Abstract

The hyperfine coupling coefficients and isotope shifts associated with the Yb+6P23/2, Yb 73S1, Yb6P11, and Yb 6 1D2 states were investigated by Doppler-free saturated absorption laser spectroscopy in an unenriched Yb hollow-cathode discharge. The hyperfine coefficients determined in this experiment are as follows: for the Yb+6P23/2 state, 171A = 0.877(20), 173A = −0.245(10), and 173B = −1.460(50); for the 73S1 state, 171A = 6.81(10), 173A = −1.879(10), and 173B = −0.003(18); for the Yb 61D2 state, 171A = −1.573(8), 173A = 0.439(2), and 173B = 0.153(10) GHz.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. Blatt, R. Casdorff, V. Enders, W. Neuhauser, P. E. Toschek, “New frequency standards based on Yb+” in Frequency Standards and Metrology, A. De Marchi, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), pp. 306–311.
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. A. Klein, A. S. Bell, G. P. Barwood, P. Gill, “Laser cooling of trapped Yb+” Appl. Phys. B 50, 13–17 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. Blatt, H. Schatz, G. Werth, “Ultrahigh-resolution microwave spectroscopy on trapped 173Yb+ ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 1601–1603 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. Casdorff, V. Enders, R. Blatt, W. Neuhauser, P. E. Toschek, “A 12-GHz standard clock on trapped ytterbium ion,” Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 7, 41–55 (1991).
  5. H. Schüler, J. Roig, H. Korsching, “Mechanische Momente von 171,173Yb, Quadrupolmoment von 173Yb und Häufigkeitsverhältnis von 173Yb/171Yb,” Z. Phys. 111, 165–173 (1938).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. Krebs, H. Nelkowski, “Die Isotopieverschiebung in den Resonanzlinien des Yb ii und im Singulettsystem des Yb i,” Z. Phys. 145, 543–559 (1956).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. S. Ross, K. Murakawa, “Nuclear moments of Yb173,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 19, 249–253 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. L. Clark, M. E. Cage, D. A. Lewis, G. W. Greenless, “Optical isotopic shifts and hyperfine splittings for Yb,” Phys. Rev. A 20, 239–253 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. D. Levinson, Introduction to Nonlinear Laser Spectroscopy (Academic, New York, 1982), Chap. 3, p. 66.
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. E. Lawler, A. Siegel, B. Couillard, T. W. Hänsch, “A hollow cathode for Doppler-free spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 4375–4378 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. C. Weast, ed., Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (CRC, Cleveland, Ohio, 1977).
  12. A. F. Golovin, A. R. Striganov, “Isotope shift and deformation of ytterbium nuclei,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 19, 467–469 (1965).
  13. T. H. Duong, S. Gerstenkorn, P. Luc, “Structures hyperfine des niveaux ¹P1∘(6s6p),³P1∘(f13ds2) des isotopes 171Yb et 173Yb,” Phys. Lett. 30A, 112–113 (1969).
  14. A. Münch, M. Berkler, Ch. Gerz, D. Wilsdorf, G. Werth, “Precise ground-state splitting in 173Yb ii,” Phys. Rev. A 35, 4147–4150 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  15. L. Olschewski, “Messung der magnetischen Kernmomente an freien 43Ca-, 87Sr-, 135Ba-, 137Ba-, 171Yb- and 173Yb-Atomen mit optischem Pumpen,” Z. Phys. 249, 205–227 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. Kopfermann, Nuclear Moments (Academic, New York, 1958), Chap. 1, p. 172.
  17. A. Corney, Atomic and Laser Spectroscopy(Oxford U. Press, New York, 1988).
  18. H. Liening, “Level-crossing spectroscopy with additional optical pumping in the ground state,” Z. Phys. A 320, 363–368 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. Baumann, M. Braun, “Excited D-states of 171Yb and 173Yb,” Z. Phys. D 1, 247–251 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. Baumann, H. Liening, H. Lindel, “Investigation of the HFS in the 6s6p ¹P1∘ state of 173Yb(I) by LC and AC spectroscopy,” Phys. Lett. 59A, 433–434 (1977).
  21. B. Budick, H. Snir, “Hyperfine structure of the 6s6p ¹P1∘ state of the stable ytterbium isotopes,” Phys. Rev. 178, 18–23 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  22. P. Grundevik, M. Gustavsson, A. Rosen, S. Rydberg, “Analysis of the isotope shifts and hyperfine structure in the 3988 Å (6s6p ¹P1∘-6s2¹S0) Yb i line,” Z. Phys. A 292, 307–311 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  23. U. Nielsen, K. T. Cheng, H. Ludvigsen, J. N. Xiao, “Hyperfine structure of 4f126s and 4f125d configurations in 67Er ii Measured by collinear fast-beam laser and radio-frequency laser double-resonance spectroscopy,” Phys. Scr. 34, 776–787 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  24. I. Chaiko, “Isotope shifts of resonance lines in the spectrum of ytterbium,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 20, 424–428 (1966).
  25. L. Holgrem, “Theoretical analysis of the hyperfine interaction in msnl configurations of neutral Yb and singly ionized Lu,” Phys. Scr. 12, 119–124 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  26. H.-O. Behrens, G. H. Guthöhrlein, “High resolution optogalvanic spectroscopy as a useful tool in the determination of atomic hyperfine parameters and isotopic shifts,” J. Phys. (Paris) Colloq. 7(11), 149–168 (1983).
  27. G. E. Miller, J. S. Ross, “Isotope shifts in the arc spectrum of dysprosium, erbium and ytterbium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 585–589 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  28. S. A. Ahmad, I. J. Machado, G. D. Saksena, “Isotope shift studies in the first spectrum of ytterbium,” Spectrochim. Acta 35B, 215–224 (1980).

