Abstract

We observed, for the first time to our knowledge, soft-x-ray 3p–3s lasing in neonlike zinc and arsenic in the wavelength interval 212–267 Å, with gain coefficients ranging from 2.0 to 5.4 cm−1. Also, spectral lines were observed in neonlike gallium at the wavelengths predicted for lasing. A single-beam, driving laser (λ = 1.05 μm) at pulse energies of up to 500 J, with rise times of ~0.6 ns and pulse durations of 1–2 ns, was used with slab targets. Time-integrated diagnostics were used. We discuss the refractive bending of the lasing beams, the importance of the rise time of the driving laser pulse, and the interferometric measurement of the electron density gradients and density distributions of the lasant plasma.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffmann, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. D. Rosen, P. L. Hagelstein, D. L. Matthews, E. M. Campbell, A. U. Hazi, B. L. Whitten, B. MacGowan, R. E. Turner, R. W. Lee, “Exploding-foil technique for achieving a soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 106–109 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. T. N. Lee, E. A. McLean, R. C. Elton, “Soft x-ray lasing in neon-like germanium and copper plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1185–1188 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. T. N. Lee, E. A. McLean, J. A. Stamper, H. R. Griem, C. K. Manka, “Laser driven soft x-ray laser experiments at NRL,” Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 33, 1920 (1988).
  5. S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, H. Milchberg, C. Keane, D. Voorhees, “Amplification of stimulated soft x-ray emission in a confined plasma column,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1753–1756 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, A. Carillon, A. Klisnick, A. Surean, H. Guennou, “Soft x-ray amplification by lithiumlike ions in recombining hot plasmas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 563–574 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. Jacoby, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, L. D. Shorrock, G. J. Tallents, “Observation of gain in a possible extreme ultraviolet lasing system,” Opt. Commun. 37, 193–196 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Y. Kato, M. Yamanaka, H. Daido, T. Tachi, H. Nishimura, H. Shiraga, E. Miura, P. R. Herman, H. Takabe, T. Titsuno, M. Takagi, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, M. H. Key, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Rose, “Amplification in Na xi Ha, Mg xii Ha, and AL xiii Ha transitions,” in Short Wavelength Coherent Radiation: Generation and Applications, R. W. Falcone, J. Kirz, eds., Vol. 2 of 1989 OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), pp. 47–51.
  10. T. Hara, K. Ando, N. Kusakabe, H. Yashiro, Y. Aoyagi, “Soft x-ray lasing in an Al plasma produced by a 64 laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 1010–1012 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  11. B. Yaakobi, T. Boehly, J. Wang, R. Epstein, R. S. Craxton, “Observation of x-ray gain in collisionally excited germanium targets,” Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 34, 1914 (1989).
  12. Z. Lin, W. Yu, W. Tan, W. Chen, Y. Zheng, M. Gu, H. Zhang, G. Wang, J. Tsui, R. Cheng, X. Deng, “A new target configuration producing on effective population inversion at energy levels of Mg xi 1s 3p and 1s 4p.” Opt. Commun. 65, 445–451 (1988).
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  14. J. C. Moreno, H. R. Griem, S. Goldsmith, J. Knauer, “Measurements of gain and line broadening in lithiumlike aluminum,” Phys. Rev. A. 39, 6033–6036 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. Grande, M. H. Key, G. Kiehn, C. L. S. Lewis, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, C. Regan, S. J. Rose, R. Smith, T. Tomie, O. Willi, “Measurement and detailed analysis of single pass gain at 81 Å in a recombining laser produced fluorine plasma,” Opt. Commun. 74, 309–312 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. J. Keane, N. M. Ceglio, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, D. G. Nilson, J. E. Trebes, D. A. Whelan, “Soft x-ray laser source developments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory,” J. Phys. B 22, 3343–3362 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. H. Key, “Laboratory production of x-ray lasers,” Nature (London) 316, 314–319 (1985).
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  18. Further references are given in R. C. Elton, X-Ray Lasers, (Academic, New York, 1990); S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, “Soft x-ray lasers and their applications,” Science 247, 1553–1557 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. A. N. Zherikhin, K. N. Koshelev, V. S. Letokhov, “Gain in the far vacuum ultraviolet region due to transitions in multiply charged ions,” Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 3, 152 (1976) [Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 6, 82 (1976)].
  20. A recent cooperative experiment between the Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory and the Naval Research Laboratory produced time-resolved data of soft-x-ray lasing in germanium plasmas. These measurements are reported in an paper by D. M. O’Neill, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Uhomoibhi, M. H. Key, A. MacPhee, G. J. Tallents, S. A. Ramsden, A. Rogoyski, E. A. McLean, G. J. Pert, “Characterization of soft x-ray amplification observed in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 75, 406–412 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  21. T. N. Lee, W. A. Molander, J. L. Ford, R. C. Elton, “X-ray spectroscopic diagnostics of a copper plasma produced by a laser line focused onto a thin foil,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 2052–2054 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  22. R. C. Elton, T. N. Lee, W. A. Molander, “X-ray laser experiments using laser-vaporized copper-foil plasmas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 4, 539–546 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  23. M. H. Key, W. T. Toner, T. J. Goldsack, J. D. Kilkenny, S. A. Veats, P. F. Cunningham, C. L. S. Lewis, “A study of ablation by laser irradiation of plane targets at wavelengths 1.05, 0.53, and 0.35 μ m,” Phys. Fluids 26, 2011 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  24. J. A. Stamper, R. H. Lehmberg, A. Schmitt, M. J. Herbst, F. C. Young, J. H. Gardner, S. P. Obenschain, “Evidence in the second-harmonic emission for self-focusing of a laser pulse in a plasma,” Phys. Fluids 28, 2563–2569 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  25. O. Willi, P. T. Rumsby, “Filamentation on laser irradiated spherical targets,” Opt. Commun. 37, 45–48 (1981); S. E. Coe, T. Afshar-Rad, O. Willi, “Direct observations of filamentation and self-focusing in a large underdense plasma,” Opt. Commun. 73, 299–303 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  26. Z.-Z. Xu, S.-S. Chen, L.-H. Lin, Z.-M. Jian, W.-Q. Zhang, A.-d. Qian, “Characteristics and evolution of plasma-jet-like structures in line-focused laser-produced plasmas,” Phys. Rev. A. 39, 808–815 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. G. J. Linford, E. R. Peressini, W. R. Sooy, M. L. Spaeth, “Very long lasers,” Appl. Opt. 13, 379–390 (1974).
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  28. J. H. Scofield, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California (personal communication, 1986).
  29. J. A. Corgordan, S. Lunell, “Energies of 2p53s 3p and 3d levels of neon-like ions from relativistic MCDF calculations, 20 ≤ Z≤ 54,” Phys. Scr. 33, 406–411 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  30. B. L. Whitten, R. A. London, R. S. Walling, “Scaling of neonlike lasers using exploding foil targets,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 2537–2547 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  31. U. Feldman, J. F. Seely, A. K. Bhatia, “Scaling of collisonally pumped 3s–3p lasers in the neon isoelectronic sequence,” J. Appl. Phys. 56, 2475–2478 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  32. R. A. London, M. D. Rosen, M. S. Maxon, D. C. Eder, P. L. Hagelstein, “Theory and design of soft x-ray laser experiments at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory,” J. Phys. B 22, 3363–3376 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  33. H. Gordon, M. G. Hobby, N. J. Peacock, “Classification of the x-ray spectra of transitions in the Ne, F and Oi isoelectronic sequences of the elements from iron to bromine and in the Nai isoelectronic sequence of gallium to bromine,” J. Phys. B 13, 1985–1999 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  34. R. S. Craxton, “Caser—A new code for calculating, the x-ray laser emission from line-focus plasmas,” Lab. Laser Energet. Rev. 38, 88–89, (1989).
  35. B. L. Whitten, A. U. Hazi, C. J. Keane, R. A. London, B. J. MacGowan, T. W. Phillips, M. D. Rosen, D. A. Whelan, “Interim report of the J= 0 task force,” (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California, August25, 1987).
  36. J. A. Stamper, E. A. Mclean, S. P. Obenschain, B. H. Ripin, “Concepts and illustrations of optical probing diagnostics for laser-produced plasmas,” in Optical Measurements, J. E. Thompson, L. H. Luessen, eds., Vol. II of Fast Electrical and Optical Measurements (Nijhoff, Boston, Mass., 1986), pp. 691–728.
  37. G. J. Tallents, “Interferometry and refraction measurements in plasmas of elliptical cross-section,” J. Phys. D 17, 721–732 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  38. F. C. Jahoda, G. A. Sawyer, “Optical refractivity in plasmas,” in Plasma Physics, L. Marton, ed., Vol. 9 of Methods of Experimental Physics (Academic, New York, 1971), Part B, pp. 1–48.
    [CrossRef]

1990 (2)

M. Grande, M. H. Key, G. Kiehn, C. L. S. Lewis, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, C. Regan, S. J. Rose, R. Smith, T. Tomie, O. Willi, “Measurement and detailed analysis of single pass gain at 81 Å in a recombining laser produced fluorine plasma,” Opt. Commun. 74, 309–312 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A recent cooperative experiment between the Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory and the Naval Research Laboratory produced time-resolved data of soft-x-ray lasing in germanium plasmas. These measurements are reported in an paper by D. M. O’Neill, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Uhomoibhi, M. H. Key, A. MacPhee, G. J. Tallents, S. A. Ramsden, A. Rogoyski, E. A. McLean, G. J. Pert, “Characterization of soft x-ray amplification observed in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 75, 406–412 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (8)

Z. Xu, Z. Zhang, P. Fan, S. Chen, L. Lin, P. Lu, X. Feng, X. Wang, J. Zhou, A. Qian, “Soft x-ray gain measurements in recombining laser-produced plasmas,” Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 34, 2096 (1989).

J. C. Moreno, H. R. Griem, S. Goldsmith, J. Knauer, “Measurements of gain and line broadening in lithiumlike aluminum,” Phys. Rev. A. 39, 6033–6036 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Keane, N. M. Ceglio, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, D. G. Nilson, J. E. Trebes, D. A. Whelan, “Soft x-ray laser source developments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory,” J. Phys. B 22, 3343–3362 (1989).
[CrossRef]

T. Hara, K. Ando, N. Kusakabe, H. Yashiro, Y. Aoyagi, “Soft x-ray lasing in an Al plasma produced by a 64 laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 1010–1012 (1989).
[CrossRef]

B. Yaakobi, T. Boehly, J. Wang, R. Epstein, R. S. Craxton, “Observation of x-ray gain in collisionally excited germanium targets,” Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 34, 1914 (1989).

