Abstract

The focusing of an intense 1053-nm, 1-ps laser pulse in an argon gas vapor has been studied. Experimental results are reported for different gas pressures and incident laser powers. In this paper we show that defocusing can occur and that it is sensitive both to the incident laser power and to the argon gas pressure in the experimental chamber. It is suggested that such a phenomenon is due to the refractive index of the plasma created by optical-field-induced ionization of the gas in the leading edge of the laser pulse. We show that it is not possible to obtain simultaneously a high focused intensity (>1017 W/cm2) and a high electron density (>1019 cm−3).

© 1992 Optical Society of America

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  1. I. S. Aleksakhin, I. P. Zapesochnyi, and V. V. Suran, JETP Lett. 26, 11 (1977).
  2. A. L’Huillier, L. A. Lompré, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, J. Phys. B 16, 1363 (1983).
    [Crossref]
  3. T. S. Luk, H. Pummer, K. Boyer, M. Shahidi, H. Egger, and C. K. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 110 (1983).
    [Crossref]
  4. S. Augst, D. D. Meyerhofer, D. Strickland, and S. L. Chin, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 858 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  5. P. Agostini, F. Fabre, G. Mainfray, G. Petite, and N. K. Rahman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1127 (1979).
    [Crossref]
  6. P. Kruit, J. Kimman, H. G. Muller, and M. J. van der Wiel, Phys. Rev. A 28, 248 (1983).
    [Crossref]
  7. A. L’Huillier, L. A. Lompré, M. Ferray, X. F. Li, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, Europhys. Lett. 5, 601 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  8. A. L’Huillier, L. A. Lompré, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Atoms in intense fields,” Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. (to be published).
  9. P. Maine, D. Strickland, P. Bado, M. Pessot, and G. Mourou, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 398 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  10. M. Ferray, L. A. Lompré, O. Gobert, A. L’Huillier, G. Mainfray, C. Manus, A. Sanchez, and A. Gomez, Opt. Commun. 75, 278 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  11. M. André, J. Coutant, R. Dautray, M. Decroisette, G. Mainfray, C. Manus, A. Migus, C. Sauteret, and J. P. Watteau, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 312-II, 203 (1991).
  12. F. G. Patterson, R. Gonzales, and M. D. Perry, Opt. Lett. 16, 1107 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. K. Yamakawa, C. P. J. Barty, H. Shiraga, and Y. Kato, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 288 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  14. H. C. Kapteyn, A. Sullivan, H. Hamster, and R. W. Falcone, in Femtosecond to Nanosecond High-Intensity Lasers and Applications, E. M. Campbell, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1229, 75 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  15. J. D. Kmetec, J. J. Macklin, and J. F. Young, Opt. Lett. 16, 1001 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. C. E. Max, J. Arons, and A. B. Langdon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 33, 209 (1974).
    [Crossref]
  17. E. S. Sarachik and G. T. Shappert, Phys. Rev. D 1, 2738 (1970).
    [Crossref]
  18. Vachaspati, Phys. Rev. 128, 664 (1962).
    [Crossref]
  19. F. Salin, P. Georges, G. Royer, and A. Brun, Appl. Opt. 26, 4528 (1987).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. D. Normand, M. Ferray, L. A. Lompré, O. Gobert, A. L’Huillier, and G. Mainfray, Opt. Lett. 15, 1400 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. R. G. Meyerand and A. F. Haught, Phys. Rev. Lett. 11, 401 (1963).
    [Crossref]
  22. C. Grey Morgan, Rep. Prog. Phys. 38, 621 (1975).
    [Crossref]
  23. G. V. Ostrovskaya and A. N. Zaidel, Sov. Phys. Usp. 16, 834 (1974).
    [Crossref]
  24. Y. P. Raiser, Sov. Phys. Usp. 8, 650 (1965).
    [Crossref]
  25. A. J. Alcock, C. De Michelis, and M. C. Richardson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 28, 356 (1968).
  26. R. J. Dewhurst, G. J. Pert, and S. A. Ramsden, in Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Phenomena in Ionized Gases (Donald Parsons, Oxford, U.K., 1971), p. 220;J. Phys. B 7, 2281 (1974).
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    [Crossref]
  28. A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science Books, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986).
  29. B. M. Penetrante and J. N. Bardsley, Phys. Rev. A 43, 3100 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. P. Sprangle, C.-M. Tang, and E. Esarey, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. PS-15, 39 (1987).
  31. D. C. Barnes, T. Kurki-Suonio, and T. Tajima, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. PS-15, 154 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  32. G. Z. Sun, E. Ott, Y. C. Lee, and P. Guzdar, Phys. Fluids 30, 526 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  33. A. Zigler, M. Kishenevsky, M. Givon, E. Yarkoni, and B. Arad, Phys. Rev. A 35, 4446 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  34. G. Gibson, T. S. Luk, A. McPherson, and C. K. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. A 43, 371 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (7)

