York, 1983), pp. 417.
  12. J.-P. Huignard and A. Marrakchi, Opt. Commun. 38, 249 (1981).
    [Crossref]
  13. S. I. Stepanov and M. P. Petrov, Ref. 6, Vol. I, Chap. 9.
  14. G. C. Valley, M. B. Klein, R. A. Mullen, D. Rytz, and B. Wechsler, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 18, 165 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  15. H. J. Eichler, P. Günter, and D. W. Pohl, Laser-Induced Dynamic Gratings, Vol. 50 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986).
    [Crossref]
  16. M. Eich, B. Reck, D. Y. Yoon, C. G. Willson, and G. C. Bjorklund, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3241 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  17. W. E. Moerner, C. Walsh, J. C. Scott, S. Ducharme, D. M. Burland, G. C. Bjorklund, and R. J. Twieg, in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials IV, K. D. Singer, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1560, 278 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  18. V. Kondilenko, V. Markov, S. Odulov, and M. Soskin, Opt. Acta 26, 239 (1979).
    [Crossref]
  19. M. Gehrtz, J. Pinsl, and C. Bräuchle, Appl. Phys. B 43, 61 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  20. M. Z. Zha, P. Amrhein, and P. Günter, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 788 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  21. K. Sutter and P. Günter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2274 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  22. H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).
    [Crossref]
  23. R. B. Bylsma, D. H. Olson, and A. M. Glass, Opt. Lett. 13, 853 (1988).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. R. S. Cudney, R. M. Pierce, G. D. Bacher, and J. Feinberg, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1326 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  25. See, for example, G. C. Valley and J. F. Lam, Ref. 6, Vol. I, Chap. 3.
  26. G. C. Valley and M. B. Klein, Opt. Eng. 22, 704 (1983).
    [Crossref]
  27. A. Twarowski, J. Appl. Phys. 65, 2833 (1989),derived the Esc expected in the case of Onsager geminate recombination with a field-independent mobility.
    [Crossref]
  28. N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, M. Soskin, and V. L. Vinetskii, Ferroelectrics 22, 949, 961 (1979).
    [Crossref]
  29. P. N. Prasad and D. J. Williams, in Introduction to Nonlinear Optical Effects in Molecules and Polymers (Wiley, New York, 1991), Chap. 7, p. 132.

1991 (3)

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Schildkraut, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 340 (1991).
[Crossref]

R. S. Cudney, R. M. Pierce, G. D. Bacher, and J. Feinberg, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1326 (1991).
[Crossref]

1990 (3)

M. Z. Zha, P. Amrhein, and P. Günter, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 788 (1990).
[Crossref]

K. Sutter and P. Günter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2274 (1990).
[Crossref]

K. Sutter, J. Hullinger, and P. Günter, Solid State Commun. 74, 867 (1990).
[Crossref]

1989 (3)

D. Z. Anderson and J. Feinberg, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 635 (1989).
[Crossref]

M. Eich, B. Reck, D. Y. Yoon, C. G. Willson, and G. C. Bjorklund, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3241 (1989).
[Crossref]

A. Twarowski, J. Appl. Phys. 65, 2833 (1989),derived the Esc expected in the case of Onsager geminate recombination with a field-independent mobility.
[Crossref]

1988 (3)

R. B. Bylsma, D. H. Olson, and A. M. Glass, Opt. Lett. 13, 853 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. C. Valley, M. B. Klein, R. A. Mullen, D. Rytz, and B. Wechsler, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 18, 165 (1988).
[Crossref]

J. Feinberg, Phys. Today 41(10), 46 (1988).
[Crossref]

1987 (2)

1985 (1)

M. Cronin-Golomb and A. Yariv, J. Appl. Phys. 57, 4906 (1985).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

G. C. Valley and M. B. Klein, Opt. Eng. 22, 704 (1983).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

1981 (1)

J.-P. Huignard and A. Marrakchi, Opt. Commun. 38, 249 (1981).
[Crossref]

1979 (2)

V. Kondilenko, V. Markov, S. Odulov, and M. Soskin, Opt. Acta 26, 239 (1979).
[Crossref]

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, M. Soskin, and V. L. Vinetskii, Ferroelectrics 22, 949, 961 (1979).
[Crossref]

1969 (1)

H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).
[Crossref]

Amrhein, P.