Z.-Z. Xu, S.-S. Chen, L.-H. Lin, Z.-M. Jian, W.-Q. Zhang, A.-d. Qian, “Characteristics and evolution of plasma-jet-like structures in line-focused laser-produced plasmas,” Phys. Rev. A. 39, 808–815 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. London, M. D. Rosen, M. S. Maxon, D. C. Eder, P. L. Hagelstein, “Theory and design of soft x-ray laser experiments at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory,” J. Phys. B 22, 3363–3376 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Craxton, “Caser—A new code for calculating, the x-ray laser emission from line-focus plasmas,” Lab. Laser Energet. Rev. 38, 88–89, (1989).

1988 (3)

T. N. Lee, E. A. McLean, J. A. Stamper, H. R. Griem, C. K. Manka, “Laser driven soft x-ray laser experiments at NRL,” Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 33, 1920 (1988).

B. L. Whitten, R. A. London, R. S. Walling, “Scaling of neonlike lasers using exploding foil targets,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 2537–2547 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Z. Lin, W. Yu, W. Tan, W. Chen, Y. Zheng, M. Gu, H. Zhang, G. Wang, J. Tsui, R. Cheng, X. Deng, “A new target configuration producing on effective population inversion at energy levels of Mg xi 1s 3p and 1s 4p.” Opt. Commun. 65, 445–451 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (4)

C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Corbett, C. J. Hooker, M. H. Key, G. P. Kiehn, C. L. S. Lewis, J. G. Pert, C. Regan, S. J. Rose, S. Sadaat, R. Smith, T. Tomie, O. Willi, “Laser amplification at 18.2 nm, in recombining plasma from a laser-irradiated carbon fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2161–2164 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Elton, T. N. Lee, W. A. Molander, “X-ray laser experiments using laser-vaporized copper-foil plasmas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 4, 539–546 (1987).
[CrossRef]

T. N. Lee, E. A. McLean, R. C. Elton, “Soft x-ray lasing in neon-like germanium and copper plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1185–1188 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, A. Carillon, A. Klisnick, A. Surean, H. Guennou, “Soft x-ray amplification by lithiumlike ions in recombining hot plasmas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 563–574 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

J. A. Corgordan, S. Lunell, “Energies of 2p53s 3p and 3d levels of neon-like ions from relativistic MCDF calculations, 20 ≤ Z≤ 54,” Phys. Scr. 33, 406–411 (1986).
[CrossRef]

T. N. Lee, W. A. Molander, J. L. Ford, R. C. Elton, “X-ray spectroscopic diagnostics of a copper plasma produced by a laser line focused onto a thin foil,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 2052–2054 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (5)

J. A. Stamper, R. H. Lehmberg, A. Schmitt, M. J. Herbst, F. C. Young, J. H. Gardner, S. P. Obenschain, “Evidence in the second-harmonic emission for self-focusing of a laser pulse in a plasma,” Phys. Fluids 28, 2563–2569 (1985).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Key, “Laboratory production of x-ray lasers,” Nature (London) 316, 314–319 (1985).
[CrossRef]

S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, H. Milchberg, C. Keane, D. Voorhees, “Amplification of stimulated soft x-ray emission in a confined plasma column,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1753–1756 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffmann, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Rosen, P. L. Hagelstein, D. L. Matthews, E. M. Campbell, A. U. Hazi, B. L. Whitten, B. MacGowan, R. E. Turner, R. W. Lee, “Exploding-foil technique for achieving a soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 106–109 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (2)

U. Feldman, J. F. Seely, A. K. Bhatia, “Scaling of collisonally pumped 3s–3p lasers in the neon isoelectronic sequence,” J. Appl. Phys. 56, 2475–2478 (1984).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tallents, “Interferometry and refraction measurements in plasmas of elliptical cross-section,” J. Phys. D 17, 721–732 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

M. H. Key, W. T. Toner, T. J. Goldsack, J. D. Kilkenny, S. A. Veats, P. F. Cunningham, C. L. S. Lewis, “A study of ablation by laser irradiation of plane targets at wavelengths 1.05, 0.53, and 0.35 μ m,” Phys. Fluids 26, 2011 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981 (2)

O. Willi, P. T. Rumsby, “Filamentation on laser irradiated spherical targets,” Opt. Commun. 37, 45–48 (1981); S. E. Coe, T. Afshar-Rad, O. Willi, “Direct observations of filamentation and self-focusing in a large underdense plasma,” Opt. Commun. 73, 299–303 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. Jacoby, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, L. D. Shorrock, G. J. Tallents, “Observation of gain in a possible extreme ultraviolet lasing system,” Opt. Commun. 37, 193–196 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

H. Gordon, M. G. Hobby, N. J. Peacock, “Classification of the x-ray spectra of transitions in the Ne, F and Oi isoelectronic sequences of the elements from iron to bromine and in the Nai isoelectronic sequence of gallium to bromine,” J. Phys. B 13, 1985–1999 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

A. N. Zherikhin, K. N. Koshelev, V. S. Letokhov, “Gain in the far vacuum ultraviolet region due to transitions in multiply charged ions,” Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 3, 152 (1976) [Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 6, 82 (1976)].

1974 (1)

Ando, K.

T. Hara, K. Ando, N. Kusakabe, H. Yashiro, Y. Aoyagi, “Soft x-ray lasing in an Al plasma produced by a 64 laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 1010–1012 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Aoyagi, Y.

T. Hara, K. Ando, N. Kusakabe, H. Yashiro, Y. Aoyagi, “Soft x-ray lasing in an Al plasma produced by a 64 laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 1010–1012 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Bhatia, A. K.

U. Feldman, J. F. Seely, A. K. Bhatia, “Scaling of collisonally pumped 3s–3p lasers in the neon isoelectronic sequence,” J. Appl. Phys. 56, 2475–2478 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Boehly, T.

B. Yaakobi, T. Boehly, J. Wang, R. Epstein, R. S. Craxton, “Observation of x-ray gain in collisionally excited germanium targets,” Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 34, 1914 (1989).

Campbell, E. M.

M. D. Rosen, P. L. Hagelstein, D. L. Matthews, E. M. Campbell, A. U. Hazi, B. L. Whitten, B. MacGowan, R. E. Turner, R. W. Lee, “Exploding-foil technique for achieving a soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 106–109 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffmann, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carillon, A.

Ceglio, N. M.

C. J. Keane, N. M. Ceglio, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, D. G. Nilson, J. E. Trebes, D. A. Whelan, “Soft x-ray laser source developments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory,” J. Phys. B 22, 3343–3362 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffmann, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, S.

Z. Xu, Z. Zhang, P. Fan, S. Chen, L. Lin, P. Lu, X. Feng, X. Wang, J. Zhou, A. Qian, “Soft x-ray gain measurements in recombining laser-produced plasmas,” Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 34, 2096 (1989).

Chen, S.-S.

Z.-Z. Xu, S.-S. Chen, L.-H. Lin, Z.-M. Jian, W.-Q. Zhang, A.-d. Qian, “Characteristics and evolution of plasma-jet-like structures in line-focused laser-produced plasmas,” Phys. Rev. A. 39, 808–815 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, W.

Z. Lin, W. Yu, W. Tan, W. Chen, Y. Zheng, M. Gu, H. Zhang, G. Wang, J. Tsui, R. Cheng, X. Deng, “A new target configuration producing on effective population inversion at energy levels of Mg xi 1s 3p and 1s 4p.” Opt. Commun. 65, 445–451 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Chenais-Popovics, C.

C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Corbett, C. J. Hooker, M. H. Key, G. P. Kiehn, C. L. S. Lewis, J. G. Pert, C. Regan, S. J. Rose, S. Sadaat, R. Smith, T. Tomie, O. Willi, “Laser amplification at 18.2 nm, in recombining plasma from a laser-irradiated carbon fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2161–2164 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, R.

Z. Lin, W. Yu, W. Tan, W. Chen, Y. Zheng, M. Gu, H. Zhang, G. Wang, J. Tsui, R. Cheng, X. Deng, “A new target configuration producing on effective population inversion at energy levels of Mg xi 1s 3p and 1s 4p.” Opt. Commun. 65, 445–451 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Corbett, R.

C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Corbett, C. J. Hooker, M. H. Key, G. P. Kiehn, C. L. S. Lewis, J. G. Pert, C. Regan, S. J. Rose, S. Sadaat, R. Smith, T. Tomie, O. Willi, “Laser amplification at 18.2 nm, in recombining plasma from a laser-irradiated carbon fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2161–2164 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corgordan, J. A.

J. A. Corgordan, S. Lunell, “Energies of 2p53s 3p and 3d levels of neon-like ions from relativistic MCDF calculations, 20 ≤ Z≤ 54,” Phys. Scr. 33, 406–411 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Craxton, R. S.

B. Yaakobi, T. Boehly, J. Wang, R. Epstein, R. S. Craxton, “Observation of x-ray gain in collisionally excited germanium targets,” Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 34, 1914 (1989).

R. S. Craxton, “Caser—A new code for calculating, the x-ray laser emission from line-focus plasmas,” Lab. Laser Energet. Rev. 38, 88–89, (1989).

Cunningham, P. F.

M. H. Key, W. T. Toner, T. J. Goldsack, J. D. Kilkenny, S. A. Veats, P. F. Cunningham, C. L. S. Lewis, “A study of ablation by laser irradiation of plane targets at wavelengths 1.05, 0.53, and 0.35 μ m,” Phys. Fluids 26, 2011 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Daido, H.

Y. Kato, M. Yamanaka, H. Daido, T. Tachi, H. Nishimura, H. Shiraga, E. Miura, P. R. Herman, H. Takabe, T. Titsuno, M. Takagi, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, M. H. Key, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Rose, “Amplification in Na xi Ha, Mg xii Ha, and AL xiii Ha transitions,” in Short Wavelength Coherent Radiation: Generation and Applications, R. W. Falcone, J. Kirz, eds., Vol. 2 of 1989 OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), pp. 47–51.

Deng, X.

Z. Lin, W. Yu, W. Tan, W. Chen, Y. Zheng, M. Gu, H. Zhang, G. Wang, J. Tsui, R. Cheng, X. Deng, “A new target configuration producing on effective population inversion at energy levels of Mg xi 1s 3p and 1s 4p.” Opt. Commun. 65, 445–451 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Eckart, M. J.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffmann, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eder, D. C.