S. Augst, D. D. Meyerhofer, D. Strickland, and S. L. Chin, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 858 (1991).
[Crossref]

M. André, J. Coutant, R. Dautray, M. Decroisette, G. Mainfray, C. Manus, A. Migus, C. Sauteret, and J. P. Watteau, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 312-II, 203 (1991).

F. G. Patterson, R. Gonzales, and M. D. Perry, Opt. Lett. 16, 1107 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Yamakawa, C. P. J. Barty, H. Shiraga, and Y. Kato, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 288 (1991).
[Crossref]

J. D. Kmetec, J. J. Macklin, and J. F. Young, Opt. Lett. 16, 1001 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. M. Penetrante and J. N. Bardsley, Phys. Rev. A 43, 3100 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Gibson, T. S. Luk, A. McPherson, and C. K. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. A 43, 371 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (2)

M. Ferray, L. A. Lompré, O. Gobert, A. L’Huillier, G. Mainfray, C. Manus, A. Sanchez, and A. Gomez, Opt. Commun. 75, 278 (1990).
[Crossref]

D. Normand, M. Ferray, L. A. Lompré, O. Gobert, A. L’Huillier, and G. Mainfray, Opt. Lett. 15, 1400 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1988 (2)

A. L’Huillier, L. A. Lompré, M. Ferray, X. F. Li, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, Europhys. Lett. 5, 601 (1988).
[Crossref]

P. Maine, D. Strickland, P. Bado, M. Pessot, and G. Mourou, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 398 (1988).
[Crossref]

1987 (4)

F. Salin, P. Georges, G. Royer, and A. Brun, Appl. Opt. 26, 4528 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Sprangle, C.-M. Tang, and E. Esarey, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. PS-15, 39 (1987).

D. C. Barnes, T. Kurki-Suonio, and T. Tajima, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. PS-15, 154 (1987).
[Crossref]

G. Z. Sun, E. Ott, Y. C. Lee, and P. Guzdar, Phys. Fluids 30, 526 (1987).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

A. Zigler, M. Kishenevsky, M. Givon, E. Yarkoni, and B. Arad, Phys. Rev. A 35, 4446 (1986).
[Crossref]

1983 (3)

P. Kruit, J. Kimman, H. G. Muller, and M. J. van der Wiel, Phys. Rev. A 28, 248 (1983).
[Crossref]

A. L’Huillier, L. A. Lompré, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, J. Phys. B 16, 1363 (1983).
[Crossref]

T. S. Luk, H. Pummer, K. Boyer, M. Shahidi, H. Egger, and C. K. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 110 (1983).
[Crossref]

1979 (1)

P. Agostini, F. Fabre, G. Mainfray, G. Petite, and N. K. Rahman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1127 (1979).
[Crossref]

1977 (1)

I. S. Aleksakhin, I. P. Zapesochnyi, and V. V. Suran, JETP Lett. 26, 11 (1977).

1975 (1)

C. Grey Morgan, Rep. Prog. Phys. 38, 621 (1975).
[Crossref]

1974 (3)

G. V. Ostrovskaya and A. N. Zaidel, Sov. Phys. Usp. 16, 834 (1974).
[Crossref]

C. L. M. Ireland and C. Grey Morgan, J. Phys. D. 7, L87 (1974).
[Crossref]

C. E. Max, J. Arons, and A. B. Langdon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 33, 209 (1974).
[Crossref]

1970 (1)

E. S. Sarachik and G. T. Shappert, Phys. Rev. D 1, 2738 (1970).
[Crossref]

1968 (1)

A. J. Alcock, C. De Michelis, and M. C. Richardson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 28, 356 (1968).

1965 (1)

Y. P. Raiser, Sov. Phys. Usp. 8, 650 (1965).
[Crossref]

1963 (1)

R. G. Meyerand and A. F. Haught, Phys. Rev. Lett. 11, 401 (1963).
[Crossref]

1962 (1)

Vachaspati, Phys. Rev. 128, 664 (1962).
[Crossref]

Agostini, P.

