Abstract

By means of a novel experimental design called double-massive-target coupling, significant amplification of five lasing lines was observed with wavelengths (λ) of 19.6, 23.2, 23.6, 24.7, and 28.6 nm from 3p–3s transitions in Ne-like Ge ions at an irradiance of 1.2 × 1013 W/cm2 on the axis of an elongated plasma column. The maximum gain-length product (GL) values achieved were greater than 14 for 2 of the 5 lasing lines at 23.2 and 23.6 nm. Temporally resolved measurements of x-ray laser spectra indicate that the duration of the gain was ~0.8 ns, which is comparable with the Gaussian driving laser pulse width of 1 ns (FWHM) in our experiments. The measured divergence and refraction angles of the x-ray laser beam at 23.6 nm are presented. The dimension and position of the gain region are estimated.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Matthews, M. Rosen, S. Brown, N. Ceglio, D. Eder, A. Hawryluk, C. Keane, R. London, B. MacGowan, S. Maxon, D. Nilson, J. Scofield, J. Trebes, “X-ray laser research at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Nova laser facility,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 575 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. Zhang, J. Sheng, H. Peng, Y. Shao, “Theoretical research of soft x-ray laser by the collisional excitation of electrons,” High Power Laser Part. Beams (China) 2, 298 (1990).
  3. G. B. Zimmerman, W. L. Kruer, “Numerical simulation of laser inertial fusion,” Comments Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 11, 15 (1975).
  4. W. C. Mead, E. M. Campbell, K. G. Estabrook, R. E. Turner, W. L. Kruer, P. H. Y. Lee, B. Pruett, V. C. Rupert, K. G. Tirsell, G. L. Stradling, F. Ze, C. E. Max, M. D. Rosen, “Laser irradiation of disk targets at 0.53 μ m wavelength,” (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1981).
  5. W. Chen, S. Wang, C. Mao, B. Chen, A. Xu, “Cylinder lens array line focus system for x-ray laser experiments,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 7 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), p. 282.
  6. K. Eidmann, T. Kishimoto, P. Herrmann, J. Mizui, R. Pakula, R. Sigel, S. Witkowski, “Absolute soft x-ray measurements with a transmission grating spectrometer,” Laser Part. Beams 4, 521 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Kato, E. Miura, T. Tachi, H. Shiraga, H. Nishimura, H. Daido, M. Yamanaka, T. Jitsuno, M. Takagi, P. R. Herman, H. Takabe, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, M. H. Key, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Rose, P. T. Rumsby, “Observation of gain at 54.2 Å on Balmer-alpha transition of hydrogenic sodium,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 247 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. L. Henke, P. Lee, T. J. Tamaka, R. L. Shimabukuro, B. K. Fujikawa, “Low-energy x-ray interaction coefficients,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 27, 1 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. J. Linford, E. R. Peressini, W. R. Sooy, M. L. Spaeth, “Very long lasers,” Appl. Opt. 13, 379 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S. Chunyu, H. Shen, S. He, S. Wang, Z. Tao, H. Peng, J. Yang, “Ne-like Ge x-ray laser experiments,” High Power Laser Part. Beams (China) 2, 280 (1990).
  12. D. M. O’Neill, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Uhomoibhi, M. H. Key, A. Macphee, G. J. Tallents, S. A. Ramsden, A. Rogoyski, E. A. McLean, “Characterisation of soft x-ray amplification observed in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 75, 406 (1990).
    [CrossRef]

1990 (4)

G. Zhang, J. Sheng, H. Peng, Y. Shao, “Theoretical research of soft x-ray laser by the collisional excitation of electrons,” High Power Laser Part. Beams (China) 2, 298 (1990).

Y. Kato, E. Miura, T. Tachi, H. Shiraga, H. Nishimura, H. Daido, M. Yamanaka, T. Jitsuno, M. Takagi, P. R. Herman, H. Takabe, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, M. H. Key, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Rose, P. T. Rumsby, “Observation of gain at 54.2 Å on Balmer-alpha transition of hydrogenic sodium,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 247 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. Chunyu, H. Shen, S. He, S. Wang, Z. Tao, H. Peng, J. Yang, “Ne-like Ge x-ray laser experiments,” High Power Laser Part. Beams (China) 2, 280 (1990).