1991

R. Casdorff, V. Enders, R. Blatt, W. Neuhauser, P. E. Toschek, “A 12-GHz standard clock on trapped ytterbium ion,” Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 7, 41–55 (1991).

1990

H. A. Klein, A. S. Bell, G. P. Barwood, P. Gill, “Laser cooling of trapped Yb+” Appl. Phys. B 50, 13–17 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987

A. Münch, M. Berkler, Ch. Gerz, D. Wilsdorf, G. Werth, “Precise ground-state splitting in 173Yb ii,” Phys. Rev. A 35, 4147–4150 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986

M. Baumann, M. Braun, “Excited D-states of 171Yb and 173Yb,” Z. Phys. D 1, 247–251 (1986).
[CrossRef]

U. Nielsen, K. T. Cheng, H. Ludvigsen, J. N. Xiao, “Hyperfine structure of 4f126s and 4f125d configurations in 67Er ii Measured by collinear fast-beam laser and radio-frequency laser double-resonance spectroscopy,” Phys. Scr. 34, 776–787 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985

H. Liening, “Level-crossing spectroscopy with additional optical pumping in the ground state,” Z. Phys. A 320, 363–368 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1983

H.-O. Behrens, G. H. Guthöhrlein, “High resolution optogalvanic spectroscopy as a useful tool in the determination of atomic hyperfine parameters and isotopic shifts,” J. Phys. (Paris) Colloq. 7(11), 149–168 (1983).

1982

R. Blatt, H. Schatz, G. Werth, “Ultrahigh-resolution microwave spectroscopy on trapped 173Yb+ ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 1601–1603 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981

J. E. Lawler, A. Siegel, B. Couillard, T. W. Hänsch, “A hollow cathode for Doppler-free spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 4375–4378 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980

S. A. Ahmad, I. J. Machado, G. D. Saksena, “Isotope shift studies in the first spectrum of ytterbium,” Spectrochim. Acta 35B, 215–224 (1980).

1979

P. Grundevik, M. Gustavsson, A. Rosen, S. Rydberg, “Analysis of the isotope shifts and hyperfine structure in the 3988 Å (6s6p ¹P1∘-6s2¹S0) Yb i line,” Z. Phys. A 292, 307–311 (1979).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Clark, M. E. Cage, D. A. Lewis, G. W. Greenless, “Optical isotopic shifts and hyperfine splittings for Yb,” Phys. Rev. A 20, 239–253 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1977

M. Baumann, H. Liening, H. Lindel, “Investigation of the HFS in the 6s6p ¹P1∘ state of 173Yb(I) by LC and AC spectroscopy,” Phys. Lett. 59A, 433–434 (1977).