M. Z. Zha, P. Amrhein, and P. Günter, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 788 (1990).
[Crossref]

Anderson, D. Z.

D. Z. Anderson and J. Feinberg, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 635 (1989).
[Crossref]

D. Z. Anderson, D. M. Lininger, and J. Feinberg, Opt. Lett. 12, 123 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bacher, G. D.

Bjorklund, G. C.

M. Eich, B. Reck, D. Y. Yoon, C. G. Willson, and G. C. Bjorklund, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3241 (1989).
[Crossref]

W. E. Moerner, C. Walsh, J. C. Scott, S. Ducharme, D. M. Burland, G. C. Bjorklund, and R. J. Twieg, in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials IV, K. D. Singer, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1560, 278 (1991).
[Crossref]

Bräuchle, C.

M. Gehrtz, J. Pinsl, and C. Bräuchle, Appl. Phys. B 43, 61 (1987).
[Crossref]

Burland, D. M.

W. E. Moerner, C. Walsh, J. C. Scott, S. Ducharme, D. M. Burland, G. C. Bjorklund, and R. J. Twieg, in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials IV, K. D. Singer, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1560, 278 (1991).
[Crossref]

Bylsma, R. B.

Cronin-Golomb, M.

M. Cronin-Golomb and A. Yariv, J. Appl. Phys. 57, 4906 (1985).
[Crossref]

Cudney, R. S.

Ducharme, S.

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, OSA Annual Meeting, Vol. 15 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), postdeadline paper PDP28-1, p. 359.

W. E. Moerner, C. Walsh, J. C. Scott, S. Ducharme, D. M. Burland, G. C. Bjorklund, and R. J. Twieg, in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials IV, K. D. Singer, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1560, 278 (1991).
[Crossref]

Eich, M.

M. Eich, B. Reck, D. Y. Yoon, C. G. Willson, and G. C. Bjorklund, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3241 (1989).
[Crossref]

Eichler, H. J.

H. J. Eichler, P. Günter, and D. W. Pohl, Laser-Induced Dynamic Gratings, Vol. 50 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986).
[Crossref]

Feinberg, J.

R. S. Cudney, R. M. Pierce, G. D. Bacher, and J. Feinberg, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1326 (1991).
[Crossref]

D. Z. Anderson and J. Feinberg, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 635 (1989).
[Crossref]

J. Feinberg, Phys. Today 41(10), 46 (1988).
[Crossref]

D. Z. Anderson, D. M. Lininger, and J. Feinberg, Opt. Lett. 12, 123 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Feinberg, Opt. Lett. 7, 486 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Feinberg, in Optical Phase Conjugation, R. A. Fisher, ed. (Academic, New York, 1983), pp. 417.

Gehrtz, M.

M. Gehrtz, J. Pinsl, and C. Bräuchle, Appl. Phys. B 43, 61 (1987).
[Crossref]

Glass, A. M.

Günter, P.

K. Sutter and P. Günter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2274 (1990).
[Crossref]

M. Z. Zha, P. Amrhein, and P. Günter, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 788 (1990).
[Crossref]

K. Sutter, J. Hullinger, and P. Günter, Solid State Commun. 74, 867 (1990).
[Crossref]

H. J. Eichler, P. Günter, and D. W. Pohl, Laser-Induced Dynamic Gratings, Vol. 50 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986).
[Crossref]

Huignard, J.-P.

J.-P. Huignard and A. Marrakchi, Opt. Commun. 38, 249 (1981).
[Crossref]

Hullinger, J.

K. Sutter, J. Hullinger, and P. Günter, Solid State Commun. 74, 867 (1990).
[Crossref]

Klein, M. B.

G. C. Valley, M. B. Klein, R. A. Mullen, D. Rytz, and B. Wechsler, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 18, 165 (1988).
[Crossref]

G. C. Valley and M. B. Klein, Opt. Eng. 22, 704 (1983).
[Crossref]

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).
[Crossref]

Kondilenko, V.

V. Kondilenko, V. Markov, S. Odulov, and M. Soskin, Opt. Acta 26, 239 (1979).
[Crossref]

Kukhtarev, N. V.

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, M. Soskin, and V. L. Vinetskii, Ferroelectrics 22, 949, 961 (1979).
[Crossref]

Lam, J. F.