P. Agostini, F. Fabre, G. Mainfray, G. Petite, and N. K. Rahman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1127 (1979).
[Crossref]

Alcock, A. J.

A. J. Alcock, C. De Michelis, and M. C. Richardson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 28, 356 (1968).

Aleksakhin, I. S.

I. S. Aleksakhin, I. P. Zapesochnyi, and V. V. Suran, JETP Lett. 26, 11 (1977).

André, M.

M. André, J. Coutant, R. Dautray, M. Decroisette, G. Mainfray, C. Manus, A. Migus, C. Sauteret, and J. P. Watteau, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 312-II, 203 (1991).

Arad, B.

A. Zigler, M. Kishenevsky, M. Givon, E. Yarkoni, and B. Arad, Phys. Rev. A 35, 4446 (1986).
[Crossref]

Arons, J.

C. E. Max, J. Arons, and A. B. Langdon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 33, 209 (1974).
[Crossref]

Augst, S.

Bado, P.

P. Maine, D. Strickland, P. Bado, M. Pessot, and G. Mourou, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 398 (1988).
[Crossref]

Bardsley, J. N.

B. M. Penetrante and J. N. Bardsley, Phys. Rev. A 43, 3100 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barnes, D. C.

D. C. Barnes, T. Kurki-Suonio, and T. Tajima, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. PS-15, 154 (1987).
[Crossref]

Barty, C. P. J.

K. Yamakawa, C. P. J. Barty, H. Shiraga, and Y. Kato, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 288 (1991).
[Crossref]

Boyer, K.

T. S. Luk, H. Pummer, K. Boyer, M. Shahidi, H. Egger, and C. K. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 110 (1983).
[Crossref]

Brun, A.

Chin, S. L.

Coutant, J.

M. André, J. Coutant, R. Dautray, M. Decroisette, G. Mainfray, C. Manus, A. Migus, C. Sauteret, and J. P. Watteau, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 312-II, 203 (1991).

Dautray, R.

M. André, J. Coutant, R. Dautray, M. Decroisette, G. Mainfray, C. Manus, A. Migus, C. Sauteret, and J. P. Watteau, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 312-II, 203 (1991).

De Michelis, C.

A. J. Alcock, C. De Michelis, and M. C. Richardson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 28, 356 (1968).

Decroisette, M.

M. André, J. Coutant, R. Dautray, M. Decroisette, G. Mainfray, C. Manus, A. Migus, C. Sauteret, and J. P. Watteau, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 312-II, 203 (1991).

Dewhurst, R. J.

R. J. Dewhurst, G. J. Pert, and S. A. Ramsden, in Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Phenomena in Ionized Gases (Donald Parsons, Oxford, U.K., 1971), p. 220;J. Phys. B 7, 2281 (1974).

Egger, H.

T. S. Luk, H. Pummer, K. Boyer, M. Shahidi, H. Egger, and C. K. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 110 (1983).
[Crossref]

Esarey, E.

P. Sprangle, C.-M. Tang, and E. Esarey, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. PS-15, 39 (1987).

Fabre, F.

P. Agostini, F. Fabre, G. Mainfray, G. Petite, and N. K. Rahman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1127 (1979).
[Crossref]

Falcone, R. W.

H. C. Kapteyn, A. Sullivan, H. Hamster, and R. W. Falcone, in Femtosecond to Nanosecond High-Intensity Lasers and Applications, E. M. Campbell, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1229, 75 (1990).
[Crossref]

Ferray, M.