D. M. O’Neill, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Uhomoibhi, M. H. Key, A. Macphee, G. J. Tallents, S. A. Ramsden, A. Rogoyski, E. A. McLean, “Characterisation of soft x-ray amplification observed in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 75, 406 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

1986 (1)

K. Eidmann, T. Kishimoto, P. Herrmann, J. Mizui, R. Pakula, R. Sigel, S. Witkowski, “Absolute soft x-ray measurements with a transmission grating spectrometer,” Laser Part. Beams 4, 521 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

B. L. Henke, P. Lee, T. J. Tamaka, R. L. Shimabukuro, B. K. Fujikawa, “Low-energy x-ray interaction coefficients,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 27, 1 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

G. B. Zimmerman, W. L. Kruer, “Numerical simulation of laser inertial fusion,” Comments Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 11, 15 (1975).

1974 (1)

Brown, S.

Campbell, E. M.

W. C. Mead, E. M. Campbell, K. G. Estabrook, R. E. Turner, W. L. Kruer, P. H. Y. Lee, B. Pruett, V. C. Rupert, K. G. Tirsell, G. L. Stradling, F. Ze, C. E. Max, M. D. Rosen, “Laser irradiation of disk targets at 0.53 μ m wavelength,” (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1981).

Ceglio, N.

Chen, B.

W. Chen, S. Wang, C. Mao, B. Chen, A. Xu, “Cylinder lens array line focus system for x-ray laser experiments,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 7 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), p. 282.

Chen, W.

W. Chen, S. Wang, C. Mao, B. Chen, A. Xu, “Cylinder lens array line focus system for x-ray laser experiments,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 7 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), p. 282.

Chunyu, S.

S. Chunyu, H. Shen, S. He, S. Wang, Z. Tao, H. Peng, J. Yang, “Ne-like Ge x-ray laser experiments,” High Power Laser Part. Beams (China) 2, 280 (1990).

Daido, H.

Y. Kato, E. Miura, T. Tachi, H. Shiraga, H. Nishimura, H. Daido, M. Yamanaka, T. Jitsuno, M. Takagi, P. R. Herman, H. Takabe, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, M. H. Key, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Rose, P. T. Rumsby, “Observation of gain at 54.2 Å on Balmer-alpha transition of hydrogenic sodium,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 247 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Eder, D.

Eidmann, K.

K. Eidmann, T. Kishimoto, P. Herrmann, J. Mizui, R. Pakula, R. Sigel, S. Witkowski, “Absolute soft x-ray measurements with a transmission grating spectrometer,” Laser Part. Beams 4, 521 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Elton, R. C.

T. N. Lee, E. A. McLean, R. C. Elton, “Soft x-ray lasing in neonlike germanium and copper plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1185 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Estabrook, K. G.

W. C. Mead, E. M. Campbell, K. G. Estabrook, R. E. Turner, W. L. Kruer, P. H. Y. Lee, B. Pruett, V. C. Rupert, K. G. Tirsell, G. L. Stradling, F. Ze, C. E. Max, M. D. Rosen, “Laser irradiation of disk targets at 0.53 μ m wavelength,” (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1981).

Fujikawa, B. K.

B. L. Henke, P. Lee, T. J. Tamaka, R. L. Shimabukuro, B. K. Fujikawa, “Low-energy x-ray interaction coefficients,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 27, 1 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Hawryluk, A.

He, S.

S. Chunyu, H. Shen, S. He, S. Wang, Z. Tao, H. Peng, J. Yang, “Ne-like Ge x-ray laser experiments,” High Power Laser Part. Beams (China) 2, 280 (1990).

Henke, B. L.

B. L. Henke, P. Lee, T. J. Tamaka, R. L. Shimabukuro, B. K. Fujikawa, “Low-energy x-ray interaction coefficients,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 27, 1 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Herman, P. R.