1976

1975

L. Holgrem, “Theoretical analysis of the hyperfine interaction in msnl configurations of neutral Yb and singly ionized Lu,” Phys. Scr. 12, 119–124 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1972

L. Olschewski, “Messung der magnetischen Kernmomente an freien 43Ca-, 87Sr-, 135Ba-, 137Ba-, 171Yb- and 173Yb-Atomen mit optischem Pumpen,” Z. Phys. 249, 205–227 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1969

T. H. Duong, S. Gerstenkorn, P. Luc, “Structures hyperfine des niveaux ¹P1∘(6s6p),³P1∘(f13ds2) des isotopes 171Yb et 173Yb,” Phys. Lett. 30A, 112–113 (1969).

B. Budick, H. Snir, “Hyperfine structure of the 6s6p ¹P1∘ state of the stable ytterbium isotopes,” Phys. Rev. 178, 18–23 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1966

I. Chaiko, “Isotope shifts of resonance lines in the spectrum of ytterbium,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 20, 424–428 (1966).

1965

A. F. Golovin, A. R. Striganov, “Isotope shift and deformation of ytterbium nuclei,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 19, 467–469 (1965).

1964

J. S. Ross, K. Murakawa, “Nuclear moments of Yb173,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 19, 249–253 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1956

K. Krebs, H. Nelkowski, “Die Isotopieverschiebung in den Resonanzlinien des Yb ii und im Singulettsystem des Yb i,” Z. Phys. 145, 543–559 (1956).
[CrossRef]

1938

H. Schüler, J. Roig, H. Korsching, “Mechanische Momente von 171,173Yb, Quadrupolmoment von 173Yb und Häufigkeitsverhältnis von 173Yb/171Yb,” Z. Phys. 111, 165–173 (1938).
[CrossRef]

Ahmad, S. A.

S. A. Ahmad, I. J. Machado, G. D. Saksena, “Isotope shift studies in the first spectrum of ytterbium,” Spectrochim. Acta 35B, 215–224 (1980).

Barwood, G. P.

H. A. Klein, A. S. Bell, G. P. Barwood, P. Gill, “Laser cooling of trapped Yb+” Appl. Phys. B 50, 13–17 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Baumann, M.

M. Baumann, M. Braun, “Excited D-states of 171Yb and 173Yb,” Z. Phys. D 1, 247–251 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. Baumann, H. Liening, H. Lindel, “Investigation of the HFS in the 6s6p ¹P1∘ state of 173Yb(I) by LC and AC spectroscopy,” Phys. Lett. 59A, 433–434 (1977).

Behrens, H.-O.

H.-O. Behrens, G. H. Guthöhrlein, “High resolution optogalvanic spectroscopy as a useful tool in the determination of atomic hyperfine parameters and isotopic shifts,” J. Phys. (Paris) Colloq. 7(11), 149–168 (1983).

Bell, A. S.

H. A. Klein, A. S. Bell, G. P. Barwood, P. Gill, “Laser cooling of trapped Yb+” Appl. Phys. B 50, 13–17 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Berkler, M.

A. Münch, M. Berkler, Ch. Gerz, D. Wilsdorf, G. Werth, “Precise ground-state splitting in 173Yb ii,” Phys. Rev. A 35, 4147–4150 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Blatt, R.

R. Casdorff, V. Enders, R. Blatt, W. Neuhauser, P. E. Toschek, “A 12-GHz standard clock on trapped ytterbium ion,” Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 7, 41–55 (1991).

R. Blatt, H. Schatz, G. Werth, “Ultrahigh-resolution microwave spectroscopy on trapped 173Yb+ ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 1601–1603 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. Blatt, R. Casdorff, V. Enders, W. Neuhauser, P. E. Toschek, “New frequency standards based on Yb+” in Frequency Standards and Metrology, A. De Marchi, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), pp. 306–311.
[CrossRef]

Braun, M.

M. Baumann, M. Braun, “Excited D-states of 171Yb and 173Yb,” Z. Phys. D 1, 247–251 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Budick, B.

B. Budick, H. Snir, “Hyperfine structure of the 6s6p ¹P1∘ state of the stable ytterbium isotopes,” Phys. Rev. 178, 18–23 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Cage, M. E.

D. L. Clark, M. E. Cage, D. A. Lewis, G. W. Greenless, “Optical isotopic shifts and hyperfine splittings for Yb,” Phys. Rev. A 20, 239–253 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Casdorff, R.