D. Normand, M. Ferray, L. A. Lompré, O. Gobert, A. L’Huillier, and G. Mainfray, Opt. Lett. 15, 1400 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ferray, L. A. Lompré, O. Gobert, A. L’Huillier, G. Mainfray, C. Manus, A. Sanchez, and A. Gomez, Opt. Commun. 75, 278 (1990).
[Crossref]

A. L’Huillier, L. A. Lompré, M. Ferray, X. F. Li, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, Europhys. Lett. 5, 601 (1988).
[Crossref]

Georges, P.

Gibson, G.

G. Gibson, T. S. Luk, A. McPherson, and C. K. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. A 43, 371 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Givon, M.

A. Zigler, M. Kishenevsky, M. Givon, E. Yarkoni, and B. Arad, Phys. Rev. A 35, 4446 (1986).
[Crossref]

Gobert, O.

D. Normand, M. Ferray, L. A. Lompré, O. Gobert, A. L’Huillier, and G. Mainfray, Opt. Lett. 15, 1400 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ferray, L. A. Lompré, O. Gobert, A. L’Huillier, G. Mainfray, C. Manus, A. Sanchez, and A. Gomez, Opt. Commun. 75, 278 (1990).
[Crossref]

Gomez, A.

M. Ferray, L. A. Lompré, O. Gobert, A. L’Huillier, G. Mainfray, C. Manus, A. Sanchez, and A. Gomez, Opt. Commun. 75, 278 (1990).
[Crossref]

Gonzales, R.

Grey Morgan, C.

C. Grey Morgan, Rep. Prog. Phys. 38, 621 (1975).
[Crossref]

C. L. M. Ireland and C. Grey Morgan, J. Phys. D. 7, L87 (1974).
[Crossref]

Guzdar, P.

G. Z. Sun, E. Ott, Y. C. Lee, and P. Guzdar, Phys. Fluids 30, 526 (1987).
[Crossref]

Hamster, H.

H. C. Kapteyn, A. Sullivan, H. Hamster, and R. W. Falcone, in Femtosecond to Nanosecond High-Intensity Lasers and Applications, E. M. Campbell, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1229, 75 (1990).
[Crossref]

Haught, A. F.

R. G. Meyerand and A. F. Haught, Phys. Rev. Lett. 11, 401 (1963).
[Crossref]

Ireland, C. L. M.

C. L. M. Ireland and C. Grey Morgan, J. Phys. D. 7, L87 (1974).
[Crossref]

Kapteyn, H. C.

H. C. Kapteyn, A. Sullivan, H. Hamster, and R. W. Falcone, in Femtosecond to Nanosecond High-Intensity Lasers and Applications, E. M. Campbell, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1229, 75 (1990).
[Crossref]

Kato, Y.

K. Yamakawa, C. P. J. Barty, H. Shiraga, and Y. Kato, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 288 (1991).
[Crossref]

Kimman, J.

P. Kruit, J. Kimman, H. G. Muller, and M. J. van der Wiel, Phys. Rev. A 28, 248 (1983).
[Crossref]

Kishenevsky, M.

A. Zigler, M. Kishenevsky, M. Givon, E. Yarkoni, and B. Arad, Phys. Rev. A 35, 4446 (1986).
[Crossref]

Kmetec, J. D.

Kruit, P.

P. Kruit, J. Kimman, H. G. Muller, and M. J. van der Wiel, Phys. Rev. A 28, 248 (1983).
[Crossref]

Kurki-Suonio, T.

D. C. Barnes, T. Kurki-Suonio, and T. Tajima, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. PS-15, 154 (1987).
[Crossref]

L’Huillier, A.

D. Normand, M. Ferray, L. A. Lompré, O. Gobert, A. L’Huillier, and G. Mainfray, Opt. Lett. 15, 1400 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ferray, L. A. Lompré, O. Gobert, A. L’Huillier, G. Mainfray, C. Manus, A. Sanchez, and A. Gomez, Opt. Commun. 75, 278 (1990).
[Crossref]

A. L’Huillier, L. A. Lompré, M. Ferray, X. F. Li, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, Europhys. Lett. 5, 601 (1988).
[Crossref]

A. L’Huillier, L. A. Lompré, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, J. Phys. B 16, 1363 (1983).
[Crossref]

A. L’Huillier, L. A. Lompré, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Atoms in intense fields,” Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. (to be published).