Y. Kato, E. Miura, T. Tachi, H. Shiraga, H. Nishimura, H. Daido, M. Yamanaka, T. Jitsuno, M. Takagi, P. R. Herman, H. Takabe, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, M. H. Key, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Rose, P. T. Rumsby, “Observation of gain at 54.2 Å on Balmer-alpha transition of hydrogenic sodium,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 247 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Herrmann, P.

K. Eidmann, T. Kishimoto, P. Herrmann, J. Mizui, R. Pakula, R. Sigel, S. Witkowski, “Absolute soft x-ray measurements with a transmission grating spectrometer,” Laser Part. Beams 4, 521 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Jitsuno, T.

Y. Kato, E. Miura, T. Tachi, H. Shiraga, H. Nishimura, H. Daido, M. Yamanaka, T. Jitsuno, M. Takagi, P. R. Herman, H. Takabe, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, M. H. Key, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Rose, P. T. Rumsby, “Observation of gain at 54.2 Å on Balmer-alpha transition of hydrogenic sodium,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 247 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kato, Y.

Y. Kato, E. Miura, T. Tachi, H. Shiraga, H. Nishimura, H. Daido, M. Yamanaka, T. Jitsuno, M. Takagi, P. R. Herman, H. Takabe, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, M. H. Key, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Rose, P. T. Rumsby, “Observation of gain at 54.2 Å on Balmer-alpha transition of hydrogenic sodium,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 247 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Keane, C.

Key, M. H.

D. M. O’Neill, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Uhomoibhi, M. H. Key, A. Macphee, G. J. Tallents, S. A. Ramsden, A. Rogoyski, E. A. McLean, “Characterisation of soft x-ray amplification observed in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 75, 406 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kato, E. Miura, T. Tachi, H. Shiraga, H. Nishimura, H. Daido, M. Yamanaka, T. Jitsuno, M. Takagi, P. R. Herman, H. Takabe, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, M. H. Key, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Rose, P. T. Rumsby, “Observation of gain at 54.2 Å on Balmer-alpha transition of hydrogenic sodium,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 247 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kishimoto, T.

K. Eidmann, T. Kishimoto, P. Herrmann, J. Mizui, R. Pakula, R. Sigel, S. Witkowski, “Absolute soft x-ray measurements with a transmission grating spectrometer,” Laser Part. Beams 4, 521 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Kruer, W. L.

G. B. Zimmerman, W. L. Kruer, “Numerical simulation of laser inertial fusion,” Comments Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 11, 15 (1975).

W. C. Mead, E. M. Campbell, K. G. Estabrook, R. E. Turner, W. L. Kruer, P. H. Y. Lee, B. Pruett, V. C. Rupert, K. G. Tirsell, G. L. Stradling, F. Ze, C. E. Max, M. D. Rosen, “Laser irradiation of disk targets at 0.53 μ m wavelength,” (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1981).

Lee, P.

B. L. Henke, P. Lee, T. J. Tamaka, R. L. Shimabukuro, B. K. Fujikawa, “Low-energy x-ray interaction coefficients,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 27, 1 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Lee, P. H. Y.

W. C. Mead, E. M. Campbell, K. G. Estabrook, R. E. Turner, W. L. Kruer, P. H. Y. Lee, B. Pruett, V. C. Rupert, K. G. Tirsell, G. L. Stradling, F. Ze, C. E. Max, M. D. Rosen, “Laser irradiation of disk targets at 0.53 μ m wavelength,” (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1981).

Lee, T. N.

T. N. Lee, E. A. McLean, R. C. Elton, “Soft x-ray lasing in neonlike germanium and copper plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1185 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lewis, C. L. S.

D. M. O’Neill, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Uhomoibhi, M. H. Key, A. Macphee, G. J. Tallents, S. A. Ramsden, A. Rogoyski, E. A. McLean, “Characterisation of soft x-ray amplification observed in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 75, 406 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Linford, G. J.

London, R.

MacGowan, B.