R. A. London, M. D. Rosen, M. S. Maxon, D. C. Eder, P. L. Hagelstein, “Theory and design of soft x-ray laser experiments at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory,” J. Phys. B 22, 3363–3376 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Elton, R. C.

T. N. Lee, E. A. McLean, R. C. Elton, “Soft x-ray lasing in neon-like germanium and copper plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1185–1188 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Elton, T. N. Lee, W. A. Molander, “X-ray laser experiments using laser-vaporized copper-foil plasmas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 4, 539–546 (1987).
[CrossRef]

T. N. Lee, W. A. Molander, J. L. Ford, R. C. Elton, “X-ray spectroscopic diagnostics of a copper plasma produced by a laser line focused onto a thin foil,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 2052–2054 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Further references are given in R. C. Elton, X-Ray Lasers, (Academic, New York, 1990); S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, “Soft x-ray lasers and their applications,” Science 247, 1553–1557 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Epstein, R.

B. Yaakobi, T. Boehly, J. Wang, R. Epstein, R. S. Craxton, “Observation of x-ray gain in collisionally excited germanium targets,” Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 34, 1914 (1989).

Fan, P.

Z. Xu, Z. Zhang, P. Fan, S. Chen, L. Lin, P. Lu, X. Feng, X. Wang, J. Zhou, A. Qian, “Soft x-ray gain measurements in recombining laser-produced plasmas,” Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 34, 2096 (1989).

Feldman, U.

U. Feldman, J. F. Seely, A. K. Bhatia, “Scaling of collisonally pumped 3s–3p lasers in the neon isoelectronic sequence,” J. Appl. Phys. 56, 2475–2478 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Feng, X.

Z. Xu, Z. Zhang, P. Fan, S. Chen, L. Lin, P. Lu, X. Feng, X. Wang, J. Zhou, A. Qian, “Soft x-ray gain measurements in recombining laser-produced plasmas,” Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 34, 2096 (1989).

Ford, J. L.

T. N. Lee, W. A. Molander, J. L. Ford, R. C. Elton, “X-ray spectroscopic diagnostics of a copper plasma produced by a laser line focused onto a thin foil,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 2052–2054 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Gardner, J. H.

J. A. Stamper, R. H. Lehmberg, A. Schmitt, M. J. Herbst, F. C. Young, J. H. Gardner, S. P. Obenschain, “Evidence in the second-harmonic emission for self-focusing of a laser pulse in a plasma,” Phys. Fluids 28, 2563–2569 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Goldsack, T. J.

M. H. Key, W. T. Toner, T. J. Goldsack, J. D. Kilkenny, S. A. Veats, P. F. Cunningham, C. L. S. Lewis, “A study of ablation by laser irradiation of plane targets at wavelengths 1.05, 0.53, and 0.35 μ m,” Phys. Fluids 26, 2011 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Goldsmith, S.

J. C. Moreno, H. R. Griem, S. Goldsmith, J. Knauer, “Measurements of gain and line broadening in lithiumlike aluminum,” Phys. Rev. A. 39, 6033–6036 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gordon, H.

H. Gordon, M. G. Hobby, N. J. Peacock, “Classification of the x-ray spectra of transitions in the Ne, F and Oi isoelectronic sequences of the elements from iron to bromine and in the Nai isoelectronic sequence of gallium to bromine,” J. Phys. B 13, 1985–1999 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Grande, M.

M. Grande, M. H. Key, G. Kiehn, C. L. S. Lewis, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, C. Regan, S. J. Rose, R. Smith, T. Tomie, O. Willi, “Measurement and detailed analysis of single pass gain at 81 Å in a recombining laser produced fluorine plasma,” Opt. Commun. 74, 309–312 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Griem, H. R.

J. C. Moreno, H. R. Griem, S. Goldsmith, J. Knauer, “Measurements of gain and line broadening in lithiumlike aluminum,” Phys. Rev. A. 39, 6033–6036 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. N. Lee, E. A. McLean, J. A. Stamper, H. R. Griem, C. K. Manka, “Laser driven soft x-ray laser experiments at NRL,” Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 33, 1920 (1988).

Gu, M.

Z. Lin, W. Yu, W. Tan, W. Chen, Y. Zheng, M. Gu, H. Zhang, G. Wang, J. Tsui, R. Cheng, X. Deng, “A new target configuration producing on effective population inversion at energy levels of Mg xi 1s 3p and 1s 4p.” Opt. Commun. 65, 445–451 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Guennou, H.

Hagelstein, P. L.

R. A. London, M. D. Rosen, M. S. Maxon, D. C. Eder, P. L. Hagelstein, “Theory and design of soft x-ray laser experiments at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory,” J. Phys. B 22, 3363–3376 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffmann, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Rosen, P. L. Hagelstein, D. L. Matthews, E. M. Campbell, A. U. Hazi, B. L. Whitten, B. MacGowan, R. E. Turner, R. W. Lee, “Exploding-foil technique for achieving a soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 106–109 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hara, T.

T. Hara, K. Ando, N. Kusakabe, H. Yashiro, Y. Aoyagi, “Soft x-ray lasing in an Al plasma produced by a 64 laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 1010–1012 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hatcher, C. W.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffmann, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hawryluk, A. M.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffmann, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hazi, A. U.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffmann, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Rosen, P. L. Hagelstein, D. L. Matthews, E. M. Campbell, A. U. Hazi, B. L. Whitten, B. MacGowan, R. E. Turner, R. W. Lee, “Exploding-foil technique for achieving a soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 106–109 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. L. Whitten, A. U. Hazi, C. J. Keane, R. A. London, B. J. MacGowan, T. W. Phillips, M. D. Rosen, D. A. Whelan, “Interim report of the J= 0 task force,” (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California, August25, 1987).

Herbst, M. J.

J. A. Stamper, R. H. Lehmberg, A. Schmitt, M. J. Herbst, F. C. Young, J. H. Gardner, S. P. Obenschain, “Evidence in the second-harmonic emission for self-focusing of a laser pulse in a plasma,” Phys. Fluids 28, 2563–2569 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Herman, P. R.

Y. Kato, M. Yamanaka, H. Daido, T. Tachi, H. Nishimura, H. Shiraga, E. Miura, P. R. Herman, H. Takabe, T. Titsuno, M. Takagi, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, M. H. Key, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Rose, “Amplification in Na xi Ha, Mg xii Ha, and AL xiii Ha transitions,” in Short Wavelength Coherent Radiation: Generation and Applications, R. W. Falcone, J. Kirz, eds., Vol. 2 of 1989 OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), pp. 47–51.

Hobby, M. G.

H. Gordon, M. G. Hobby, N. J. Peacock, “Classification of the x-ray spectra of transitions in the Ne, F and Oi isoelectronic sequences of the elements from iron to bromine and in the Nai isoelectronic sequence of gallium to bromine,” J. Phys. B 13, 1985–1999 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Hooker, C. J.

C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Corbett, C. J. Hooker, M. H. Key, G. P. Kiehn, C. L. S. Lewis, J. G. Pert, C. Regan, S. J. Rose, S. Sadaat, R. Smith, T. Tomie, O. Willi, “Laser amplification at 18.2 nm, in recombining plasma from a laser-irradiated carbon fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2161–2164 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacoby, D.

D. Jacoby, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, L. D. Shorrock, G. J. Tallents, “Observation of gain in a possible extreme ultraviolet lasing system,” Opt. Commun. 37, 193–196 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Jaeglé, P.

Jahoda, F. C.

F. C. Jahoda, G. A. Sawyer, “Optical refractivity in plasmas,” in Plasma Physics, L. Marton, ed., Vol. 9 of Methods of Experimental Physics (Academic, New York, 1971), Part B, pp. 1–48.
[CrossRef]

Jamelot, G.

Jian, Z.-M.

Z.-Z. Xu, S.-S. Chen, L.-H. Lin, Z.-M. Jian, W.-Q. Zhang, A.-d. Qian, “Characteristics and evolution of plasma-jet-like structures in line-focused laser-produced plasmas,” Phys. Rev. A. 39, 808–815 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kato, Y.

Y. Kato, M. Yamanaka, H. Daido, T. Tachi, H. Nishimura, H. Shiraga, E. Miura, P. R. Herman, H. Takabe, T. Titsuno, M. Takagi, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, M. H. Key, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Rose, “Amplification in Na xi Ha, Mg xii Ha, and AL xiii Ha transitions,” in Short Wavelength Coherent Radiation: Generation and Applications, R. W. Falcone, J. Kirz, eds., Vol. 2 of 1989 OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), pp. 47–51.

Kauffmann, R. L.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffmann, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keane, C.

S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, H. Milchberg, C. Keane, D. Voorhees, “Amplification of stimulated soft x-ray emission in a confined plasma column,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1753–1756 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keane, C. J.

C. J. Keane, N. M. Ceglio, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, D. G. Nilson, J. E. Trebes, D. A. Whelan, “Soft x-ray laser source developments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory,” J. Phys. B 22, 3343–3362 (1989).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Whitten, A. U. Hazi, C. J. Keane, R. A. London, B. J. MacGowan, T. W. Phillips, M. D. Rosen, D. A. Whelan, “Interim report of the J= 0 task force,” (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California, August25, 1987).

Key, M. H.

A recent cooperative experiment between the Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory and the Naval Research Laboratory produced time-resolved data of soft-x-ray lasing in germanium plasmas. These measurements are reported in an paper by D. M. O’Neill, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Uhomoibhi, M. H. Key, A. MacPhee, G. J. Tallents, S. A. Ramsden, A. Rogoyski, E. A. McLean, G. J. Pert, “Characterization of soft x-ray amplification observed in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 75, 406–412 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Grande, M. H. Key, G. Kiehn, C. L. S. Lewis, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, C. Regan, S. J. Rose, R. Smith, T. Tomie, O. Willi, “Measurement and detailed analysis of single pass gain at 81 Å in a recombining laser produced fluorine plasma,” Opt. Commun. 74, 309–312 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Corbett, C. J. Hooker, M. H. Key, G. P. Kiehn, C. L. S. Lewis, J. G. Pert, C. Regan, S. J. Rose, S. Sadaat, R. Smith, T. Tomie, O. Willi, “Laser amplification at 18.2 nm, in recombining plasma from a laser-irradiated carbon fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2161–2164 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H. Key, “Laboratory production of x-ray lasers,” Nature (London) 316, 314–319 (1985).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Key, W. T. Toner, T. J. Goldsack, J. D. Kilkenny, S. A. Veats, P. F. Cunningham, C. L. S. Lewis, “A study of ablation by laser irradiation of plane targets at wavelengths 1.05, 0.53, and 0.35 μ m,” Phys. Fluids 26, 2011 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kato, M. Yamanaka, H. Daido, T. Tachi, H. Nishimura, H. Shiraga, E. Miura, P. R. Herman, H. Takabe, T. Titsuno, M. Takagi, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, M. H. Key, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Rose, “Amplification in Na xi Ha, Mg xii Ha, and AL xiii Ha transitions,” in Short Wavelength Coherent Radiation: Generation and Applications, R. W. Falcone, J. Kirz, eds., Vol. 2 of 1989 OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), pp. 47–51.

