Abstract

Two beams with a peak power of 1.1 TW/beam were generated in a KrF laser at 10 Hz. A pulse width of 110 ± 10 fs was obtained by pulse compression at the final output stage with a CaF2 prism. The complex history of pulse evolution throughout the system was investigated by measuring a pulse width and spectrum at each stage.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. N. Sarukura, K. Hata, T. AdachiR Nodomi, M. Watanabe, and S. Watanabe, “Coherent soft x-ray generation by the harnomics of an ultrahigh-power laser,” Phys. Rev. A 43, 1669–1672 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S. Watanabe, A. Endoh, M. Watanabe, N. Sarukura, and K. Hata, “Multiterawatt excimer-laser system,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 1870–1876 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Watanabe, A. Endoh, N. Sarukura, and S. Watanabe, “Sub-picosecond UV pulse generation for a multiterawatt KrF laser,” Appl. Phys. B 48, 417–420 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Watanabe, K. Hata, T. Adachi, R. Nodomi, and S. Watanabe, “High-repetition-rate terawatt excimer laser system with gated gain amplification,” Opt. Lett. 15, 845–847 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. T. S. Luk, A. McPherson, G. Gibson, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Ultrahigh-intensity KrF* laser system,” Opt. Lett. 14, 1113–1115 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. J. Taylor, C. R. Tallman, J. P. Roberts, C. S. Lester, T. R. Gosnel, P. H. Y. Lee, and G. A. Kyrala, “High-intensity subpicosecond XeCl laser system,” Opt. Lett. 15, 39–41 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. Szatmari, F. P. Schafer, E. Muller-Horche, and W. Muchenheim, “Hybrid dye-excimer laser system for the generation of 80 fs, 900 GW pulses at 248 nm,” Opt. Commun. 63, 305–309 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Szatmari, G. Kuhnle, J. Jasny, and F. P. Schafer, “KrF laser system with corrected pulse front and compressed pulse duration,” Appl. Phys. B 49, 239–244 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. J. Taylor, T. R. Gosnel, J. P. Roberts, D. C. MacPherson, and C. R. Tallman, “Characterization of a high-intensity, subpicosecond XeCl laser system,” in Ultrafast Phenomena VII, C. B. Harris, E. P. Ippen, G. A. Mourou, and A. H. Zewail, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1990), pp. 104–106.
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. D. Kafka and T. M. Baer, “Peak power fluctuations in optical pulse compression,” IEEE. J. Quantum Electron. 24, 341–350 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. D. Kafka and T. Baer, “Prism-pair dispersive delay lines in optical pulse compression,” Opt. Lett. 12, 401–403 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. T. C. Damen and J. Shah, “Femtosecond luminescence spectroscopy with 60 fs compressed pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1291–1293 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  13. N. Sarukura, M. Watanabe, A. Endo, and S. Watanabe, “Single-shot measurement of subpicosecond KrF pulse width by three-photon fluorescence of the XeF visible transition,” Opt. Lett. 13, 996–998 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. C. Rolland and P. B. Corkum, “Amplification of 70 fs pulses in a high repetition rate XeCl pumped dye laser amplifier,” Opt. Commun. 59, 64–68 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. Nodomi, Y. Oeda, K. Sajiki, S. Nakajima, M. Watanabe, and S. Watanabe, “High repetition rate, wide-aperture KrF laser for subpicosecond amplification,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 441–447 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. L. Fork, O. E. Martinez, and J. P. Gordon, “Negative dispersion using pairs of prisms,” Opt. Lett. 9, 150–152 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (2)

N. Sarukura, K. Hata, T. AdachiR Nodomi, M. Watanabe, and S. Watanabe, “Coherent soft x-ray generation by the harnomics of an ultrahigh-power laser,” Phys. Rev. A 43, 1669–1672 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Nodomi, Y. Oeda, K. Sajiki, S. Nakajima, M. Watanabe, and S. Watanabe, “High repetition rate, wide-aperture KrF laser for subpicosecond amplification,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 441–447 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

1989 (4)