Macphee, A.

D. M. O’Neill, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Uhomoibhi, M. H. Key, A. Macphee, G. J. Tallents, S. A. Ramsden, A. Rogoyski, E. A. McLean, “Characterisation of soft x-ray amplification observed in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 75, 406 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Mao, C.

W. Chen, S. Wang, C. Mao, B. Chen, A. Xu, “Cylinder lens array line focus system for x-ray laser experiments,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 7 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), p. 282.

Matthews, D.

Max, C. E.

W. C. Mead, E. M. Campbell, K. G. Estabrook, R. E. Turner, W. L. Kruer, P. H. Y. Lee, B. Pruett, V. C. Rupert, K. G. Tirsell, G. L. Stradling, F. Ze, C. E. Max, M. D. Rosen, “Laser irradiation of disk targets at 0.53 μ m wavelength,” (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1981).

Maxon, S.

McLean, E. A.

D. M. O’Neill, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Uhomoibhi, M. H. Key, A. Macphee, G. J. Tallents, S. A. Ramsden, A. Rogoyski, E. A. McLean, “Characterisation of soft x-ray amplification observed in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 75, 406 (1990).
[CrossRef]

T. N. Lee, E. A. McLean, R. C. Elton, “Soft x-ray lasing in neonlike germanium and copper plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1185 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mead, W. C.

W. C. Mead, E. M. Campbell, K. G. Estabrook, R. E. Turner, W. L. Kruer, P. H. Y. Lee, B. Pruett, V. C. Rupert, K. G. Tirsell, G. L. Stradling, F. Ze, C. E. Max, M. D. Rosen, “Laser irradiation of disk targets at 0.53 μ m wavelength,” (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1981).

Miura, E.

Y. Kato, E. Miura, T. Tachi, H. Shiraga, H. Nishimura, H. Daido, M. Yamanaka, T. Jitsuno, M. Takagi, P. R. Herman, H. Takabe, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, M. H. Key, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Rose, P. T. Rumsby, “Observation of gain at 54.2 Å on Balmer-alpha transition of hydrogenic sodium,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 247 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Mizui, J.

K. Eidmann, T. Kishimoto, P. Herrmann, J. Mizui, R. Pakula, R. Sigel, S. Witkowski, “Absolute soft x-ray measurements with a transmission grating spectrometer,” Laser Part. Beams 4, 521 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Nakai, S.

Y. Kato, E. Miura, T. Tachi, H. Shiraga, H. Nishimura, H. Daido, M. Yamanaka, T. Jitsuno, M. Takagi, P. R. Herman, H. Takabe, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, M. H. Key, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Rose, P. T. Rumsby, “Observation of gain at 54.2 Å on Balmer-alpha transition of hydrogenic sodium,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 247 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Neely, D.

D. M. O’Neill, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Uhomoibhi, M. H. Key, A. Macphee, G. J. Tallents, S. A. Ramsden, A. Rogoyski, E. A. McLean, “Characterisation of soft x-ray amplification observed in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 75, 406 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Nilson, D.

Nishimura, H.

Y. Kato, E. Miura, T. Tachi, H. Shiraga, H. Nishimura, H. Daido, M. Yamanaka, T. Jitsuno, M. Takagi, P. R. Herman, H. Takabe, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, M. H. Key, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Rose, P. T. Rumsby, “Observation of gain at 54.2 Å on Balmer-alpha transition of hydrogenic sodium,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 247 (1990).
[CrossRef]

O’Neill, D. M.

D. M. O’Neill, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Uhomoibhi, M. H. Key, A. Macphee, G. J. Tallents, S. A. Ramsden, A. Rogoyski, E. A. McLean, “Characterisation of soft x-ray amplification observed in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 75, 406 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Pakula, R.

K. Eidmann, T. Kishimoto, P. Herrmann, J. Mizui, R. Pakula, R. Sigel, S. Witkowski, “Absolute soft x-ray measurements with a transmission grating spectrometer,” Laser Part. Beams 4, 521 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Peng, H.