Kiehn, G.

M. Grande, M. H. Key, G. Kiehn, C. L. S. Lewis, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, C. Regan, S. J. Rose, R. Smith, T. Tomie, O. Willi, “Measurement and detailed analysis of single pass gain at 81 Å in a recombining laser produced fluorine plasma,” Opt. Commun. 74, 309–312 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kiehn, G. P.

C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Corbett, C. J. Hooker, M. H. Key, G. P. Kiehn, C. L. S. Lewis, J. G. Pert, C. Regan, S. J. Rose, S. Sadaat, R. Smith, T. Tomie, O. Willi, “Laser amplification at 18.2 nm, in recombining plasma from a laser-irradiated carbon fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2161–2164 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kilkenny, J. D.

M. H. Key, W. T. Toner, T. J. Goldsack, J. D. Kilkenny, S. A. Veats, P. F. Cunningham, C. L. S. Lewis, “A study of ablation by laser irradiation of plane targets at wavelengths 1.05, 0.53, and 0.35 μ m,” Phys. Fluids 26, 2011 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Klisnick, A.

Knauer, J.

J. C. Moreno, H. R. Griem, S. Goldsmith, J. Knauer, “Measurements of gain and line broadening in lithiumlike aluminum,” Phys. Rev. A. 39, 6033–6036 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koshelev, K. N.

A. N. Zherikhin, K. N. Koshelev, V. S. Letokhov, “Gain in the far vacuum ultraviolet region due to transitions in multiply charged ions,” Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 3, 152 (1976) [Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 6, 82 (1976)].

Kusakabe, N.

T. Hara, K. Ando, N. Kusakabe, H. Yashiro, Y. Aoyagi, “Soft x-ray lasing in an Al plasma produced by a 64 laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 1010–1012 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lee, R. W.

M. D. Rosen, P. L. Hagelstein, D. L. Matthews, E. M. Campbell, A. U. Hazi, B. L. Whitten, B. MacGowan, R. E. Turner, R. W. Lee, “Exploding-foil technique for achieving a soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 106–109 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, T. N.

T. N. Lee, E. A. McLean, J. A. Stamper, H. R. Griem, C. K. Manka, “Laser driven soft x-ray laser experiments at NRL,” Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 33, 1920 (1988).

R. C. Elton, T. N. Lee, W. A. Molander, “X-ray laser experiments using laser-vaporized copper-foil plasmas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 4, 539–546 (1987).
[CrossRef]

T. N. Lee, E. A. McLean, R. C. Elton, “Soft x-ray lasing in neon-like germanium and copper plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1185–1188 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. N. Lee, W. A. Molander, J. L. Ford, R. C. Elton, “X-ray spectroscopic diagnostics of a copper plasma produced by a laser line focused onto a thin foil,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 2052–2054 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Lehmberg, R. H.

J. A. Stamper, R. H. Lehmberg, A. Schmitt, M. J. Herbst, F. C. Young, J. H. Gardner, S. P. Obenschain, “Evidence in the second-harmonic emission for self-focusing of a laser pulse in a plasma,” Phys. Fluids 28, 2563–2569 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Letokhov, V. S.

A. N. Zherikhin, K. N. Koshelev, V. S. Letokhov, “Gain in the far vacuum ultraviolet region due to transitions in multiply charged ions,” Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 3, 152 (1976) [Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 6, 82 (1976)].

Lewis, C. L. S.

M. Grande, M. H. Key, G. Kiehn, C. L. S. Lewis, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, C. Regan, S. J. Rose, R. Smith, T. Tomie, O. Willi, “Measurement and detailed analysis of single pass gain at 81 Å in a recombining laser produced fluorine plasma,” Opt. Commun. 74, 309–312 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A recent cooperative experiment between the Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory and the Naval Research Laboratory produced time-resolved data of soft-x-ray lasing in germanium plasmas. These measurements are reported in an paper by D. M. O’Neill, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Uhomoibhi, M. H. Key, A. MacPhee, G. J. Tallents, S. A. Ramsden, A. Rogoyski, E. A. McLean, G. J. Pert, “Characterization of soft x-ray amplification observed in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 75, 406–412 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Corbett, C. J. Hooker, M. H. Key, G. P. Kiehn, C. L. S. Lewis, J. G. Pert, C. Regan, S. J. Rose, S. Sadaat, R. Smith, T. Tomie, O. Willi, “Laser amplification at 18.2 nm, in recombining plasma from a laser-irradiated carbon fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2161–2164 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H. Key, W. T. Toner, T. J. Goldsack, J. D. Kilkenny, S. A. Veats, P. F. Cunningham, C. L. S. Lewis, “A study of ablation by laser irradiation of plane targets at wavelengths 1.05, 0.53, and 0.35 μ m,” Phys. Fluids 26, 2011 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Lin, L.

Z. Xu, Z. Zhang, P. Fan, S. Chen, L. Lin, P. Lu, X. Feng, X. Wang, J. Zhou, A. Qian, “Soft x-ray gain measurements in recombining laser-produced plasmas,” Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 34, 2096 (1989).

Lin, L.-H.

Z.-Z. Xu, S.-S. Chen, L.-H. Lin, Z.-M. Jian, W.-Q. Zhang, A.-d. Qian, “Characteristics and evolution of plasma-jet-like structures in line-focused laser-produced plasmas,” Phys. Rev. A. 39, 808–815 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, Z.

Z. Lin, W. Yu, W. Tan, W. Chen, Y. Zheng, M. Gu, H. Zhang, G. Wang, J. Tsui, R. Cheng, X. Deng, “A new target configuration producing on effective population inversion at energy levels of Mg xi 1s 3p and 1s 4p.” Opt. Commun. 65, 445–451 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Linford, G. J.

London, R. A.

R. A. London, M. D. Rosen, M. S. Maxon, D. C. Eder, P. L. Hagelstein, “Theory and design of soft x-ray laser experiments at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory,” J. Phys. B 22, 3363–3376 (1989).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Whitten, R. A. London, R. S. Walling, “Scaling of neonlike lasers using exploding foil targets,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 2537–2547 (1988).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Whitten, A. U. Hazi, C. J. Keane, R. A. London, B. J. MacGowan, T. W. Phillips, M. D. Rosen, D. A. Whelan, “Interim report of the J= 0 task force,” (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California, August25, 1987).

Lu, P.

Z. Xu, Z. Zhang, P. Fan, S. Chen, L. Lin, P. Lu, X. Feng, X. Wang, J. Zhou, A. Qian, “Soft x-ray gain measurements in recombining laser-produced plasmas,” Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 34, 2096 (1989).

Lunell, S.

J. A. Corgordan, S. Lunell, “Energies of 2p53s 3p and 3d levels of neon-like ions from relativistic MCDF calculations, 20 ≤ Z≤ 54,” Phys. Scr. 33, 406–411 (1986).
[CrossRef]

MacGowan, B.

M. D. Rosen, P. L. Hagelstein, D. L. Matthews, E. M. Campbell, A. U. Hazi, B. L. Whitten, B. MacGowan, R. E. Turner, R. W. Lee, “Exploding-foil technique for achieving a soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 106–109 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacGowan, B. J.

C. J. Keane, N. M. Ceglio, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, D. G. Nilson, J. E. Trebes, D. A. Whelan, “Soft x-ray laser source developments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory,” J. Phys. B 22, 3343–3362 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffmann, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. L. Whitten, A. U. Hazi, C. J. Keane, R. A. London, B. J. MacGowan, T. W. Phillips, M. D. Rosen, D. A. Whelan, “Interim report of the J= 0 task force,” (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California, August25, 1987).

MacPhee, A.

A recent cooperative experiment between the Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory and the Naval Research Laboratory produced time-resolved data of soft-x-ray lasing in germanium plasmas. These measurements are reported in an paper by D. M. O’Neill, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Uhomoibhi, M. H. Key, A. MacPhee, G. J. Tallents, S. A. Ramsden, A. Rogoyski, E. A. McLean, G. J. Pert, “Characterization of soft x-ray amplification observed in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 75, 406–412 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Manka, C. K.

T. N. Lee, E. A. McLean, J. A. Stamper, H. R. Griem, C. K. Manka, “Laser driven soft x-ray laser experiments at NRL,” Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 33, 1920 (1988).

Matthews, D. L.

C. J. Keane, N. M. Ceglio, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, D. G. Nilson, J. E. Trebes, D. A. Whelan, “Soft x-ray laser source developments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory,” J. Phys. B 22, 3343–3362 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Rosen, P. L. Hagelstein, D. L. Matthews, E. M. Campbell, A. U. Hazi, B. L. Whitten, B. MacGowan, R. E. Turner, R. W. Lee, “Exploding-foil technique for achieving a soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 106–109 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffmann, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maxon, M. S.

R. A. London, M. D. Rosen, M. S. Maxon, D. C. Eder, P. L. Hagelstein, “Theory and design of soft x-ray laser experiments at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory,” J. Phys. B 22, 3363–3376 (1989).
[CrossRef]

McLean, E. A.

A recent cooperative experiment between the Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory and the Naval Research Laboratory produced time-resolved data of soft-x-ray lasing in germanium plasmas. These measurements are reported in an paper by D. M. O’Neill, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Uhomoibhi, M. H. Key, A. MacPhee, G. J. Tallents, S. A. Ramsden, A. Rogoyski, E. A. McLean, G. J. Pert, “Characterization of soft x-ray amplification observed in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 75, 406–412 (1990).
[CrossRef]

T. N. Lee, E. A. McLean, J. A. Stamper, H. R. Griem, C. K. Manka, “Laser driven soft x-ray laser experiments at NRL,” Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 33, 1920 (1988).