See, for example, G. C. Valley and J. F. Lam, Ref. 6, Vol. I, Chap. 3.

Lininger, D. M.

Markov, V.

V. Kondilenko, V. Markov, S. Odulov, and M. Soskin, Opt. Acta 26, 239 (1979).
[Crossref]

Markov, V. B.

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, M. Soskin, and V. L. Vinetskii, Ferroelectrics 22, 949, 961 (1979).
[Crossref]

Marrakchi, A.

J.-P. Huignard and A. Marrakchi, Opt. Commun. 38, 249 (1981).
[Crossref]

Moerner, W. E.

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, OSA Annual Meeting, Vol. 15 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), postdeadline paper PDP28-1, p. 359.

W. E. Moerner, C. Walsh, J. C. Scott, S. Ducharme, D. M. Burland, G. C. Bjorklund, and R. J. Twieg, in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials IV, K. D. Singer, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1560, 278 (1991).
[Crossref]

Mullen, R. A.

G. C. Valley, M. B. Klein, R. A. Mullen, D. Rytz, and B. Wechsler, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 18, 165 (1988).
[Crossref]

Odulov, S.

V. Kondilenko, V. Markov, S. Odulov, and M. Soskin, Opt. Acta 26, 239 (1979).
[Crossref]

Olson, D. H.

Petrov, M. P.

S. I. Stepanov and M. P. Petrov, Ref. 6, Vol. I, Chap. 9.

Pierce, R. M.

Pinsl, J.

M. Gehrtz, J. Pinsl, and C. Bräuchle, Appl. Phys. B 43, 61 (1987).
[Crossref]

Pohl, D. W.

H. J. Eichler, P. Günter, and D. W. Pohl, Laser-Induced Dynamic Gratings, Vol. 50 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986).
[Crossref]

Prasad, P. N.

P. N. Prasad and D. J. Williams, in Introduction to Nonlinear Optical Effects in Molecules and Polymers (Wiley, New York, 1991), Chap. 7, p. 132.

Reck, B.

M. Eich, B. Reck, D. Y. Yoon, C. G. Willson, and G. C. Bjorklund, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3241 (1989).
[Crossref]

Rytz, D.

G. C. Valley, M. B. Klein, R. A. Mullen, D. Rytz, and B. Wechsler, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 18, 165 (1988).
[Crossref]

Schildkraut, J. S.

J. S. Schildkraut, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 340 (1991).
[Crossref]

Scott, J. C.

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, OSA Annual Meeting, Vol. 15 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), postdeadline paper PDP28-1, p. 359.

W. E. Moerner, C. Walsh, J. C. Scott, S. Ducharme, D. M. Burland, G. C. Bjorklund, and R. J. Twieg, in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials IV, K. D. Singer, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1560, 278 (1991).
[Crossref]

Soskin, M.

V. Kondilenko, V. Markov, S. Odulov, and M. Soskin, Opt. Acta 26, 239 (1979).
[Crossref]

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, M. Soskin, and V. L. Vinetskii, Ferroelectrics 22, 949, 961 (1979).
[Crossref]

Stepanov, S. I.

S. I. Stepanov and M. P. Petrov, Ref. 6, Vol. I, Chap. 9.

Sutter, K.

K. Sutter, J. Hullinger, and P. Günter, Solid State Commun. 74, 867 (1990).
[Crossref]

K. Sutter and P. Günter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2274 (1990).
[Crossref]

Twarowski, A.

A. Twarowski, J. Appl. Phys. 65, 2833 (1989),derived the Esc expected in the case of Onsager geminate recombination with a field-independent mobility.
[Crossref]

Twieg, R. J.

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, OSA Annual Meeting, Vol. 15 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), postdeadline paper PDP28-1, p. 359.

W. E. Moerner, C. Walsh, J. C. Scott, S. Ducharme, D. M. Burland, G. C. Bjorklund, and R. J. Twieg, in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials IV, K. D. Singer, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1560, 278 (1991).
[Crossref]

Valley, G. C.

G. C. Valley, M. B. Klein, R. A. Mullen, D. Rytz, and B. Wechsler, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 18, 165 (1988).
[Crossref]

G. C. Valley and M. B. Klein, Opt. Eng. 22, 704 (1983).
[Crossref]

See, for example, G. C. Valley and J. F. Lam, Ref. 6, Vol. I, Chap. 3.