R. Casdorff, V. Enders, R. Blatt, W. Neuhauser, P. E. Toschek, “A 12-GHz standard clock on trapped ytterbium ion,” Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 7, 41–55 (1991).

R. Blatt, R. Casdorff, V. Enders, W. Neuhauser, P. E. Toschek, “New frequency standards based on Yb+” in Frequency Standards and Metrology, A. De Marchi, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), pp. 306–311.
[CrossRef]

Chaiko, I.

I. Chaiko, “Isotope shifts of resonance lines in the spectrum of ytterbium,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 20, 424–428 (1966).

Cheng, K. T.

U. Nielsen, K. T. Cheng, H. Ludvigsen, J. N. Xiao, “Hyperfine structure of 4f126s and 4f125d configurations in 67Er ii Measured by collinear fast-beam laser and radio-frequency laser double-resonance spectroscopy,” Phys. Scr. 34, 776–787 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Clark, D. L.

D. L. Clark, M. E. Cage, D. A. Lewis, G. W. Greenless, “Optical isotopic shifts and hyperfine splittings for Yb,” Phys. Rev. A 20, 239–253 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Corney, A.

A. Corney, Atomic and Laser Spectroscopy(Oxford U. Press, New York, 1988).

Couillard, B.

J. E. Lawler, A. Siegel, B. Couillard, T. W. Hänsch, “A hollow cathode for Doppler-free spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 4375–4378 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Duong, T. H.

T. H. Duong, S. Gerstenkorn, P. Luc, “Structures hyperfine des niveaux ¹P1∘(6s6p),³P1∘(f13ds2) des isotopes 171Yb et 173Yb,” Phys. Lett. 30A, 112–113 (1969).

Enders, V.

R. Casdorff, V. Enders, R. Blatt, W. Neuhauser, P. E. Toschek, “A 12-GHz standard clock on trapped ytterbium ion,” Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 7, 41–55 (1991).

R. Blatt, R. Casdorff, V. Enders, W. Neuhauser, P. E. Toschek, “New frequency standards based on Yb+” in Frequency Standards and Metrology, A. De Marchi, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), pp. 306–311.
[CrossRef]

Gerstenkorn, S.

T. H. Duong, S. Gerstenkorn, P. Luc, “Structures hyperfine des niveaux ¹P1∘(6s6p),³P1∘(f13ds2) des isotopes 171Yb et 173Yb,” Phys. Lett. 30A, 112–113 (1969).

Gerz, Ch.

A. Münch, M. Berkler, Ch. Gerz, D. Wilsdorf, G. Werth, “Precise ground-state splitting in 173Yb ii,” Phys. Rev. A 35, 4147–4150 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Gill, P.

H. A. Klein, A. S. Bell, G. P. Barwood, P. Gill, “Laser cooling of trapped Yb+” Appl. Phys. B 50, 13–17 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Golovin, A. F.

A. F. Golovin, A. R. Striganov, “Isotope shift and deformation of ytterbium nuclei,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 19, 467–469 (1965).

Greenless, G. W.

D. L. Clark, M. E. Cage, D. A. Lewis, G. W. Greenless, “Optical isotopic shifts and hyperfine splittings for Yb,” Phys. Rev. A 20, 239–253 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Grundevik, P.

P. Grundevik, M. Gustavsson, A. Rosen, S. Rydberg, “Analysis of the isotope shifts and hyperfine structure in the 3988 Å (6s6p ¹P1∘-6s2¹S0) Yb i line,” Z. Phys. A 292, 307–311 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Gustavsson, M.

P. Grundevik, M. Gustavsson, A. Rosen, S. Rydberg, “Analysis of the isotope shifts and hyperfine structure in the 3988 Å (6s6p ¹P1∘-6s2¹S0) Yb i line,” Z. Phys. A 292, 307–311 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Guthöhrlein, G. H.

H.-O. Behrens, G. H. Guthöhrlein, “High resolution optogalvanic spectroscopy as a useful tool in the determination of atomic hyperfine parameters and isotopic shifts,” J. Phys. (Paris) Colloq. 7(11), 149–168 (1983).

Hänsch, T. W.

J. E. Lawler, A. Siegel, B. Couillard, T. W. Hänsch, “A hollow cathode for Doppler-free spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 4375–4378 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Holgrem, L.

L. Holgrem, “Theoretical analysis of the hyperfine interaction in msnl configurations of neutral Yb and singly ionized Lu,” Phys. Scr. 12, 119–124 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Klein, H. A.