T. N. Lee, E. A. McLean, R. C. Elton, “Soft x-ray lasing in neon-like germanium and copper plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1185–1188 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Stamper, E. A. Mclean, S. P. Obenschain, B. H. Ripin, “Concepts and illustrations of optical probing diagnostics for laser-produced plasmas,” in Optical Measurements, J. E. Thompson, L. H. Luessen, eds., Vol. II of Fast Electrical and Optical Measurements (Nijhoff, Boston, Mass., 1986), pp. 691–728.

Medecki, H.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffmann, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milchberg, H.

S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, H. Milchberg, C. Keane, D. Voorhees, “Amplification of stimulated soft x-ray emission in a confined plasma column,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1753–1756 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miura, E.

Y. Kato, M. Yamanaka, H. Daido, T. Tachi, H. Nishimura, H. Shiraga, E. Miura, P. R. Herman, H. Takabe, T. Titsuno, M. Takagi, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, M. H. Key, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Rose, “Amplification in Na xi Ha, Mg xii Ha, and AL xiii Ha transitions,” in Short Wavelength Coherent Radiation: Generation and Applications, R. W. Falcone, J. Kirz, eds., Vol. 2 of 1989 OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), pp. 47–51.

Molander, W. A.

R. C. Elton, T. N. Lee, W. A. Molander, “X-ray laser experiments using laser-vaporized copper-foil plasmas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 4, 539–546 (1987).
[CrossRef]

T. N. Lee, W. A. Molander, J. L. Ford, R. C. Elton, “X-ray spectroscopic diagnostics of a copper plasma produced by a laser line focused onto a thin foil,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 2052–2054 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Moreno, J. C.

J. C. Moreno, H. R. Griem, S. Goldsmith, J. Knauer, “Measurements of gain and line broadening in lithiumlike aluminum,” Phys. Rev. A. 39, 6033–6036 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakai, S.

Y. Kato, M. Yamanaka, H. Daido, T. Tachi, H. Nishimura, H. Shiraga, E. Miura, P. R. Herman, H. Takabe, T. Titsuno, M. Takagi, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, M. H. Key, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Rose, “Amplification in Na xi Ha, Mg xii Ha, and AL xiii Ha transitions,” in Short Wavelength Coherent Radiation: Generation and Applications, R. W. Falcone, J. Kirz, eds., Vol. 2 of 1989 OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), pp. 47–51.

Neely, D.

A recent cooperative experiment between the Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory and the Naval Research Laboratory produced time-resolved data of soft-x-ray lasing in germanium plasmas. These measurements are reported in an paper by D. M. O’Neill, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Uhomoibhi, M. H. Key, A. MacPhee, G. J. Tallents, S. A. Ramsden, A. Rogoyski, E. A. McLean, G. J. Pert, “Characterization of soft x-ray amplification observed in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 75, 406–412 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Nilson, D. G.

C. J. Keane, N. M. Ceglio, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, D. G. Nilson, J. E. Trebes, D. A. Whelan, “Soft x-ray laser source developments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory,” J. Phys. B 22, 3343–3362 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Nishimura, H.

Y. Kato, M. Yamanaka, H. Daido, T. Tachi, H. Nishimura, H. Shiraga, E. Miura, P. R. Herman, H. Takabe, T. Titsuno, M. Takagi, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, M. H. Key, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Rose, “Amplification in Na xi Ha, Mg xii Ha, and AL xiii Ha transitions,” in Short Wavelength Coherent Radiation: Generation and Applications, R. W. Falcone, J. Kirz, eds., Vol. 2 of 1989 OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), pp. 47–51.

O’Neill, D. M.

A recent cooperative experiment between the Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory and the Naval Research Laboratory produced time-resolved data of soft-x-ray lasing in germanium plasmas. These measurements are reported in an paper by D. M. O’Neill, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Uhomoibhi, M. H. Key, A. MacPhee, G. J. Tallents, S. A. Ramsden, A. Rogoyski, E. A. McLean, G. J. Pert, “Characterization of soft x-ray amplification observed in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 75, 406–412 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Obenschain, S. P.

J. A. Stamper, R. H. Lehmberg, A. Schmitt, M. J. Herbst, F. C. Young, J. H. Gardner, S. P. Obenschain, “Evidence in the second-harmonic emission for self-focusing of a laser pulse in a plasma,” Phys. Fluids 28, 2563–2569 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Stamper, E. A. Mclean, S. P. Obenschain, B. H. Ripin, “Concepts and illustrations of optical probing diagnostics for laser-produced plasmas,” in Optical Measurements, J. E. Thompson, L. H. Luessen, eds., Vol. II of Fast Electrical and Optical Measurements (Nijhoff, Boston, Mass., 1986), pp. 691–728.

Peacock, N. J.

H. Gordon, M. G. Hobby, N. J. Peacock, “Classification of the x-ray spectra of transitions in the Ne, F and Oi isoelectronic sequences of the elements from iron to bromine and in the Nai isoelectronic sequence of gallium to bromine,” J. Phys. B 13, 1985–1999 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Peressini, E. R.

Pert, G. J.

A recent cooperative experiment between the Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory and the Naval Research Laboratory produced time-resolved data of soft-x-ray lasing in germanium plasmas. These measurements are reported in an paper by D. M. O’Neill, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Uhomoibhi, M. H. Key, A. MacPhee, G. J. Tallents, S. A. Ramsden, A. Rogoyski, E. A. McLean, G. J. Pert, “Characterization of soft x-ray amplification observed in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 75, 406–412 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Grande, M. H. Key, G. Kiehn, C. L. S. Lewis, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, C. Regan, S. J. Rose, R. Smith, T. Tomie, O. Willi, “Measurement and detailed analysis of single pass gain at 81 Å in a recombining laser produced fluorine plasma,” Opt. Commun. 74, 309–312 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. Jacoby, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, L. D. Shorrock, G. J. Tallents, “Observation of gain in a possible extreme ultraviolet lasing system,” Opt. Commun. 37, 193–196 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Pert, J. G.

C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Corbett, C. J. Hooker, M. H. Key, G. P. Kiehn, C. L. S. Lewis, J. G. Pert, C. Regan, S. J. Rose, S. Sadaat, R. Smith, T. Tomie, O. Willi, “Laser amplification at 18.2 nm, in recombining plasma from a laser-irradiated carbon fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2161–2164 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phillips, T. W.

B. L. Whitten, A. U. Hazi, C. J. Keane, R. A. London, B. J. MacGowan, T. W. Phillips, M. D. Rosen, D. A. Whelan, “Interim report of the J= 0 task force,” (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California, August25, 1987).

Pleasance, L. D.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffmann, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qian, A.

Z. Xu, Z. Zhang, P. Fan, S. Chen, L. Lin, P. Lu, X. Feng, X. Wang, J. Zhou, A. Qian, “Soft x-ray gain measurements in recombining laser-produced plasmas,” Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 34, 2096 (1989).

Qian, A.-d.

Z.-Z. Xu, S.-S. Chen, L.-H. Lin, Z.-M. Jian, W.-Q. Zhang, A.-d. Qian, “Characteristics and evolution of plasma-jet-like structures in line-focused laser-produced plasmas,” Phys. Rev. A. 39, 808–815 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rambach, G.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffmann, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramsden, S. A.

M. Grande, M. H. Key, G. Kiehn, C. L. S. Lewis, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, C. Regan, S. J. Rose, R. Smith, T. Tomie, O. Willi, “Measurement and detailed analysis of single pass gain at 81 Å in a recombining laser produced fluorine plasma,” Opt. Commun. 74, 309–312 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A recent cooperative experiment between the Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory and the Naval Research Laboratory produced time-resolved data of soft-x-ray lasing in germanium plasmas. These measurements are reported in an paper by D. M. O’Neill, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Uhomoibhi, M. H. Key, A. MacPhee, G. J. Tallents, S. A. Ramsden, A. Rogoyski, E. A. McLean, G. J. Pert, “Characterization of soft x-ray amplification observed in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 75, 406–412 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. Jacoby, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, L. D. Shorrock, G. J. Tallents, “Observation of gain in a possible extreme ultraviolet lasing system,” Opt. Commun. 37, 193–196 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Regan, C.

M. Grande, M. H. Key, G. Kiehn, C. L. S. Lewis, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, C. Regan, S. J. Rose, R. Smith, T. Tomie, O. Willi, “Measurement and detailed analysis of single pass gain at 81 Å in a recombining laser produced fluorine plasma,” Opt. Commun. 74, 309–312 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Corbett, C. J. Hooker, M. H. Key, G. P. Kiehn, C. L. S. Lewis, J. G. Pert, C. Regan, S. J. Rose, S. Sadaat, R. Smith, T. Tomie, O. Willi, “Laser amplification at 18.2 nm, in recombining plasma from a laser-irradiated carbon fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2161–2164 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ripin, B. H.

J. A. Stamper, E. A. Mclean, S. P. Obenschain, B. H. Ripin, “Concepts and illustrations of optical probing diagnostics for laser-produced plasmas,” in Optical Measurements, J. E. Thompson, L. H. Luessen, eds., Vol. II of Fast Electrical and Optical Measurements (Nijhoff, Boston, Mass., 1986), pp. 691–728.

Rogoyski, A.

A recent cooperative experiment between the Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory and the Naval Research Laboratory produced time-resolved data of soft-x-ray lasing in germanium plasmas. These measurements are reported in an paper by D. M. O’Neill, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Uhomoibhi, M. H. Key, A. MacPhee, G. J. Tallents, S. A. Ramsden, A. Rogoyski, E. A. McLean, G. J. Pert, “Characterization of soft x-ray amplification observed in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 75, 406–412 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Rose, S. J.

M. Grande, M. H. Key, G. Kiehn, C. L. S. Lewis, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, C. Regan, S. J. Rose, R. Smith, T. Tomie, O. Willi, “Measurement and detailed analysis of single pass gain at 81 Å in a recombining laser produced fluorine plasma,” Opt. Commun. 74, 309–312 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Corbett, C. J. Hooker, M. H. Key, G. P. Kiehn, C. L. S. Lewis, J. G. Pert, C. Regan, S. J. Rose, S. Sadaat, R. Smith, T. Tomie, O. Willi, “Laser amplification at 18.2 nm, in recombining plasma from a laser-irradiated carbon fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2161–2164 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kato, M. Yamanaka, H. Daido, T. Tachi, H. Nishimura, H. Shiraga, E. Miura, P. R. Herman, H. Takabe, T. Titsuno, M. Takagi, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, M. H. Key, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Rose, “Amplification in Na xi Ha, Mg xii Ha, and AL xiii Ha transitions,” in Short Wavelength Coherent Radiation: Generation and Applications, R. W. Falcone, J. Kirz, eds., Vol. 2 of 1989 OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), pp. 47–51.