Vinetskii, V. L.

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, M. Soskin, and V. L. Vinetskii, Ferroelectrics 22, 949, 961 (1979).
[Crossref]

Walsh, C.

W. E. Moerner, C. Walsh, J. C. Scott, S. Ducharme, D. M. Burland, G. C. Bjorklund, and R. J. Twieg, in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials IV, K. D. Singer, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1560, 278 (1991).
[Crossref]

Wechsler, B.

G. C. Valley, M. B. Klein, R. A. Mullen, D. Rytz, and B. Wechsler, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 18, 165 (1988).
[Crossref]

Williams, D. J.

P. N. Prasad and D. J. Williams, in Introduction to Nonlinear Optical Effects in Molecules and Polymers (Wiley, New York, 1991), Chap. 7, p. 132.

Willson, C. G.

M. Eich, B. Reck, D. Y. Yoon, C. G. Willson, and G. C. Bjorklund, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3241 (1989).
[Crossref]

Yariv, A.

M. Cronin-Golomb and A. Yariv, J. Appl. Phys. 57, 4906 (1985).
[Crossref]

Yoon, D. Y.

M. Eich, B. Reck, D. Y. Yoon, C. G. Willson, and G. C. Bjorklund, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3241 (1989).
[Crossref]

Zha, M. Z.

M. Z. Zha, P. Amrhein, and P. Günter, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 788 (1990).
[Crossref]

Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. (1)

G. C. Valley, M. B. Klein, R. A. Mullen, D. Rytz, and B. Wechsler, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 18, 165 (1988).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

M. Gehrtz, J. Pinsl, and C. Bräuchle, Appl. Phys. B 43, 61 (1987).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. S. Schildkraut, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 340 (1991).
[Crossref]

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).
[Crossref]

Ferroelectrics (1)

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, M. Soskin, and V. L. Vinetskii, Ferroelectrics 22, 949, 961 (1979).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

M. Z. Zha, P. Amrhein, and P. Günter, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 788 (1990).
[Crossref]

D. Z. Anderson and J. Feinberg, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 635 (1989).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

M. Eich, B. Reck, D. Y. Yoon, C. G. Willson, and G. C. Bjorklund, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3241 (1989).
[Crossref]

M. Cronin-Golomb and A. Yariv, J. Appl. Phys. 57, 4906 (1985).
[Crossref]

A. Twarowski, J. Appl. Phys. 65, 2833 (1989),derived the Esc expected in the case of Onsager geminate recombination with a field-independent mobility.
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Acta (1)

V. Kondilenko, V. Markov, S. Odulov, and M. Soskin, Opt. Acta 26, 239 (1979).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

J.-P. Huignard and A. Marrakchi, Opt. Commun. 38, 249 (1981).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

G. C. Valley and M. B. Klein, Opt. Eng. 22, 704 (1983).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Today (1)

J. Feinberg, Phys. Today 41(10), 46 (1988).
[Crossref]

Solid State Commun. (1)

K. Sutter, J. Hullinger, and P. Günter, Solid State Commun. 74, 867 (1990).
[Crossref]

Other (8)

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, OSA Annual Meeting, Vol. 15 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), postdeadline paper PDP28-1, p. 359.

SeeP. Günter and J.-P. Huignard, eds., Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications I and II (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988, 1989).
[Crossref]

S. I. Stepanov and M. P. Petrov, Ref. 6, Vol. I, Chap. 9.

J. Feinberg, in Optical Phase Conjugation, R. A. Fisher, ed. (Academic, New York, 1983), pp. 417.

W. E. Moerner, C. Walsh, J. C. Scott, S. Ducharme, D. M. Burland, G. C. Bjorklund, and R. J. Twieg, in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials IV, K. D. Singer, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1560, 278 (1991).
[Crossref]

H. J. Eichler, P. Günter, and D. W. Pohl, Laser-Induced Dynamic Gratings, Vol. 50 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986).
[Crossref]

See, for example, G. C. Valley and J. F. Lam, Ref. 6, Vol. I, Chap. 3.

P. N. Prasad and D. J. Williams, in Introduction to Nonlinear Optical Effects in Molecules and Polymers (Wiley, New York, 1991), Chap. 7, p. 132.