G. Zhang, J. Sheng, H. Peng, Y. Shao, “Theoretical research of soft x-ray laser by the collisional excitation of electrons,” High Power Laser Part. Beams (China) 2, 298 (1990).

S. Chunyu, H. Shen, S. He, S. Wang, Z. Tao, H. Peng, J. Yang, “Ne-like Ge x-ray laser experiments,” High Power Laser Part. Beams (China) 2, 280 (1990).

Peressini, E. R.

Pruett, B.

W. C. Mead, E. M. Campbell, K. G. Estabrook, R. E. Turner, W. L. Kruer, P. H. Y. Lee, B. Pruett, V. C. Rupert, K. G. Tirsell, G. L. Stradling, F. Ze, C. E. Max, M. D. Rosen, “Laser irradiation of disk targets at 0.53 μ m wavelength,” (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1981).

Ramsden, S. A.

D. M. O’Neill, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Uhomoibhi, M. H. Key, A. Macphee, G. J. Tallents, S. A. Ramsden, A. Rogoyski, E. A. McLean, “Characterisation of soft x-ray amplification observed in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 75, 406 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Rogoyski, A.

D. M. O’Neill, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Uhomoibhi, M. H. Key, A. Macphee, G. J. Tallents, S. A. Ramsden, A. Rogoyski, E. A. McLean, “Characterisation of soft x-ray amplification observed in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 75, 406 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Rose, S. J.

Y. Kato, E. Miura, T. Tachi, H. Shiraga, H. Nishimura, H. Daido, M. Yamanaka, T. Jitsuno, M. Takagi, P. R. Herman, H. Takabe, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, M. H. Key, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Rose, P. T. Rumsby, “Observation of gain at 54.2 Å on Balmer-alpha transition of hydrogenic sodium,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 247 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Rosen, M.

Rosen, M. D.

W. C. Mead, E. M. Campbell, K. G. Estabrook, R. E. Turner, W. L. Kruer, P. H. Y. Lee, B. Pruett, V. C. Rupert, K. G. Tirsell, G. L. Stradling, F. Ze, C. E. Max, M. D. Rosen, “Laser irradiation of disk targets at 0.53 μ m wavelength,” (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1981).

Rumsby, P. T.

Y. Kato, E. Miura, T. Tachi, H. Shiraga, H. Nishimura, H. Daido, M. Yamanaka, T. Jitsuno, M. Takagi, P. R. Herman, H. Takabe, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, M. H. Key, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Rose, P. T. Rumsby, “Observation of gain at 54.2 Å on Balmer-alpha transition of hydrogenic sodium,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 247 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Rupert, V. C.

W. C. Mead, E. M. Campbell, K. G. Estabrook, R. E. Turner, W. L. Kruer, P. H. Y. Lee, B. Pruett, V. C. Rupert, K. G. Tirsell, G. L. Stradling, F. Ze, C. E. Max, M. D. Rosen, “Laser irradiation of disk targets at 0.53 μ m wavelength,” (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1981).

Scofield, J.

Shao, Y.

G. Zhang, J. Sheng, H. Peng, Y. Shao, “Theoretical research of soft x-ray laser by the collisional excitation of electrons,” High Power Laser Part. Beams (China) 2, 298 (1990).

Shen, H.

S. Chunyu, H. Shen, S. He, S. Wang, Z. Tao, H. Peng, J. Yang, “Ne-like Ge x-ray laser experiments,” High Power Laser Part. Beams (China) 2, 280 (1990).

Sheng, J.

G. Zhang, J. Sheng, H. Peng, Y. Shao, “Theoretical research of soft x-ray laser by the collisional excitation of electrons,” High Power Laser Part. Beams (China) 2, 298 (1990).

Shimabukuro, R. L.

B. L. Henke, P. Lee, T. J. Tamaka, R. L. Shimabukuro, B. K. Fujikawa, “Low-energy x-ray interaction coefficients,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 27, 1 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Shiraga, H.