T. S. Luk, A. McPherson, G. Gibson, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Ultrahigh-intensity KrF* laser system,” Opt. Lett. 14, 1113–1115 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Watanabe, A. Endoh, M. Watanabe, N. Sarukura, and K. Hata, “Multiterawatt excimer-laser system,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 1870–1876 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. Watanabe, A. Endoh, N. Sarukura, and S. Watanabe, “Sub-picosecond UV pulse generation for a multiterawatt KrF laser,” Appl. Phys. B 48, 417–420 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. Szatmari, G. Kuhnle, J. Jasny, and F. P. Schafer, “KrF laser system with corrected pulse front and compressed pulse duration,” Appl. Phys. B 49, 239–244 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (3)

J. D. Kafka and T. M. Baer, “Peak power fluctuations in optical pulse compression,” IEEE. J. Quantum Electron. 24, 341–350 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Damen and J. Shah, “Femtosecond luminescence spectroscopy with 60 fs compressed pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1291–1293 (1988).
[CrossRef]

N. Sarukura, M. Watanabe, A. Endo, and S. Watanabe, “Single-shot measurement of subpicosecond KrF pulse width by three-photon fluorescence of the XeF visible transition,” Opt. Lett. 13, 996–998 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (2)

J. D. Kafka and T. Baer, “Prism-pair dispersive delay lines in optical pulse compression,” Opt. Lett. 12, 401–403 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Szatmari, F. P. Schafer, E. Muller-Horche, and W. Muchenheim, “Hybrid dye-excimer laser system for the generation of 80 fs, 900 GW pulses at 248 nm,” Opt. Commun. 63, 305–309 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

C. Rolland and P. B. Corkum, “Amplification of 70 fs pulses in a high repetition rate XeCl pumped dye laser amplifier,” Opt. Commun. 59, 64–68 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

Adachi, T.

AdachiR Nodomi, T.

N. Sarukura, K. Hata, T. AdachiR Nodomi, M. Watanabe, and S. Watanabe, “Coherent soft x-ray generation by the harnomics of an ultrahigh-power laser,” Phys. Rev. A 43, 1669–1672 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baer, T.

Baer, T. M.

J. D. Kafka and T. M. Baer, “Peak power fluctuations in optical pulse compression,” IEEE. J. Quantum Electron. 24, 341–350 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Boyer, K.

Corkum, P. B.

C. Rolland and P. B. Corkum, “Amplification of 70 fs pulses in a high repetition rate XeCl pumped dye laser amplifier,” Opt. Commun. 59, 64–68 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Damen, T. C.

T. C. Damen and J. Shah, “Femtosecond luminescence spectroscopy with 60 fs compressed pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1291–1293 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Endo, A.

Endoh, A.

S. Watanabe, A. Endoh, M. Watanabe, N. Sarukura, and K. Hata, “Multiterawatt excimer-laser system,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 1870–1876 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. Watanabe, A. Endoh, N. Sarukura, and S. Watanabe, “Sub-picosecond UV pulse generation for a multiterawatt KrF laser,” Appl. Phys. B 48, 417–420 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Fork, R. L.

Gibson, G.

Gordon, J. P.

Gosnel, T. R.

A. J. Taylor, C. R. Tallman, J. P. Roberts, C. S. Lester, T. R. Gosnel, P. H. Y. Lee, and G. A. Kyrala, “High-intensity subpicosecond XeCl laser system,” Opt. Lett. 15, 39–41 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Taylor, T. R. Gosnel, J. P. Roberts, D. C. MacPherson, and C. R. Tallman, “Characterization of a high-intensity, subpicosecond XeCl laser system,” in Ultrafast Phenomena VII, C. B. Harris, E. P. Ippen, G. A. Mourou, and A. H. Zewail, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1990), pp. 104–106.
[CrossRef]

Hata, K.

Jasny, J.

S. Szatmari, G. Kuhnle, J. Jasny, and F. P. Schafer, “KrF laser system with corrected pulse front and compressed pulse duration,” Appl. Phys. B 49, 239–244 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kafka, J. D.

J. D. Kafka and T. M. Baer, “Peak power fluctuations in optical pulse compression,” IEEE. J. Quantum Electron. 24, 341–350 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Kafka and T. Baer, “Prism-pair dispersive delay lines in optical pulse compression,” Opt. Lett. 12, 401–403 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuhnle, G.