H. A. Klein, A. S. Bell, G. P. Barwood, P. Gill, “Laser cooling of trapped Yb+” Appl. Phys. B 50, 13–17 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kopfermann, H.

H. Kopfermann, Nuclear Moments (Academic, New York, 1958), Chap. 1, p. 172.

Korsching, H.

H. Schüler, J. Roig, H. Korsching, “Mechanische Momente von 171,173Yb, Quadrupolmoment von 173Yb und Häufigkeitsverhältnis von 173Yb/171Yb,” Z. Phys. 111, 165–173 (1938).
[CrossRef]

Krebs, K.

K. Krebs, H. Nelkowski, “Die Isotopieverschiebung in den Resonanzlinien des Yb ii und im Singulettsystem des Yb i,” Z. Phys. 145, 543–559 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Lawler, J. E.

J. E. Lawler, A. Siegel, B. Couillard, T. W. Hänsch, “A hollow cathode for Doppler-free spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 4375–4378 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Levinson, M. D.

M. D. Levinson, Introduction to Nonlinear Laser Spectroscopy (Academic, New York, 1982), Chap. 3, p. 66.
[CrossRef]

Lewis, D. A.

D. L. Clark, M. E. Cage, D. A. Lewis, G. W. Greenless, “Optical isotopic shifts and hyperfine splittings for Yb,” Phys. Rev. A 20, 239–253 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Liening, H.

H. Liening, “Level-crossing spectroscopy with additional optical pumping in the ground state,” Z. Phys. A 320, 363–368 (1985).
[CrossRef]

M. Baumann, H. Liening, H. Lindel, “Investigation of the HFS in the 6s6p ¹P1∘ state of 173Yb(I) by LC and AC spectroscopy,” Phys. Lett. 59A, 433–434 (1977).

Lindel, H.

M. Baumann, H. Liening, H. Lindel, “Investigation of the HFS in the 6s6p ¹P1∘ state of 173Yb(I) by LC and AC spectroscopy,” Phys. Lett. 59A, 433–434 (1977).

Luc, P.

T. H. Duong, S. Gerstenkorn, P. Luc, “Structures hyperfine des niveaux ¹P1∘(6s6p),³P1∘(f13ds2) des isotopes 171Yb et 173Yb,” Phys. Lett. 30A, 112–113 (1969).

Ludvigsen, H.

U. Nielsen, K. T. Cheng, H. Ludvigsen, J. N. Xiao, “Hyperfine structure of 4f126s and 4f125d configurations in 67Er ii Measured by collinear fast-beam laser and radio-frequency laser double-resonance spectroscopy,” Phys. Scr. 34, 776–787 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Machado, I. J.

S. A. Ahmad, I. J. Machado, G. D. Saksena, “Isotope shift studies in the first spectrum of ytterbium,” Spectrochim. Acta 35B, 215–224 (1980).

Miller, G. E.

Münch, A.

A. Münch, M. Berkler, Ch. Gerz, D. Wilsdorf, G. Werth, “Precise ground-state splitting in 173Yb ii,” Phys. Rev. A 35, 4147–4150 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Murakawa, K.

J. S. Ross, K. Murakawa, “Nuclear moments of Yb173,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 19, 249–253 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Nelkowski, H.

K. Krebs, H. Nelkowski, “Die Isotopieverschiebung in den Resonanzlinien des Yb ii und im Singulettsystem des Yb i,” Z. Phys. 145, 543–559 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Neuhauser, W.

R. Casdorff, V. Enders, R. Blatt, W. Neuhauser, P. E. Toschek, “A 12-GHz standard clock on trapped ytterbium ion,” Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 7, 41–55 (1991).

R. Blatt, R. Casdorff, V. Enders, W. Neuhauser, P. E. Toschek, “New frequency standards based on Yb+” in Frequency Standards and Metrology, A. De Marchi, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), pp. 306–311.
[CrossRef]

Nielsen, U.

U. Nielsen, K. T. Cheng, H. Ludvigsen, J. N. Xiao, “Hyperfine structure of 4f126s and 4f125d configurations in 67Er ii Measured by collinear fast-beam laser and radio-frequency laser double-resonance spectroscopy,” Phys. Scr. 34, 776–787 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Olschewski, L.