Y. Kato, E. Miura, T. Tachi, H. Shiraga, H. Nishimura, H. Daido, M. Yamanaka, T. Jitsuno, M. Takagi, P. R. Herman, H. Takabe, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, M. H. Key, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Rose, P. T. Rumsby, “Observation of gain at 54.2 Å on Balmer-alpha transition of hydrogenic sodium,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 247 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sigel, R.

K. Eidmann, T. Kishimoto, P. Herrmann, J. Mizui, R. Pakula, R. Sigel, S. Witkowski, “Absolute soft x-ray measurements with a transmission grating spectrometer,” Laser Part. Beams 4, 521 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Sooy, W. R.

Spaeth, M. L.

Stradling, G. L.

W. C. Mead, E. M. Campbell, K. G. Estabrook, R. E. Turner, W. L. Kruer, P. H. Y. Lee, B. Pruett, V. C. Rupert, K. G. Tirsell, G. L. Stradling, F. Ze, C. E. Max, M. D. Rosen, “Laser irradiation of disk targets at 0.53 μ m wavelength,” (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1981).

Tachi, T.

Y. Kato, E. Miura, T. Tachi, H. Shiraga, H. Nishimura, H. Daido, M. Yamanaka, T. Jitsuno, M. Takagi, P. R. Herman, H. Takabe, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, M. H. Key, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Rose, P. T. Rumsby, “Observation of gain at 54.2 Å on Balmer-alpha transition of hydrogenic sodium,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 247 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Takabe, H.

Y. Kato, E. Miura, T. Tachi, H. Shiraga, H. Nishimura, H. Daido, M. Yamanaka, T. Jitsuno, M. Takagi, P. R. Herman, H. Takabe, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, M. H. Key, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Rose, P. T. Rumsby, “Observation of gain at 54.2 Å on Balmer-alpha transition of hydrogenic sodium,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 247 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Takagi, M.

Y. Kato, E. Miura, T. Tachi, H. Shiraga, H. Nishimura, H. Daido, M. Yamanaka, T. Jitsuno, M. Takagi, P. R. Herman, H. Takabe, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, M. H. Key, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Rose, P. T. Rumsby, “Observation of gain at 54.2 Å on Balmer-alpha transition of hydrogenic sodium,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 247 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Tallents, G. J.

Y. Kato, E. Miura, T. Tachi, H. Shiraga, H. Nishimura, H. Daido, M. Yamanaka, T. Jitsuno, M. Takagi, P. R. Herman, H. Takabe, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, M. H. Key, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Rose, P. T. Rumsby, “Observation of gain at 54.2 Å on Balmer-alpha transition of hydrogenic sodium,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 247 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. M. O’Neill, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Uhomoibhi, M. H. Key, A. Macphee, G. J. Tallents, S. A. Ramsden, A. Rogoyski, E. A. McLean, “Characterisation of soft x-ray amplification observed in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 75, 406 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Tamaka, T. J.

B. L. Henke, P. Lee, T. J. Tamaka, R. L. Shimabukuro, B. K. Fujikawa, “Low-energy x-ray interaction coefficients,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 27, 1 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Tao, Z.

S. Chunyu, H. Shen, S. He, S. Wang, Z. Tao, H. Peng, J. Yang, “Ne-like Ge x-ray laser experiments,” High Power Laser Part. Beams (China) 2, 280 (1990).

Tirsell, K. G.

W. C. Mead, E. M. Campbell, K. G. Estabrook, R. E. Turner, W. L. Kruer, P. H. Y. Lee, B. Pruett, V. C. Rupert, K. G. Tirsell, G. L. Stradling, F. Ze, C. E. Max, M. D. Rosen, “Laser irradiation of disk targets at 0.53 μ m wavelength,” (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1981).

Trebes, J.

Turner, R. E.

W. C. Mead, E. M. Campbell, K. G. Estabrook, R. E. Turner, W. L. Kruer, P. H. Y. Lee, B. Pruett, V. C. Rupert, K. G. Tirsell, G. L. Stradling, F. Ze, C. E. Max, M. D. Rosen, “Laser irradiation of disk targets at 0.53 μ m wavelength,” (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1981).