S. Szatmari, G. Kuhnle, J. Jasny, and F. P. Schafer, “KrF laser system with corrected pulse front and compressed pulse duration,” Appl. Phys. B 49, 239–244 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kyrala, G. A.

Lee, P. H. Y.

Lester, C. S.

Luk, T. S.

MacPherson, D. C.

A. J. Taylor, T. R. Gosnel, J. P. Roberts, D. C. MacPherson, and C. R. Tallman, “Characterization of a high-intensity, subpicosecond XeCl laser system,” in Ultrafast Phenomena VII, C. B. Harris, E. P. Ippen, G. A. Mourou, and A. H. Zewail, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1990), pp. 104–106.
[CrossRef]

Martinez, O. E.

McPherson, A.

Muchenheim, W.

S. Szatmari, F. P. Schafer, E. Muller-Horche, and W. Muchenheim, “Hybrid dye-excimer laser system for the generation of 80 fs, 900 GW pulses at 248 nm,” Opt. Commun. 63, 305–309 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Muller-Horche, E.

S. Szatmari, F. P. Schafer, E. Muller-Horche, and W. Muchenheim, “Hybrid dye-excimer laser system for the generation of 80 fs, 900 GW pulses at 248 nm,” Opt. Commun. 63, 305–309 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Nakajima, S.

R. Nodomi, Y. Oeda, K. Sajiki, S. Nakajima, M. Watanabe, and S. Watanabe, “High repetition rate, wide-aperture KrF laser for subpicosecond amplification,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 441–447 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nodomi, R.

R. Nodomi, Y. Oeda, K. Sajiki, S. Nakajima, M. Watanabe, and S. Watanabe, “High repetition rate, wide-aperture KrF laser for subpicosecond amplification,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 441–447 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Watanabe, K. Hata, T. Adachi, R. Nodomi, and S. Watanabe, “High-repetition-rate terawatt excimer laser system with gated gain amplification,” Opt. Lett. 15, 845–847 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oeda, Y.

R. Nodomi, Y. Oeda, K. Sajiki, S. Nakajima, M. Watanabe, and S. Watanabe, “High repetition rate, wide-aperture KrF laser for subpicosecond amplification,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 441–447 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Rhodes, C. K.

Roberts, J. P.

A. J. Taylor, C. R. Tallman, J. P. Roberts, C. S. Lester, T. R. Gosnel, P. H. Y. Lee, and G. A. Kyrala, “High-intensity subpicosecond XeCl laser system,” Opt. Lett. 15, 39–41 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Taylor, T. R. Gosnel, J. P. Roberts, D. C. MacPherson, and C. R. Tallman, “Characterization of a high-intensity, subpicosecond XeCl laser system,” in Ultrafast Phenomena VII, C. B. Harris, E. P. Ippen, G. A. Mourou, and A. H. Zewail, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1990), pp. 104–106.
[CrossRef]

Rolland, C.

C. Rolland and P. B. Corkum, “Amplification of 70 fs pulses in a high repetition rate XeCl pumped dye laser amplifier,” Opt. Commun. 59, 64–68 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Sajiki, K.

R. Nodomi, Y. Oeda, K. Sajiki, S. Nakajima, M. Watanabe, and S. Watanabe, “High repetition rate, wide-aperture KrF laser for subpicosecond amplification,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 441–447 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sarukura, N.

N. Sarukura, K. Hata, T. AdachiR Nodomi, M. Watanabe, and S. Watanabe, “Coherent soft x-ray generation by the harnomics of an ultrahigh-power laser,” Phys. Rev. A 43, 1669–1672 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Watanabe, A. Endoh, N. Sarukura, and S. Watanabe, “Sub-picosecond UV pulse generation for a multiterawatt KrF laser,” Appl. Phys. B 48, 417–420 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. Watanabe, A. Endoh, M. Watanabe, N. Sarukura, and K. Hata, “Multiterawatt excimer-laser system,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 1870–1876 (1989).
[CrossRef]

N. Sarukura, M. Watanabe, A. Endo, and S. Watanabe, “Single-shot measurement of subpicosecond KrF pulse width by three-photon fluorescence of the XeF visible transition,” Opt. Lett. 13, 996–998 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schafer, F. P.