L. Olschewski, “Messung der magnetischen Kernmomente an freien 43Ca-, 87Sr-, 135Ba-, 137Ba-, 171Yb- and 173Yb-Atomen mit optischem Pumpen,” Z. Phys. 249, 205–227 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Roig, J.

H. Schüler, J. Roig, H. Korsching, “Mechanische Momente von 171,173Yb, Quadrupolmoment von 173Yb und Häufigkeitsverhältnis von 173Yb/171Yb,” Z. Phys. 111, 165–173 (1938).
[CrossRef]

Rosen, A.

P. Grundevik, M. Gustavsson, A. Rosen, S. Rydberg, “Analysis of the isotope shifts and hyperfine structure in the 3988 Å (6s6p ¹P1∘-6s2¹S0) Yb i line,” Z. Phys. A 292, 307–311 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Ross, J. S.

Rydberg, S.

P. Grundevik, M. Gustavsson, A. Rosen, S. Rydberg, “Analysis of the isotope shifts and hyperfine structure in the 3988 Å (6s6p ¹P1∘-6s2¹S0) Yb i line,” Z. Phys. A 292, 307–311 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Saksena, G. D.

S. A. Ahmad, I. J. Machado, G. D. Saksena, “Isotope shift studies in the first spectrum of ytterbium,” Spectrochim. Acta 35B, 215–224 (1980).

Schatz, H.

R. Blatt, H. Schatz, G. Werth, “Ultrahigh-resolution microwave spectroscopy on trapped 173Yb+ ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 1601–1603 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Schüler, H.

H. Schüler, J. Roig, H. Korsching, “Mechanische Momente von 171,173Yb, Quadrupolmoment von 173Yb und Häufigkeitsverhältnis von 173Yb/171Yb,” Z. Phys. 111, 165–173 (1938).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, A.

J. E. Lawler, A. Siegel, B. Couillard, T. W. Hänsch, “A hollow cathode for Doppler-free spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 4375–4378 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Snir, H.

B. Budick, H. Snir, “Hyperfine structure of the 6s6p ¹P1∘ state of the stable ytterbium isotopes,” Phys. Rev. 178, 18–23 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Striganov, A. R.

A. F. Golovin, A. R. Striganov, “Isotope shift and deformation of ytterbium nuclei,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 19, 467–469 (1965).

Toschek, P. E.

R. Casdorff, V. Enders, R. Blatt, W. Neuhauser, P. E. Toschek, “A 12-GHz standard clock on trapped ytterbium ion,” Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 7, 41–55 (1991).

R. Blatt, R. Casdorff, V. Enders, W. Neuhauser, P. E. Toschek, “New frequency standards based on Yb+” in Frequency Standards and Metrology, A. De Marchi, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), pp. 306–311.
[CrossRef]

Werth, G.

A. Münch, M. Berkler, Ch. Gerz, D. Wilsdorf, G. Werth, “Precise ground-state splitting in 173Yb ii,” Phys. Rev. A 35, 4147–4150 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. Blatt, H. Schatz, G. Werth, “Ultrahigh-resolution microwave spectroscopy on trapped 173Yb+ ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 1601–1603 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Wilsdorf, D.

A. Münch, M. Berkler, Ch. Gerz, D. Wilsdorf, G. Werth, “Precise ground-state splitting in 173Yb ii,” Phys. Rev. A 35, 4147–4150 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, J. N.

U. Nielsen, K. T. Cheng, H. Ludvigsen, J. N. Xiao, “Hyperfine structure of 4f126s and 4f125d configurations in 67Er ii Measured by collinear fast-beam laser and radio-frequency laser double-resonance spectroscopy,” Phys. Scr. 34, 776–787 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Phys. (Leipzig)

R. Casdorff, V. Enders, R. Blatt, W. Neuhauser, P. E. Toschek, “A 12-GHz standard clock on trapped ytterbium ion,” Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 7, 41–55 (1991).

Appl. Phys. B

H. A. Klein, A. S. Bell, G. P. Barwood, P. Gill, “Laser cooling of trapped Yb+” Appl. Phys. B 50, 13–17 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

J. E. Lawler, A. Siegel, B. Couillard, T. W. Hänsch, “A hollow cathode for Doppler-free spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 4375–4378 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Phys. (Paris) Colloq.