Rosen, M. D.

R. A. London, M. D. Rosen, M. S. Maxon, D. C. Eder, P. L. Hagelstein, “Theory and design of soft x-ray laser experiments at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory,” J. Phys. B 22, 3363–3376 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffmann, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Rosen, P. L. Hagelstein, D. L. Matthews, E. M. Campbell, A. U. Hazi, B. L. Whitten, B. MacGowan, R. E. Turner, R. W. Lee, “Exploding-foil technique for achieving a soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 106–109 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. L. Whitten, A. U. Hazi, C. J. Keane, R. A. London, B. J. MacGowan, T. W. Phillips, M. D. Rosen, D. A. Whelan, “Interim report of the J= 0 task force,” (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California, August25, 1987).

Rumsby, P. T.

O. Willi, P. T. Rumsby, “Filamentation on laser irradiated spherical targets,” Opt. Commun. 37, 45–48 (1981); S. E. Coe, T. Afshar-Rad, O. Willi, “Direct observations of filamentation and self-focusing in a large underdense plasma,” Opt. Commun. 73, 299–303 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sadaat, S.

C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Corbett, C. J. Hooker, M. H. Key, G. P. Kiehn, C. L. S. Lewis, J. G. Pert, C. Regan, S. J. Rose, S. Sadaat, R. Smith, T. Tomie, O. Willi, “Laser amplification at 18.2 nm, in recombining plasma from a laser-irradiated carbon fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2161–2164 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sawyer, G. A.

F. C. Jahoda, G. A. Sawyer, “Optical refractivity in plasmas,” in Plasma Physics, L. Marton, ed., Vol. 9 of Methods of Experimental Physics (Academic, New York, 1971), Part B, pp. 1–48.
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, A.

J. A. Stamper, R. H. Lehmberg, A. Schmitt, M. J. Herbst, F. C. Young, J. H. Gardner, S. P. Obenschain, “Evidence in the second-harmonic emission for self-focusing of a laser pulse in a plasma,” Phys. Fluids 28, 2563–2569 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Scofield, J. H.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffmann, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Scofield, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California (personal communication, 1986).

Seely, J. F.

U. Feldman, J. F. Seely, A. K. Bhatia, “Scaling of collisonally pumped 3s–3p lasers in the neon isoelectronic sequence,” J. Appl. Phys. 56, 2475–2478 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Shiraga, H.

Y. Kato, M. Yamanaka, H. Daido, T. Tachi, H. Nishimura, H. Shiraga, E. Miura, P. R. Herman, H. Takabe, T. Titsuno, M. Takagi, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, M. H. Key, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Rose, “Amplification in Na xi Ha, Mg xii Ha, and AL xiii Ha transitions,” in Short Wavelength Coherent Radiation: Generation and Applications, R. W. Falcone, J. Kirz, eds., Vol. 2 of 1989 OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), pp. 47–51.

Shorrock, L. D.

D. Jacoby, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, L. D. Shorrock, G. J. Tallents, “Observation of gain in a possible extreme ultraviolet lasing system,” Opt. Commun. 37, 193–196 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Skinner, C. H.

S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, H. Milchberg, C. Keane, D. Voorhees, “Amplification of stimulated soft x-ray emission in a confined plasma column,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1753–1756 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, R.

M. Grande, M. H. Key, G. Kiehn, C. L. S. Lewis, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, C. Regan, S. J. Rose, R. Smith, T. Tomie, O. Willi, “Measurement and detailed analysis of single pass gain at 81 Å in a recombining laser produced fluorine plasma,” Opt. Commun. 74, 309–312 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Corbett, C. J. Hooker, M. H. Key, G. P. Kiehn, C. L. S. Lewis, J. G. Pert, C. Regan, S. J. Rose, S. Sadaat, R. Smith, T. Tomie, O. Willi, “Laser amplification at 18.2 nm, in recombining plasma from a laser-irradiated carbon fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2161–2164 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sooy, W. R.

Spaeth, M. L.

Stamper, J. A.

T. N. Lee, E. A. McLean, J. A. Stamper, H. R. Griem, C. K. Manka, “Laser driven soft x-ray laser experiments at NRL,” Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 33, 1920 (1988).

J. A. Stamper, R. H. Lehmberg, A. Schmitt, M. J. Herbst, F. C. Young, J. H. Gardner, S. P. Obenschain, “Evidence in the second-harmonic emission for self-focusing of a laser pulse in a plasma,” Phys. Fluids 28, 2563–2569 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Stamper, E. A. Mclean, S. P. Obenschain, B. H. Ripin, “Concepts and illustrations of optical probing diagnostics for laser-produced plasmas,” in Optical Measurements, J. E. Thompson, L. H. Luessen, eds., Vol. II of Fast Electrical and Optical Measurements (Nijhoff, Boston, Mass., 1986), pp. 691–728.

Stone, G.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffmann, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suckewer, S.

S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, H. Milchberg, C. Keane, D. Voorhees, “Amplification of stimulated soft x-ray emission in a confined plasma column,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1753–1756 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Surean, A.

Tachi, T.

Y. Kato, M. Yamanaka, H. Daido, T. Tachi, H. Nishimura, H. Shiraga, E. Miura, P. R. Herman, H. Takabe, T. Titsuno, M. Takagi, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, M. H. Key, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Rose, “Amplification in Na xi Ha, Mg xii Ha, and AL xiii Ha transitions,” in Short Wavelength Coherent Radiation: Generation and Applications, R. W. Falcone, J. Kirz, eds., Vol. 2 of 1989 OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), pp. 47–51.

Takabe, H.

Y. Kato, M. Yamanaka, H. Daido, T. Tachi, H. Nishimura, H. Shiraga, E. Miura, P. R. Herman, H. Takabe, T. Titsuno, M. Takagi, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, M. H. Key, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Rose, “Amplification in Na xi Ha, Mg xii Ha, and AL xiii Ha transitions,” in Short Wavelength Coherent Radiation: Generation and Applications, R. W. Falcone, J. Kirz, eds., Vol. 2 of 1989 OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), pp. 47–51.

Takagi, M.

Y. Kato, M. Yamanaka, H. Daido, T. Tachi, H. Nishimura, H. Shiraga, E. Miura, P. R. Herman, H. Takabe, T. Titsuno, M. Takagi, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, M. H. Key, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Rose, “Amplification in Na xi Ha, Mg xii Ha, and AL xiii Ha transitions,” in Short Wavelength Coherent Radiation: Generation and Applications, R. W. Falcone, J. Kirz, eds., Vol. 2 of 1989 OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), pp. 47–51.

Tallents, G. J.

A recent cooperative experiment between the Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory and the Naval Research Laboratory produced time-resolved data of soft-x-ray lasing in germanium plasmas. These measurements are reported in an paper by D. M. O’Neill, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Uhomoibhi, M. H. Key, A. MacPhee, G. J. Tallents, S. A. Ramsden, A. Rogoyski, E. A. McLean, G. J. Pert, “Characterization of soft x-ray amplification observed in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 75, 406–412 (1990).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tallents, “Interferometry and refraction measurements in plasmas of elliptical cross-section,” J. Phys. D 17, 721–732 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. Jacoby, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, L. D. Shorrock, G. J. Tallents, “Observation of gain in a possible extreme ultraviolet lasing system,” Opt. Commun. 37, 193–196 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kato, M. Yamanaka, H. Daido, T. Tachi, H. Nishimura, H. Shiraga, E. Miura, P. R. Herman, H. Takabe, T. Titsuno, M. Takagi, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, M. H. Key, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Rose, “Amplification in Na xi Ha, Mg xii Ha, and AL xiii Ha transitions,” in Short Wavelength Coherent Radiation: Generation and Applications, R. W. Falcone, J. Kirz, eds., Vol. 2 of 1989 OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), pp. 47–51.

Tan, W.

Z. Lin, W. Yu, W. Tan, W. Chen, Y. Zheng, M. Gu, H. Zhang, G. Wang, J. Tsui, R. Cheng, X. Deng, “A new target configuration producing on effective population inversion at energy levels of Mg xi 1s 3p and 1s 4p.” Opt. Commun. 65, 445–451 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Titsuno, T.

Y. Kato, M. Yamanaka, H. Daido, T. Tachi, H. Nishimura, H. Shiraga, E. Miura, P. R. Herman, H. Takabe, T. Titsuno, M. Takagi, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, M. H. Key, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Rose, “Amplification in Na xi Ha, Mg xii Ha, and AL xiii Ha transitions,” in Short Wavelength Coherent Radiation: Generation and Applications, R. W. Falcone, J. Kirz, eds., Vol. 2 of 1989 OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), pp. 47–51.

Tomie, T.

M. Grande, M. H. Key, G. Kiehn, C. L. S. Lewis, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, C. Regan, S. J. Rose, R. Smith, T. Tomie, O. Willi, “Measurement and detailed analysis of single pass gain at 81 Å in a recombining laser produced fluorine plasma,” Opt. Commun. 74, 309–312 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Corbett, C. J. Hooker, M. H. Key, G. P. Kiehn, C. L. S. Lewis, J. G. Pert, C. Regan, S. J. Rose, S. Sadaat, R. Smith, T. Tomie, O. Willi, “Laser amplification at 18.2 nm, in recombining plasma from a laser-irradiated carbon fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2161–2164 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toner, W. T.

M. H. Key, W. T. Toner, T. J. Goldsack, J. D. Kilkenny, S. A. Veats, P. F. Cunningham, C. L. S. Lewis, “A study of ablation by laser irradiation of plane targets at wavelengths 1.05, 0.53, and 0.35 μ m,” Phys. Fluids 26, 2011 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Trebes, J. E.

C. J. Keane, N. M. Ceglio, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, D. G. Nilson, J. E. Trebes, D. A. Whelan, “Soft x-ray laser source developments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory,” J. Phys. B 22, 3343–3362 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffmann, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsui, J.

Z. Lin, W. Yu, W. Tan, W. Chen, Y. Zheng, M. Gu, H. Zhang, G. Wang, J. Tsui, R. Cheng, X. Deng, “A new target configuration producing on effective population inversion at energy levels of Mg xi 1s 3p and 1s 4p.” Opt. Commun. 65, 445–451 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Turner, R. E.