Langdon, A. B.

C. E. Max, J. Arons, and A. B. Langdon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 33, 209 (1974).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y. C.

G. Z. Sun, E. Ott, Y. C. Lee, and P. Guzdar, Phys. Fluids 30, 526 (1987).
[Crossref]

Li, X. F.

A. L’Huillier, L. A. Lompré, M. Ferray, X. F. Li, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, Europhys. Lett. 5, 601 (1988).
[Crossref]

Lompré, L. A.

M. Ferray, L. A. Lompré, O. Gobert, A. L’Huillier, G. Mainfray, C. Manus, A. Sanchez, and A. Gomez, Opt. Commun. 75, 278 (1990).
[Crossref]

D. Normand, M. Ferray, L. A. Lompré, O. Gobert, A. L’Huillier, and G. Mainfray, Opt. Lett. 15, 1400 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L’Huillier, L. A. Lompré, M. Ferray, X. F. Li, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, Europhys. Lett. 5, 601 (1988).
[Crossref]

A. L’Huillier, L. A. Lompré, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, J. Phys. B 16, 1363 (1983).
[Crossref]

A. L’Huillier, L. A. Lompré, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Atoms in intense fields,” Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. (to be published).

Luk, T. S.

G. Gibson, T. S. Luk, A. McPherson, and C. K. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. A 43, 371 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Luk, H. Pummer, K. Boyer, M. Shahidi, H. Egger, and C. K. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 110 (1983).
[Crossref]

Macklin, J. J.

Maine, P.

P. Maine, D. Strickland, P. Bado, M. Pessot, and G. Mourou, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 398 (1988).
[Crossref]

Mainfray, G.

M. André, J. Coutant, R. Dautray, M. Decroisette, G. Mainfray, C. Manus, A. Migus, C. Sauteret, and J. P. Watteau, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 312-II, 203 (1991).

M. Ferray, L. A. Lompré, O. Gobert, A. L’Huillier, G. Mainfray, C. Manus, A. Sanchez, and A. Gomez, Opt. Commun. 75, 278 (1990).
[Crossref]

D. Normand, M. Ferray, L. A. Lompré, O. Gobert, A. L’Huillier, and G. Mainfray, Opt. Lett. 15, 1400 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L’Huillier, L. A. Lompré, M. Ferray, X. F. Li, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, Europhys. Lett. 5, 601 (1988).
[Crossref]

A. L’Huillier, L. A. Lompré, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, J. Phys. B 16, 1363 (1983).
[Crossref]

P. Agostini, F. Fabre, G. Mainfray, G. Petite, and N. K. Rahman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1127 (1979).
[Crossref]

A. L’Huillier, L. A. Lompré, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Atoms in intense fields,” Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. (to be published).

Manus, C.

M. André, J. Coutant, R. Dautray, M. Decroisette, G. Mainfray, C. Manus, A. Migus, C. Sauteret, and J. P. Watteau, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 312-II, 203 (1991).

M. Ferray, L. A. Lompré, O. Gobert, A. L’Huillier, G. Mainfray, C. Manus, A. Sanchez, and A. Gomez, Opt. Commun. 75, 278 (1990).
[Crossref]

A. L’Huillier, L. A. Lompré, M. Ferray, X. F. Li, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, Europhys. Lett. 5, 601 (1988).
[Crossref]

A. L’Huillier, L. A. Lompré, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, J. Phys. B 16, 1363 (1983).
[Crossref]

A. L’Huillier, L. A. Lompré, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Atoms in intense fields,” Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. (to be published).

Max, C. E.

C. E. Max, J. Arons, and A. B. Langdon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 33, 209 (1974).
[Crossref]

McPherson, A.

G. Gibson, T. S. Luk, A. McPherson, and C. K. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. A 43, 371 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meyerand, R. G.

R. G. Meyerand and A. F. Haught, Phys. Rev. Lett. 11, 401 (1963).
[Crossref]

Meyerhofer, D. D.

Migus, A.