Uhomoibhi, J.

D. M. O’Neill, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Uhomoibhi, M. H. Key, A. Macphee, G. J. Tallents, S. A. Ramsden, A. Rogoyski, E. A. McLean, “Characterisation of soft x-ray amplification observed in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 75, 406 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

S. Chunyu, H. Shen, S. He, S. Wang, Z. Tao, H. Peng, J. Yang, “Ne-like Ge x-ray laser experiments,” High Power Laser Part. Beams (China) 2, 280 (1990).

W. Chen, S. Wang, C. Mao, B. Chen, A. Xu, “Cylinder lens array line focus system for x-ray laser experiments,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 7 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), p. 282.

Witkowski, S.

K. Eidmann, T. Kishimoto, P. Herrmann, J. Mizui, R. Pakula, R. Sigel, S. Witkowski, “Absolute soft x-ray measurements with a transmission grating spectrometer,” Laser Part. Beams 4, 521 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Xu, A.

W. Chen, S. Wang, C. Mao, B. Chen, A. Xu, “Cylinder lens array line focus system for x-ray laser experiments,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 7 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), p. 282.

Yamanaka, C.

Y. Kato, E. Miura, T. Tachi, H. Shiraga, H. Nishimura, H. Daido, M. Yamanaka, T. Jitsuno, M. Takagi, P. R. Herman, H. Takabe, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, M. H. Key, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Rose, P. T. Rumsby, “Observation of gain at 54.2 Å on Balmer-alpha transition of hydrogenic sodium,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 247 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Yamanaka, M.

Y. Kato, E. Miura, T. Tachi, H. Shiraga, H. Nishimura, H. Daido, M. Yamanaka, T. Jitsuno, M. Takagi, P. R. Herman, H. Takabe, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, M. H. Key, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Rose, P. T. Rumsby, “Observation of gain at 54.2 Å on Balmer-alpha transition of hydrogenic sodium,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 247 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

S. Chunyu, H. Shen, S. He, S. Wang, Z. Tao, H. Peng, J. Yang, “Ne-like Ge x-ray laser experiments,” High Power Laser Part. Beams (China) 2, 280 (1990).

Ze, F.

W. C. Mead, E. M. Campbell, K. G. Estabrook, R. E. Turner, W. L. Kruer, P. H. Y. Lee, B. Pruett, V. C. Rupert, K. G. Tirsell, G. L. Stradling, F. Ze, C. E. Max, M. D. Rosen, “Laser irradiation of disk targets at 0.53 μ m wavelength,” (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1981).

Zhang, G.

G. Zhang, J. Sheng, H. Peng, Y. Shao, “Theoretical research of soft x-ray laser by the collisional excitation of electrons,” High Power Laser Part. Beams (China) 2, 298 (1990).

Zimmerman, G. B.

G. B. Zimmerman, W. L. Kruer, “Numerical simulation of laser inertial fusion,” Comments Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 11, 15 (1975).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

Y. Kato, E. Miura, T. Tachi, H. Shiraga, H. Nishimura, H. Daido, M. Yamanaka, T. Jitsuno, M. Takagi, P. R. Herman, H. Takabe, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, M. H. Key, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Rose, P. T. Rumsby, “Observation of gain at 54.2 Å on Balmer-alpha transition of hydrogenic sodium,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 247 (1990).
[CrossRef]

At. Data Nucl. Data Tables (1)

B. L. Henke, P. Lee, T. J. Tamaka, R. L. Shimabukuro, B. K. Fujikawa, “Low-energy x-ray interaction coefficients,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 27, 1 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Comments Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion (1)

G. B. Zimmerman, W. L. Kruer, “Numerical simulation of laser inertial fusion,” Comments Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 11, 15 (1975).

High Power Laser Part. Beams (China) (2)

G. Zhang, J. Sheng, H. Peng, Y. Shao, “Theoretical research of soft x-ray laser by the collisional excitation of electrons,” High Power Laser Part. Beams (China) 2, 298 (1990).