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Geometry used for writing the grating and determining the grating phase by using two-beam coupling. Edc is the externally applied dc poling field, and the space-charge Esc is in the direction of the grating wave vector Kg. The angles are defined in the text.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmitted powers for (a) beam 1 and (b) beam 2 as the grating is translated. The rate of translation is 3.2 μm/s. Motion begins at time 0 and stops at ≃2.1 s. These data were taken in the high-field regime (Eg,dc = 37 kV/cm), and the shape of the modulations indicates an index grating with 90° phase shift. Trace (b) has been offset downward by 0.02 V for clarity.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Phase shift of the index grating (relative to the intensity grating) as a function of applied electric field along the grating wave vector (symbols). At zero field the phase shift is near zero, indicating a nonphotorefractive grating. As the field increases, the phase of the index grating increases to 90° as the photorefractive mechanism becomes dominant. Possible sources of the scatter in the points are discussed in the text. Data are collected by using several samples. The solid curve is the phase shift appropriate for a conventional inorganic photorefractive material [Eq. (14)].

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Normalized grating amplitudes for both the index (P) and absorption (A) gratings as a function of applied electric field along the grating wave vector for the dimensionless units of Eqs. (5). The amplitude of the absorption grating is unaffected by the applied field, whereas the index grating increases with the field and is more than 10 times greater than the absorption grating at high fields.

Equations (14)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n ( r ) = n 0 + Δ n cos ( K g · r ϕ p ) , α ( r ) = α 0 + Δ α cos ( K g · r ϕ A ) ,
E ( 1 R ) = E 01 R 1 exp [ i ( ω t k 1 · r ) ] , E ( 1 S ) = E 01 S 1 exp [ i ( ω t k 2 · r ) ] ,
R 1 = exp [ α 0 d / ( 2 cos Θ 1 ) ] ,
S 1 = D ( cos Θ 1 / cos Θ 2 ) 1 / 2 × [ i P exp ( i ϕ P ) + A exp ( i ϕ A ) ] ,
P = ( r ̂ · ŝ ) π d Δ n λ υ ( cos Θ 2 cos Θ 1 ) 1 / 2 , A = ( r ̂ · ŝ ) d Δ α 2 ( cos Θ 2 cos Θ 1 ) 1 / 2 ,
E ( 2 R ) = E 02 R 2 exp [ i ( ω t k 2 · r ) ] , E ( 2 S ) = E 02 S 2 exp [ i ( ω t k 2 · r ) ] ,
S 2 = D ( cos Θ 2 / cos Θ 1 ) 1 / 2 [ i P exp ( + i ϕ P ) + A exp ( + i ϕ A ) ,
E ( 1 T ) = R 1 E 02 D E 02 { ( cos Θ 2 / cos Θ 1 ) 1 / 2 [ i P exp ( + i ϕ P ) + A exp ( + i ϕ A ) ] } , E ( 2 T ) = R 2 E 02 D E 01 { ( cos Θ 1 / cos Θ 2 ) 1 / 2 [ i P exp ( i ϕ P ) + A exp ( i ϕ A ) ] } ,
P ( 1 ) = ( 1 / 2 ) n 0 0 cos Θ 1 × [ R 1 2 E 01 2 D R 1 E 01 E 02 ( cos Θ 2 / cos Θ 1 ) 1 / 2 × ( 2 A cos ϕ A 2 P sin ϕ P ) ] , P ( 2 ) = ( 1 / 2 ) n 0 0 cos Θ 2 × [ R 2 2 E 02 2 D R 2 E 01 E 02 ( cos Θ 1 / cos Θ 2 ) 1 / 2 × ( 2 A cos ϕ A + 2 P sin ϕ P ) ] ,
P ( + ) = P g [ ( P t 1 + P t 2 P g ) 2 A cos ϕ A ] ,
P ( ) = P g [ ( P t 1 P t 2 P g ) + 2 P sin ϕ P ] ,
P ( + ) ( ξ ) = P g { 1.09 2 A cos [ ϕ A + 2 π ξ cos ( Θ g ) / Λ g ] } ,
P ( ) ( ξ ) = P g { 0.29 + 2 P sin [ ϕ P + 2 π ξ cos ( Θ g ) / Λ g ] } ,
phase ( E sc ) = phase [ m ( E g , dc + i E d ) 1 + E d / E q i E g , dc / E q ] ,

Metrics