S. Szatmari, G. Kuhnle, J. Jasny, and F. P. Schafer, “KrF laser system with corrected pulse front and compressed pulse duration,” Appl. Phys. B 49, 239–244 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. Szatmari, F. P. Schafer, E. Muller-Horche, and W. Muchenheim, “Hybrid dye-excimer laser system for the generation of 80 fs, 900 GW pulses at 248 nm,” Opt. Commun. 63, 305–309 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Shah, J.

T. C. Damen and J. Shah, “Femtosecond luminescence spectroscopy with 60 fs compressed pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1291–1293 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Szatmari, S.

S. Szatmari, G. Kuhnle, J. Jasny, and F. P. Schafer, “KrF laser system with corrected pulse front and compressed pulse duration,” Appl. Phys. B 49, 239–244 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. Szatmari, F. P. Schafer, E. Muller-Horche, and W. Muchenheim, “Hybrid dye-excimer laser system for the generation of 80 fs, 900 GW pulses at 248 nm,” Opt. Commun. 63, 305–309 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Tallman, C. R.

A. J. Taylor, C. R. Tallman, J. P. Roberts, C. S. Lester, T. R. Gosnel, P. H. Y. Lee, and G. A. Kyrala, “High-intensity subpicosecond XeCl laser system,” Opt. Lett. 15, 39–41 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Taylor, T. R. Gosnel, J. P. Roberts, D. C. MacPherson, and C. R. Tallman, “Characterization of a high-intensity, subpicosecond XeCl laser system,” in Ultrafast Phenomena VII, C. B. Harris, E. P. Ippen, G. A. Mourou, and A. H. Zewail, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1990), pp. 104–106.
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A. J.

A. J. Taylor, C. R. Tallman, J. P. Roberts, C. S. Lester, T. R. Gosnel, P. H. Y. Lee, and G. A. Kyrala, “High-intensity subpicosecond XeCl laser system,” Opt. Lett. 15, 39–41 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Taylor, T. R. Gosnel, J. P. Roberts, D. C. MacPherson, and C. R. Tallman, “Characterization of a high-intensity, subpicosecond XeCl laser system,” in Ultrafast Phenomena VII, C. B. Harris, E. P. Ippen, G. A. Mourou, and A. H. Zewail, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1990), pp. 104–106.
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, M.

N. Sarukura, K. Hata, T. AdachiR Nodomi, M. Watanabe, and S. Watanabe, “Coherent soft x-ray generation by the harnomics of an ultrahigh-power laser,” Phys. Rev. A 43, 1669–1672 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Nodomi, Y. Oeda, K. Sajiki, S. Nakajima, M. Watanabe, and S. Watanabe, “High repetition rate, wide-aperture KrF laser for subpicosecond amplification,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 441–447 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Watanabe, K. Hata, T. Adachi, R. Nodomi, and S. Watanabe, “High-repetition-rate terawatt excimer laser system with gated gain amplification,” Opt. Lett. 15, 845–847 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Watanabe, A. Endoh, M. Watanabe, N. Sarukura, and K. Hata, “Multiterawatt excimer-laser system,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 1870–1876 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. Watanabe, A. Endoh, N. Sarukura, and S. Watanabe, “Sub-picosecond UV pulse generation for a multiterawatt KrF laser,” Appl. Phys. B 48, 417–420 (1989).
[CrossRef]

N. Sarukura, M. Watanabe, A. Endo, and S. Watanabe, “Single-shot measurement of subpicosecond KrF pulse width by three-photon fluorescence of the XeF visible transition,” Opt. Lett. 13, 996–998 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watanabe, S.

N. Sarukura, K. Hata, T. AdachiR Nodomi, M. Watanabe, and S. Watanabe, “Coherent soft x-ray generation by the harnomics of an ultrahigh-power laser,” Phys. Rev. A 43, 1669–1672 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Nodomi, Y. Oeda, K. Sajiki, S. Nakajima, M. Watanabe, and S. Watanabe, “High repetition rate, wide-aperture KrF laser for subpicosecond amplification,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 441–447 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Watanabe, K. Hata, T. Adachi, R. Nodomi, and S. Watanabe, “High-repetition-rate terawatt excimer laser system with gated gain amplification,” Opt. Lett. 15, 845–847 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Watanabe, A. Endoh, M. Watanabe, N. Sarukura, and K. Hata, “Multiterawatt excimer-laser system,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 1870–1876 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. Watanabe, A. Endoh, N. Sarukura, and S. Watanabe, “Sub-picosecond UV pulse generation for a multiterawatt KrF laser,” Appl. Phys. B 48, 417–420 (1989).
[CrossRef]