S. Chunyu, H. Shen, S. He, S. Wang, Z. Tao, H. Peng, J. Yang, “Ne-like Ge x-ray laser experiments,” High Power Laser Part. Beams (China) 2, 280 (1990).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Laser Part. Beams (1)

K. Eidmann, T. Kishimoto, P. Herrmann, J. Mizui, R. Pakula, R. Sigel, S. Witkowski, “Absolute soft x-ray measurements with a transmission grating spectrometer,” Laser Part. Beams 4, 521 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

D. M. O’Neill, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Uhomoibhi, M. H. Key, A. Macphee, G. J. Tallents, S. A. Ramsden, A. Rogoyski, E. A. McLean, “Characterisation of soft x-ray amplification observed in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 75, 406 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

T. N. Lee, E. A. McLean, R. C. Elton, “Soft x-ray lasing in neonlike germanium and copper plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1185 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

W. C. Mead, E. M. Campbell, K. G. Estabrook, R. E. Turner, W. L. Kruer, P. H. Y. Lee, B. Pruett, V. C. Rupert, K. G. Tirsell, G. L. Stradling, F. Ze, C. E. Max, M. D. Rosen, “Laser irradiation of disk targets at 0.53 μ m wavelength,” (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1981).

W. Chen, S. Wang, C. Mao, B. Chen, A. Xu, “Cylinder lens array line focus system for x-ray laser experiments,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 7 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), p. 282.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of double-massive-target-coupling design.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated gain coefficients as a function of ne for Te = 0.6 keV at 19.6, 23.2, 23.6, 24.7, and 28.6 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated gain coefficients as a function of Te for ne = 1.25 × 1020 cm−3 at 19.6, 23.2, 23.6, 24.7, and 28.6 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dependence of Te, Ti, and ne on the distance from the target surface (R) at −0.14, 0.11, and 0.31 ns relative to the peak of the driving laser.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental arrangement. 1, Cylindrical lens array; 2, aspherical main lens; 3, flat-field grazing-incidence grating spectrograph; 4, soft-x-ray streak camera; 5, Rowland cylinder grazing-incidence grating spectrograph; 6, x-ray double-slit camera; 7, x-ray flat-crystal spectrograph.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Typical photograph of time-integrated x-ray laser spectrum. The lengths of targets 1 and 2 were 2.2 and 1.2 cm, respectively. The irradiance on the target surface was 1.2 × 1013 W/cm2. A 610.2-μg/cm2 Al filter was used.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Densitometric trace of the x-ray laser spectrum shown in Fig. 6.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Time-integrated peak intensity versus target length for the five Ne-like Ge lasing lines at 1.2 × 1013 W/cm2. The small circles represent experimental data, and the solid curves are fitted.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Horizontal divergence angle versus target length for 23.6 nm at 1.2 × 1013 W/cm2.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Experimental determination of horizontal refraction angle. The results obtained from the first and second shot are shown at the left and the right, respectively. The dotted-dashed line represents the zero point determined experimentally for calculation of the refraction angle. Targets 1 and 2 were both 2.2 cm in length. The irradiance at the target surface was 1.2 × 1013 W/cm2.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Typical photograph of time-resolved x-ray laser spectra. The lengths of targets 1 and 2 were 2.2 and 1.2 cm, respectively. The irradiance at the target surface was ~1 × 1013 W/cm2. A 362-μg/cm2 Al filter was used.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Time evolution of relative intensity on the film for the four lasing lines and plasma x-ray continuum, obtained from the photograph shown in Fig. 11.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Time-Integrated Gains of 3p–3s Transition Lines in Ne-like Ge Plasma Obtained from the Double-Target-Coupling Designa

Tables Icon

Table 2 GL/P Values at 23.6 nm Obtained from Ne-like Ge X-Ray Laser Experiments at Various Laboratories

Equations (1)

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I pi = I 0 [ exp ( G L i ) - 1 ] 3 / 2 / [ G L i exp ( G L i ) ] 1 / 2

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