M. André, J. Coutant, R. Dautray, M. Decroisette, G. Mainfray, C. Manus, A. Migus, C. Sauteret, and J. P. Watteau, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 312-II, 203 (1991).

Mourou, G.

P. Maine, D. Strickland, P. Bado, M. Pessot, and G. Mourou, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 398 (1988).
[Crossref]

Muller, H. G.

P. Kruit, J. Kimman, H. G. Muller, and M. J. van der Wiel, Phys. Rev. A 28, 248 (1983).
[Crossref]

Normand, D.

Ostrovskaya, G. V.

G. V. Ostrovskaya and A. N. Zaidel, Sov. Phys. Usp. 16, 834 (1974).
[Crossref]

Ott, E.

G. Z. Sun, E. Ott, Y. C. Lee, and P. Guzdar, Phys. Fluids 30, 526 (1987).
[Crossref]

Patterson, F. G.

Penetrante, B. M.

B. M. Penetrante and J. N. Bardsley, Phys. Rev. A 43, 3100 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Perry, M. D.

Pert, G. J.

R. J. Dewhurst, G. J. Pert, and S. A. Ramsden, in Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Phenomena in Ionized Gases (Donald Parsons, Oxford, U.K., 1971), p. 220;J. Phys. B 7, 2281 (1974).

Pessot, M.

P. Maine, D. Strickland, P. Bado, M. Pessot, and G. Mourou, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 398 (1988).
[Crossref]

Petite, G.

P. Agostini, F. Fabre, G. Mainfray, G. Petite, and N. K. Rahman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1127 (1979).
[Crossref]

Pummer, H.

T. S. Luk, H. Pummer, K. Boyer, M. Shahidi, H. Egger, and C. K. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 110 (1983).
[Crossref]

Rahman, N. K.

P. Agostini, F. Fabre, G. Mainfray, G. Petite, and N. K. Rahman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1127 (1979).
[Crossref]

Raiser, Y. P.

Y. P. Raiser, Sov. Phys. Usp. 8, 650 (1965).
[Crossref]

Ramsden, S. A.

R. J. Dewhurst, G. J. Pert, and S. A. Ramsden, in Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Phenomena in Ionized Gases (Donald Parsons, Oxford, U.K., 1971), p. 220;J. Phys. B 7, 2281 (1974).

Rhodes, C. K.

G. Gibson, T. S. Luk, A. McPherson, and C. K. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. A 43, 371 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Luk, H. Pummer, K. Boyer, M. Shahidi, H. Egger, and C. K. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 110 (1983).
[Crossref]

Richardson, M. C.

A. J. Alcock, C. De Michelis, and M. C. Richardson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 28, 356 (1968).

Royer, G.

Salin, F.

Sanchez, A.

M. Ferray, L. A. Lompré, O. Gobert, A. L’Huillier, G. Mainfray, C. Manus, A. Sanchez, and A. Gomez, Opt. Commun. 75, 278 (1990).
[Crossref]

Sarachik, E. S.

E. S. Sarachik and G. T. Shappert, Phys. Rev. D 1, 2738 (1970).
[Crossref]

Sauteret, C.

M. André, J. Coutant, R. Dautray, M. Decroisette, G. Mainfray, C. Manus, A. Migus, C. Sauteret, and J. P. Watteau, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 312-II, 203 (1991).

Shahidi, M.

T. S. Luk, H. Pummer, K. Boyer, M. Shahidi, H. Egger, and C. K. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 110 (1983).
[Crossref]

Shappert, G. T.

E. S. Sarachik and G. T. Shappert, Phys. Rev. D 1, 2738 (1970).
[Crossref]

Shiraga, H.

K. Yamakawa, C. P. J. Barty, H. Shiraga, and Y. Kato, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 288 (1991).
[Crossref]

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science Books, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986).

Sprangle, P.