M. D. Rosen, P. L. Hagelstein, D. L. Matthews, E. M. Campbell, A. U. Hazi, B. L. Whitten, B. MacGowan, R. E. Turner, R. W. Lee, “Exploding-foil technique for achieving a soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 106–109 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uhomoibhi, J.

A recent cooperative experiment between the Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory and the Naval Research Laboratory produced time-resolved data of soft-x-ray lasing in germanium plasmas. These measurements are reported in an paper by D. M. O’Neill, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Uhomoibhi, M. H. Key, A. MacPhee, G. J. Tallents, S. A. Ramsden, A. Rogoyski, E. A. McLean, G. J. Pert, “Characterization of soft x-ray amplification observed in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 75, 406–412 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Veats, S. A.

M. H. Key, W. T. Toner, T. J. Goldsack, J. D. Kilkenny, S. A. Veats, P. F. Cunningham, C. L. S. Lewis, “A study of ablation by laser irradiation of plane targets at wavelengths 1.05, 0.53, and 0.35 μ m,” Phys. Fluids 26, 2011 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Voorhees, D.

S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, H. Milchberg, C. Keane, D. Voorhees, “Amplification of stimulated soft x-ray emission in a confined plasma column,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1753–1756 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walling, R. S.

Wang, G.

Z. Lin, W. Yu, W. Tan, W. Chen, Y. Zheng, M. Gu, H. Zhang, G. Wang, J. Tsui, R. Cheng, X. Deng, “A new target configuration producing on effective population inversion at energy levels of Mg xi 1s 3p and 1s 4p.” Opt. Commun. 65, 445–451 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

B. Yaakobi, T. Boehly, J. Wang, R. Epstein, R. S. Craxton, “Observation of x-ray gain in collisionally excited germanium targets,” Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 34, 1914 (1989).

Wang, X.

Z. Xu, Z. Zhang, P. Fan, S. Chen, L. Lin, P. Lu, X. Feng, X. Wang, J. Zhou, A. Qian, “Soft x-ray gain measurements in recombining laser-produced plasmas,” Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 34, 2096 (1989).

Weaver, T. A.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffmann, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Whelan, D. A.

C. J. Keane, N. M. Ceglio, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, D. G. Nilson, J. E. Trebes, D. A. Whelan, “Soft x-ray laser source developments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory,” J. Phys. B 22, 3343–3362 (1989).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Whitten, A. U. Hazi, C. J. Keane, R. A. London, B. J. MacGowan, T. W. Phillips, M. D. Rosen, D. A. Whelan, “Interim report of the J= 0 task force,” (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California, August25, 1987).

Whitten, B. L.

B. L. Whitten, R. A. London, R. S. Walling, “Scaling of neonlike lasers using exploding foil targets,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 2537–2547 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Rosen, P. L. Hagelstein, D. L. Matthews, E. M. Campbell, A. U. Hazi, B. L. Whitten, B. MacGowan, R. E. Turner, R. W. Lee, “Exploding-foil technique for achieving a soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 106–109 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffmann, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. L. Whitten, A. U. Hazi, C. J. Keane, R. A. London, B. J. MacGowan, T. W. Phillips, M. D. Rosen, D. A. Whelan, “Interim report of the J= 0 task force,” (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California, August25, 1987).

Willi, O.

M. Grande, M. H. Key, G. Kiehn, C. L. S. Lewis, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, C. Regan, S. J. Rose, R. Smith, T. Tomie, O. Willi, “Measurement and detailed analysis of single pass gain at 81 Å in a recombining laser produced fluorine plasma,” Opt. Commun. 74, 309–312 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Corbett, C. J. Hooker, M. H. Key, G. P. Kiehn, C. L. S. Lewis, J. G. Pert, C. Regan, S. J. Rose, S. Sadaat, R. Smith, T. Tomie, O. Willi, “Laser amplification at 18.2 nm, in recombining plasma from a laser-irradiated carbon fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2161–2164 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Willi, P. T. Rumsby, “Filamentation on laser irradiated spherical targets,” Opt. Commun. 37, 45–48 (1981); S. E. Coe, T. Afshar-Rad, O. Willi, “Direct observations of filamentation and self-focusing in a large underdense plasma,” Opt. Commun. 73, 299–303 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z.

Z. Xu, Z. Zhang, P. Fan, S. Chen, L. Lin, P. Lu, X. Feng, X. Wang, J. Zhou, A. Qian, “Soft x-ray gain measurements in recombining laser-produced plasmas,” Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 34, 2096 (1989).

Xu, Z.-Z.

Z.-Z. Xu, S.-S. Chen, L.-H. Lin, Z.-M. Jian, W.-Q. Zhang, A.-d. Qian, “Characteristics and evolution of plasma-jet-like structures in line-focused laser-produced plasmas,” Phys. Rev. A. 39, 808–815 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yaakobi, B.

B. Yaakobi, T. Boehly, J. Wang, R. Epstein, R. S. Craxton, “Observation of x-ray gain in collisionally excited germanium targets,” Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 34, 1914 (1989).

Yamanaka, C.

Y. Kato, M. Yamanaka, H. Daido, T. Tachi, H. Nishimura, H. Shiraga, E. Miura, P. R. Herman, H. Takabe, T. Titsuno, M. Takagi, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, M. H. Key, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Rose, “Amplification in Na xi Ha, Mg xii Ha, and AL xiii Ha transitions,” in Short Wavelength Coherent Radiation: Generation and Applications, R. W. Falcone, J. Kirz, eds., Vol. 2 of 1989 OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), pp. 47–51.

Yamanaka, M.

Y. Kato, M. Yamanaka, H. Daido, T. Tachi, H. Nishimura, H. Shiraga, E. Miura, P. R. Herman, H. Takabe, T. Titsuno, M. Takagi, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, M. H. Key, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Rose, “Amplification in Na xi Ha, Mg xii Ha, and AL xiii Ha transitions,” in Short Wavelength Coherent Radiation: Generation and Applications, R. W. Falcone, J. Kirz, eds., Vol. 2 of 1989 OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), pp. 47–51.

Yashiro, H.

T. Hara, K. Ando, N. Kusakabe, H. Yashiro, Y. Aoyagi, “Soft x-ray lasing in an Al plasma produced by a 64 laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 1010–1012 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Young, F. C.

J. A. Stamper, R. H. Lehmberg, A. Schmitt, M. J. Herbst, F. C. Young, J. H. Gardner, S. P. Obenschain, “Evidence in the second-harmonic emission for self-focusing of a laser pulse in a plasma,” Phys. Fluids 28, 2563–2569 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Yu, W.

Z. Lin, W. Yu, W. Tan, W. Chen, Y. Zheng, M. Gu, H. Zhang, G. Wang, J. Tsui, R. Cheng, X. Deng, “A new target configuration producing on effective population inversion at energy levels of Mg xi 1s 3p and 1s 4p.” Opt. Commun. 65, 445–451 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

Z. Lin, W. Yu, W. Tan, W. Chen, Y. Zheng, M. Gu, H. Zhang, G. Wang, J. Tsui, R. Cheng, X. Deng, “A new target configuration producing on effective population inversion at energy levels of Mg xi 1s 3p and 1s 4p.” Opt. Commun. 65, 445–451 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.-Q.

Z.-Z. Xu, S.-S. Chen, L.-H. Lin, Z.-M. Jian, W.-Q. Zhang, A.-d. Qian, “Characteristics and evolution of plasma-jet-like structures in line-focused laser-produced plasmas,” Phys. Rev. A. 39, 808–815 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Z.

Z. Xu, Z. Zhang, P. Fan, S. Chen, L. Lin, P. Lu, X. Feng, X. Wang, J. Zhou, A. Qian, “Soft x-ray gain measurements in recombining laser-produced plasmas,” Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 34, 2096 (1989).

Zheng, Y.

Z. Lin, W. Yu, W. Tan, W. Chen, Y. Zheng, M. Gu, H. Zhang, G. Wang, J. Tsui, R. Cheng, X. Deng, “A new target configuration producing on effective population inversion at energy levels of Mg xi 1s 3p and 1s 4p.” Opt. Commun. 65, 445–451 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Zherikhin, A. N.

A. N. Zherikhin, K. N. Koshelev, V. S. Letokhov, “Gain in the far vacuum ultraviolet region due to transitions in multiply charged ions,” Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 3, 152 (1976) [Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 6, 82 (1976)].

Zhou, J.

Z. Xu, Z. Zhang, P. Fan, S. Chen, L. Lin, P. Lu, X. Feng, X. Wang, J. Zhou, A. Qian, “Soft x-ray gain measurements in recombining laser-produced plasmas,” Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 34, 2096 (1989).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. (3)

T. N. Lee, E. A. McLean, J. A. Stamper, H. R. Griem, C. K. Manka, “Laser driven soft x-ray laser experiments at NRL,” Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 33, 1920 (1988).

B. Yaakobi, T. Boehly, J. Wang, R. Epstein, R. S. Craxton, “Observation of x-ray gain in collisionally excited germanium targets,” Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 34, 1914 (1989).

Z. Xu, Z. Zhang, P. Fan, S. Chen, L. Lin, P. Lu, X. Feng, X. Wang, J. Zhou, A. Qian, “Soft x-ray gain measurements in recombining laser-produced plasmas,” Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 34, 2096 (1989).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

U. Feldman, J. F. Seely, A. K. Bhatia, “Scaling of collisonally pumped 3s–3p lasers in the neon isoelectronic sequence,” J. Appl. Phys. 56, 2475–2478 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. (1)

R. C. Elton, T. N. Lee, W. A. Molander, “X-ray laser experiments using laser-vaporized copper-foil plasmas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 4, 539–546 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. B (3)

C. J. Keane, N. M. Ceglio, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, D. G. Nilson, J. E. Trebes, D. A. Whelan, “Soft x-ray laser source developments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory,” J. Phys. B 22, 3343–3362 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. A. London, M. D. Rosen, M. S. Maxon, D. C. Eder, P. L. Hagelstein, “Theory and design of soft x-ray laser experiments at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory,” J. Phys. B 22, 3363–3376 (1989).
[CrossRef]

H. Gordon, M. G. Hobby, N. J. Peacock, “Classification of the x-ray spectra of transitions in the Ne, F and Oi isoelectronic sequences of the elements from iron to bromine and in the Nai isoelectronic sequence of gallium to bromine,” J. Phys. B 13, 1985–1999 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D (1)

G. J. Tallents, “Interferometry and refraction measurements in plasmas of elliptical cross-section,” J. Phys. D 17, 721–732 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Hara, K. Ando, N. Kusakabe, H. Yashiro, Y. Aoyagi, “Soft x-ray lasing in an Al plasma produced by a 64 laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 1010–1012 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) (1)

A. N. Zherikhin, K. N. Koshelev, V. S. Letokhov, “Gain in the far vacuum ultraviolet region due to transitions in multiply charged ions,” Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 3, 152 (1976) [Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 6, 82 (1976)].