N. Sarukura, M. Watanabe, A. Endo, and S. Watanabe, “Single-shot measurement of subpicosecond KrF pulse width by three-photon fluorescence of the XeF visible transition,” Opt. Lett. 13, 996–998 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

M. Watanabe, A. Endoh, N. Sarukura, and S. Watanabe, “Sub-picosecond UV pulse generation for a multiterawatt KrF laser,” Appl. Phys. B 48, 417–420 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. Szatmari, G. Kuhnle, J. Jasny, and F. P. Schafer, “KrF laser system with corrected pulse front and compressed pulse duration,” Appl. Phys. B 49, 239–244 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. C. Damen and J. Shah, “Femtosecond luminescence spectroscopy with 60 fs compressed pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1291–1293 (1988).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Nodomi, Y. Oeda, K. Sajiki, S. Nakajima, M. Watanabe, and S. Watanabe, “High repetition rate, wide-aperture KrF laser for subpicosecond amplification,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 441–447 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE. J. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. D. Kafka and T. M. Baer, “Peak power fluctuations in optical pulse compression,” IEEE. J. Quantum Electron. 24, 341–350 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (2)

C. Rolland and P. B. Corkum, “Amplification of 70 fs pulses in a high repetition rate XeCl pumped dye laser amplifier,” Opt. Commun. 59, 64–68 (1986).
[CrossRef]

S. Szatmari, F. P. Schafer, E. Muller-Horche, and W. Muchenheim, “Hybrid dye-excimer laser system for the generation of 80 fs, 900 GW pulses at 248 nm,” Opt. Commun. 63, 305–309 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (6)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

N. Sarukura, K. Hata, T. AdachiR Nodomi, M. Watanabe, and S. Watanabe, “Coherent soft x-ray generation by the harnomics of an ultrahigh-power laser,” Phys. Rev. A 43, 1669–1672 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

A. J. Taylor, T. R. Gosnel, J. P. Roberts, D. C. MacPherson, and C. R. Tallman, “Characterization of a high-intensity, subpicosecond XeCl laser system,” in Ultrafast Phenomena VII, C. B. Harris, E. P. Ippen, G. A. Mourou, and A. H. Zewail, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1990), pp. 104–106.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of a 100-fs, 10-Hz, terawatt KrF laser.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Final pulse width versus oscillator pulse width. The pulse shape is assumed to be sech2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Temporal evolution of the pulses throughout the laser system. Autocorrelation traces of curve a, a dye oscillator; curve b, a dye amplifier chain; curve c, KrF preamplifiers; curve d, a KrF main amplifier. The time scale of curve b is reduced by a factor of 3. The pulse shape is assumed to be sech2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectra, a, after frequency conversion and b, after the final amplification; c, gain profile of a KrF laser.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Calculated pulse-width broadening versus total thickness of CaF2 windows for the transform-limited sech2 input pulses. The initial pulses widths were varied from 100 to 800 fs.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Dependence of final pulse width on prism separation. The pulse shape is assumed to be sech2.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Autocorrelation trace of a single 248-nm pulse after pulse compression. The history of pulse evolution before pulse compression is shown in Fig. 3. The pulse shape is assumed to be sech2.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Autocorrelation a and spectrum b at the oscillator stage when the final pulse width 110 ± 10 fs was obtained. The pulse shape is assumed to be sech2.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Autocorrelation trace of a single 248-nm pulse after pulse compression for the input pulse shown in Fig. 8. The pulse shape is assumed to be sech2.

Equations (2)

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( d 2 ϕ d ω 2 ) prism = λ 3 2 π c 2 { - 4 ( d n d λ ) 2 L + 4 n 2 + 1 × [ n d 2 n d λ 2 + ( n 2 + 1 - 1 n 2 ) ( d n d λ ) 2 X ] } ,
( d 2 ϕ d ω 2 ) CaF 2 = λ 3 T 2 π c 2 d 2 n d λ 2 = 2.5 × 10 4 ( fs 2 ) .

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