P. Sprangle, C.-M. Tang, and E. Esarey, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. PS-15, 39 (1987).

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S. Augst, D. D. Meyerhofer, D. Strickland, and S. L. Chin, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 858 (1991).
[Crossref]

P. Maine, D. Strickland, P. Bado, M. Pessot, and G. Mourou, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 398 (1988).
[Crossref]

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H. C. Kapteyn, A. Sullivan, H. Hamster, and R. W. Falcone, in Femtosecond to Nanosecond High-Intensity Lasers and Applications, E. M. Campbell, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1229, 75 (1990).
[Crossref]

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G. Z. Sun, E. Ott, Y. C. Lee, and P. Guzdar, Phys. Fluids 30, 526 (1987).
[Crossref]

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I. S. Aleksakhin, I. P. Zapesochnyi, and V. V. Suran, JETP Lett. 26, 11 (1977).

Tajima, T.

D. C. Barnes, T. Kurki-Suonio, and T. Tajima, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. PS-15, 154 (1987).
[Crossref]

Tang, C.-M.

P. Sprangle, C.-M. Tang, and E. Esarey, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. PS-15, 39 (1987).

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Vachaspati, Phys. Rev. 128, 664 (1962).
[Crossref]

van der Wiel, M. J.

P. Kruit, J. Kimman, H. G. Muller, and M. J. van der Wiel, Phys. Rev. A 28, 248 (1983).
[Crossref]

Watteau, J. P.

M. André, J. Coutant, R. Dautray, M. Decroisette, G. Mainfray, C. Manus, A. Migus, C. Sauteret, and J. P. Watteau, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 312-II, 203 (1991).

Yamakawa, K.

K. Yamakawa, C. P. J. Barty, H. Shiraga, and Y. Kato, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 288 (1991).
[Crossref]

Yarkoni, E.

A. Zigler, M. Kishenevsky, M. Givon, E. Yarkoni, and B. Arad, Phys. Rev. A 35, 4446 (1986).
[Crossref]

Young, J. F.

Zaidel, A. N.

G. V. Ostrovskaya and A. N. Zaidel, Sov. Phys. Usp. 16, 834 (1974).
[Crossref]

Zapesochnyi, I. P.

I. S. Aleksakhin, I. P. Zapesochnyi, and V. V. Suran, JETP Lett. 26, 11 (1977).

Zigler, A.

A. Zigler, M. Kishenevsky, M. Givon, E. Yarkoni, and B. Arad, Phys. Rev. A 35, 4446 (1986).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris (1)

M. André, J. Coutant, R. Dautray, M. Decroisette, G. Mainfray, C. Manus, A. Migus, C. Sauteret, and J. P. Watteau, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 312-II, 203 (1991).

Europhys. Lett. (1)

A. L’Huillier, L. A. Lompré, M. Ferray, X. F. Li, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, Europhys. Lett. 5, 601 (1988).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

P. Maine, D. Strickland, P. Bado, M. Pessot, and G. Mourou, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 398 (1988).
[Crossref]

K. Yamakawa, C. P. J. Barty, H. Shiraga, and Y. Kato, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 288 (1991).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. (2)

P. Sprangle, C.-M. Tang, and E. Esarey, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. PS-15, 39 (1987).

D. C. Barnes, T. Kurki-Suonio, and T. Tajima, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. PS-15, 154 (1987).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. B (1)

A. L’Huillier, L. A. Lompré, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, J. Phys. B 16, 1363 (1983).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. D. (1)

C. L. M. Ireland and C. Grey Morgan, J. Phys. D. 7, L87 (1974).
[Crossref]

JETP Lett. (1)

I. S. Aleksakhin, I. P. Zapesochnyi, and V. V. Suran, JETP Lett. 26, 11 (1977).

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. Ferray, L. A. Lompré, O. Gobert, A. L’Huillier, G. Mainfray, C. Manus, A. Sanchez, and A. Gomez, Opt. Commun. 75, 278 (1990).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Fluids (1)

G. Z. Sun, E. Ott, Y. C. Lee, and P. Guzdar, Phys. Fluids 30, 526 (1987).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. (1)

Vachaspati, Phys. Rev. 128, 664 (1962).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (4)

A. Zigler, M. Kishenevsky, M. Givon, E. Yarkoni, and B. Arad, Phys. Rev. A 35, 4446 (1986).
[Crossref]

G. Gibson, T. S. Luk, A. McPherson, and C. K. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. A 43, 371 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. M. Penetrante and J. N. Bardsley, Phys. Rev. A 43, 3100 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Kruit, J. Kimman, H. G. Muller, and M. J. van der Wiel, Phys. Rev. A 28, 248 (1983).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. D (1)