Lab. Laser Energet. Rev. (1)

R. S. Craxton, “Caser—A new code for calculating, the x-ray laser emission from line-focus plasmas,” Lab. Laser Energet. Rev. 38, 88–89, (1989).

Nature (London) (1)

M. H. Key, “Laboratory production of x-ray lasers,” Nature (London) 316, 314–319 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (5)

A recent cooperative experiment between the Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory and the Naval Research Laboratory produced time-resolved data of soft-x-ray lasing in germanium plasmas. These measurements are reported in an paper by D. M. O’Neill, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Uhomoibhi, M. H. Key, A. MacPhee, G. J. Tallents, S. A. Ramsden, A. Rogoyski, E. A. McLean, G. J. Pert, “Characterization of soft x-ray amplification observed in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 75, 406–412 (1990).
[CrossRef]

O. Willi, P. T. Rumsby, “Filamentation on laser irradiated spherical targets,” Opt. Commun. 37, 45–48 (1981); S. E. Coe, T. Afshar-Rad, O. Willi, “Direct observations of filamentation and self-focusing in a large underdense plasma,” Opt. Commun. 73, 299–303 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. Grande, M. H. Key, G. Kiehn, C. L. S. Lewis, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, C. Regan, S. J. Rose, R. Smith, T. Tomie, O. Willi, “Measurement and detailed analysis of single pass gain at 81 Å in a recombining laser produced fluorine plasma,” Opt. Commun. 74, 309–312 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Z. Lin, W. Yu, W. Tan, W. Chen, Y. Zheng, M. Gu, H. Zhang, G. Wang, J. Tsui, R. Cheng, X. Deng, “A new target configuration producing on effective population inversion at energy levels of Mg xi 1s 3p and 1s 4p.” Opt. Commun. 65, 445–451 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. Jacoby, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, L. D. Shorrock, G. J. Tallents, “Observation of gain in a possible extreme ultraviolet lasing system,” Opt. Commun. 37, 193–196 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Fluids (2)

M. H. Key, W. T. Toner, T. J. Goldsack, J. D. Kilkenny, S. A. Veats, P. F. Cunningham, C. L. S. Lewis, “A study of ablation by laser irradiation of plane targets at wavelengths 1.05, 0.53, and 0.35 μ m,” Phys. Fluids 26, 2011 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Stamper, R. H. Lehmberg, A. Schmitt, M. J. Herbst, F. C. Young, J. H. Gardner, S. P. Obenschain, “Evidence in the second-harmonic emission for self-focusing of a laser pulse in a plasma,” Phys. Fluids 28, 2563–2569 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A. (2)

Z.-Z. Xu, S.-S. Chen, L.-H. Lin, Z.-M. Jian, W.-Q. Zhang, A.-d. Qian, “Characteristics and evolution of plasma-jet-like structures in line-focused laser-produced plasmas,” Phys. Rev. A. 39, 808–815 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Moreno, H. R. Griem, S. Goldsmith, J. Knauer, “Measurements of gain and line broadening in lithiumlike aluminum,” Phys. Rev. A. 39, 6033–6036 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Corbett, C. J. Hooker, M. H. Key, G. P. Kiehn, C. L. S. Lewis, J. G. Pert, C. Regan, S. J. Rose, S. Sadaat, R. Smith, T. Tomie, O. Willi, “Laser amplification at 18.2 nm, in recombining plasma from a laser-irradiated carbon fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2161–2164 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffmann, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Rosen, P. L. Hagelstein, D. L. Matthews, E. M. Campbell, A. U. Hazi, B. L. Whitten, B. MacGowan, R. E. Turner, R. W. Lee, “Exploding-foil technique for achieving a soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 106–109 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. N. Lee, E. A. McLean, R. C. Elton, “Soft x-ray lasing in neon-like germanium and copper plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1185–1188 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, H. Milchberg, C. Keane, D. Voorhees, “Amplification of stimulated soft x-ray emission in a confined plasma column,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1753–1756 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Scr. (1)

J. A. Corgordan, S. Lunell, “Energies of 2p53s 3p and 3d levels of neon-like ions from relativistic MCDF calculations, 20 ≤ Z≤ 54,” Phys. Scr. 33, 406–411 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

T. N. Lee, W. A. Molander, J. L. Ford, R. C. Elton, “X-ray spectroscopic diagnostics of a copper plasma produced by a laser line focused onto a thin foil,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 2052–2054 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

Further references are given in R. C. Elton, X-Ray Lasers, (Academic, New York, 1990); S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, “Soft x-ray lasers and their applications,” Science 247, 1553–1557 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kato, M. Yamanaka, H. Daido, T. Tachi, H. Nishimura, H. Shiraga, E. Miura, P. R. Herman, H. Takabe, T. Titsuno, M. Takagi, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, M. H. Key, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Rose, “Amplification in Na xi Ha, Mg xii Ha, and AL xiii Ha transitions,” in Short Wavelength Coherent Radiation: Generation and Applications, R. W. Falcone, J. Kirz, eds., Vol. 2 of 1989 OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), pp. 47–51.

J. H. Scofield, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California (personal communication, 1986).

F. C. Jahoda, G. A. Sawyer, “Optical refractivity in plasmas,” in Plasma Physics, L. Marton, ed., Vol. 9 of Methods of Experimental Physics (Academic, New York, 1971), Part B, pp. 1–48.
[CrossRef]

B. L. Whitten, A. U. Hazi, C. J. Keane, R. A. London, B. J. MacGowan, T. W. Phillips, M. D. Rosen, D. A. Whelan, “Interim report of the J= 0 task force,” (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California, August25, 1987).

J. A. Stamper, E. A. Mclean, S. P. Obenschain, B. H. Ripin, “Concepts and illustrations of optical probing diagnostics for laser-produced plasmas,” in Optical Measurements, J. E. Thompson, L. H. Luessen, eds., Vol. II of Fast Electrical and Optical Measurements (Nijhoff, Boston, Mass., 1986), pp. 691–728.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the experiment, as viewed from overhead.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Importance of the driving laser-pulse rise time. Top, oscillogram showing a pulse shape in which lasing did not occur; center, an oscillogram with a fast rising leading edge in which good lasing occurred. Bottom, a plot of the relative intensity of the germanium J = 2–1 line at 232.2 Å versus laser rise time at approximately the same driving laser energy (~400 J) and for a target length of 1.5 cm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Microdensitometer scans of an arsenic spectrum showing the As xxivJ = 2–1 lasing lines (B and C) with slab-target lengths of 3 and 10 mm. For the 3-mm target the J = 2–1 line at 218.84 Å falls between the two stronger lines.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Gain curve plot of the As xxivJ = 2–1 lasing line (C). The gain coefficient is 5.4 cm−1.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Gain curve plots for the Zn xxiJ = 0–1 lasing line (A) and J = 2–1 lasing lines (B and C).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Microdensitometer scan showing the J = 0–1 lasing line (A) in the Zn xxi ion for two different target lengths (second-order spectrum).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Gain coefficients as a function of nuclear charge in the neonlike isoelectronic sequence in copper through yttrium. The squares (J = 2–1) and the triangles (J = 0–1) are data points taken at the Naval Research Laboratory. The circles are data points taken by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory group.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Spectrum of the zinc x-ray lines in the range 8–12 Å taken with a bent-mica-crystal spectrograph, which viewed the front of the target. A spatial resolution of 500 μm was achieved by placing a slit perpendicular to the lasant plasma. Neonlike and fluorinelike spectral lines are indicated. The fluorinelike lines are seen to be shorter because of the diminishing driving laser intensity near the ends of the line focus. (The apparent broadening of the lines at the top of the plate is an artifact of photographic film curl.)

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Refraction of germanium lasing beams because of electron density gradients. (a) Relative lasing line intensity as a function of angle with respect to the line focus. (b) Intensity ratio of the J = 0–1 to J = 2–1 lasing lines in the Ge xxiii ion as a function of the angle.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Interferogram (top) and shadowgram (bottom) of an expanding plasma from a germanium slab target. The plasma was observed transverse to the line focus at approximately the time of the peak of the driving laser pulse. The step at the left side of the target is the end of the target and the surface of the target mount. The closely spaced fringes at ~35° with respect to the target are due to a slight wedge in an interference filter. The probing laser-pulse width was 30 ps FWHM. The lasant plasma is seen to be generally uniform except for some fine filaments perpendicular to the target surface.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Measured electron density plotted as a function of distance from the target surface. These data were derived from the interferogram in Fig. 10 by using an Abel inversion technique for concentric elliptical cross sections (see Ref. 37).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Spectra of selenium with different driving laser conditions. (a) The driving laser has a 1-ns rise time and a 2.5-ns FWHM to yield an intensity of ~1 × 1013 W/cm2. (b) The driving laser has a 0.6-ns rise time and a 1.2-ns FWHM to yield an intensity of ~2 × 1013 W/cm2. The target was a thin foil of 1000 Å of selenium deposited onto a 1500-Å Formvar substrate. The length was 10 mm for both cases. Microdensitometer traces show that in (b) the Se xxvJ = 2–1 (B and C) lasing lines are much more intense than the same lines in (a); (c) microdensitometer scan, showing Se xxvJ = 0–1 (A) lasing line in the third-order spectrum. The conditions here are a 0.5-ns rise time, a 1.2-ns FWHM, and an intensity of ~2 × 1013 W/cm2. The target was the same as in (a) and (b).

Tables (3)

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Table 1 3p–3s Lasing Transitions

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Table 2 Wavelength of Lasing Lines

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Table 3 Gain Coefficients (cm−1)

Equations (2)

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I = ( J / G ) { [ exp ( G L ) - 1 ] 3 / 2 / [ G L exp ( G L ) ] 1 / 2 }
θ = - ( λ 2 2 π ) ( e 2 m e c 2 ) ( d n e d x ) d z ,

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