E. S. Sarachik and G. T. Shappert, Phys. Rev. D 1, 2738 (1970).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

A. J. Alcock, C. De Michelis, and M. C. Richardson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 28, 356 (1968).

R. G. Meyerand and A. F. Haught, Phys. Rev. Lett. 11, 401 (1963).
[Crossref]

T. S. Luk, H. Pummer, K. Boyer, M. Shahidi, H. Egger, and C. K. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 110 (1983).
[Crossref]

P. Agostini, F. Fabre, G. Mainfray, G. Petite, and N. K. Rahman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1127 (1979).
[Crossref]

C. E. Max, J. Arons, and A. B. Langdon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 33, 209 (1974).
[Crossref]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

C. Grey Morgan, Rep. Prog. Phys. 38, 621 (1975).
[Crossref]

Sov. Phys. Usp. (2)

G. V. Ostrovskaya and A. N. Zaidel, Sov. Phys. Usp. 16, 834 (1974).
[Crossref]

Y. P. Raiser, Sov. Phys. Usp. 8, 650 (1965).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

R. J. Dewhurst, G. J. Pert, and S. A. Ramsden, in Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Phenomena in Ionized Gases (Donald Parsons, Oxford, U.K., 1971), p. 220;J. Phys. B 7, 2281 (1974).

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science Books, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986).

H. C. Kapteyn, A. Sullivan, H. Hamster, and R. W. Falcone, in Femtosecond to Nanosecond High-Intensity Lasers and Applications, E. M. Campbell, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1229, 75 (1990).
[Crossref]

A. L’Huillier, L. A. Lompré, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Atoms in intense fields,” Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. (to be published).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup. For transmission measurements a calorimeter was set just after the experimental chamber. M.O., microscope objective.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmission rates versus argon gas pressure for several incident laser powers: (a) P = 0.003 TW, (b) P = 0.01 TW, (c) P = 0.1 TW, and (d) P = 0.6 TW.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Fluorescence imaging in the 400-1200-nm range for several argon pressures: (a) p = 10 mbars, (b) p = 100 mbars, and (c) p = 1 bar. The laser propagates from the left to the right.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Focus shift deduced from fluorescence imaging as a function of the argon gas pressure for several incident laser powers: (a) P = 0.01 TW, (b) P = 0.1 TW, (c) P = 0.3 TW, and (d) P = 0.6 TW.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured spot size of the laser beam as a function of the position along the propagation axis. The focal spot size is approximately 150 μm2. The solid curve represents a best fit assuming a Gaussian function.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Maximum laser intensity attainable as a function of argon pressure.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Caustic curves of the beam for an incident power of 0.1 TW and for several argon pressures: (a) p = 10 mbars, (b) p = 100 mbars, and (c) p = 1 bar. The intensities reached at the focus point are (a) I = 1017 W/cm2, (b) I = 8 × 1014 W/cm2, and (c) I = 4 × 1014 W/cm2. The caustic curve reported for p = 10 mbars is the same as that in vacuum. The shift in focus is obtained from fluorescence imaging experiments, and the spread is determined from the transmission ratio experiments; the beam parameters are combined to produce the caustic curve.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Caustic curves of the beam for an incident power of 0.6 TW and for several argon pressures: (a) p = 10 mbars, (b) p = 100 mbars, and (c) p = 1 bar. The intensities reached at the focus point and the corresponding ionization degrees are (a) I = 4 × 1017 W/cm2, (b) I = 8 × 1014 W/cm2, and (c) I = 4 × 1014 W/cm2. The caustic curve reported for p = 10 mbars is the same as that in vacuum. The shift in focus is obtained from fluorescence imaging experiments, and the spread is determined from the transmission ratio experiments; the beam parameters are combined to produce the caustic curve.

Equations (3)

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I br = 8.67 × 10 10 ω 0 2 U i 0 1 / 2 N a τ L ,
n e ( r , z , t ) = [ 1 N e ( r , z , t ) / N c ] 1 / 2 ,
ω = d / 2 [ ln ( 1 T ) ] 1 / 2 ,

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