H.-O. Behrens, G. H. Guthöhrlein, “High resolution optogalvanic spectroscopy as a useful tool in the determination of atomic hyperfine parameters and isotopic shifts,” J. Phys. (Paris) Colloq. 7(11), 149–168 (1983).

J. Phys. Soc. Jpn.

J. S. Ross, K. Murakawa, “Nuclear moments of Yb173,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 19, 249–253 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR)

A. F. Golovin, A. R. Striganov, “Isotope shift and deformation of ytterbium nuclei,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 19, 467–469 (1965).

I. Chaiko, “Isotope shifts of resonance lines in the spectrum of ytterbium,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 20, 424–428 (1966).

Phys. Lett.

T. H. Duong, S. Gerstenkorn, P. Luc, “Structures hyperfine des niveaux ¹P1∘(6s6p),³P1∘(f13ds2) des isotopes 171Yb et 173Yb,” Phys. Lett. 30A, 112–113 (1969).

M. Baumann, H. Liening, H. Lindel, “Investigation of the HFS in the 6s6p ¹P1∘ state of 173Yb(I) by LC and AC spectroscopy,” Phys. Lett. 59A, 433–434 (1977).

Phys. Rev.

B. Budick, H. Snir, “Hyperfine structure of the 6s6p ¹P1∘ state of the stable ytterbium isotopes,” Phys. Rev. 178, 18–23 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

A. Münch, M. Berkler, Ch. Gerz, D. Wilsdorf, G. Werth, “Precise ground-state splitting in 173Yb ii,” Phys. Rev. A 35, 4147–4150 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Clark, M. E. Cage, D. A. Lewis, G. W. Greenless, “Optical isotopic shifts and hyperfine splittings for Yb,” Phys. Rev. A 20, 239–253 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

R. Blatt, H. Schatz, G. Werth, “Ultrahigh-resolution microwave spectroscopy on trapped 173Yb+ ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 1601–1603 (1982).
[CrossRef]

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L. Holgrem, “Theoretical analysis of the hyperfine interaction in msnl configurations of neutral Yb and singly ionized Lu,” Phys. Scr. 12, 119–124 (1975).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Spectrochim. Acta

S. A. Ahmad, I. J. Machado, G. D. Saksena, “Isotope shift studies in the first spectrum of ytterbium,” Spectrochim. Acta 35B, 215–224 (1980).

Z. Phys.

H. Schüler, J. Roig, H. Korsching, “Mechanische Momente von 171,173Yb, Quadrupolmoment von 173Yb und Häufigkeitsverhältnis von 173Yb/171Yb,” Z. Phys. 111, 165–173 (1938).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Z. Phys. A

P. Grundevik, M. Gustavsson, A. Rosen, S. Rydberg, “Analysis of the isotope shifts and hyperfine structure in the 3988 Å (6s6p ¹P1∘-6s2¹S0) Yb i line,” Z. Phys. A 292, 307–311 (1979).
[CrossRef]

H. Liening, “Level-crossing spectroscopy with additional optical pumping in the ground state,” Z. Phys. A 320, 363–368 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Z. Phys. D

M. Baumann, M. Braun, “Excited D-states of 171Yb and 173Yb,” Z. Phys. D 1, 247–251 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Other

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A. Corney, Atomic and Laser Spectroscopy(Oxford U. Press, New York, 1988).

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[CrossRef]

R. C. Weast, ed., Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (CRC, Cleveland, Ohio, 1977).

R. Blatt, R. Casdorff, V. Enders, W. Neuhauser, P. E. Toschek, “New frequency standards based on Yb+” in Frequency Standards and Metrology, A. De Marchi, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), pp. 306–311.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Partial energy-level diagram of Yb+. The wavelength is indicated in nanometers and energy-level position in inverse centimeters.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Partial energy-level diagram for Yb. The wavelength is indicated in nonometers and energy-level position in inverse centimeters.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental apparatus for saturated absorption spectroscopy. FP, Fabry-Perot étalon; FM, frequency markers; LIA, lock-in amplifier; PD’s, photodiodes; M’s, mirrors; BS’s, beam splitters; C, chopper; I, iris.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Saturated absorption spectrum of the 328.94-nm Yb + 6 S 2 1 / 2 - 6 P 2 3 / 2 transition. The frequency markers are 600 MHz apart, and the spectral features associated with the odd isotopes have been assigned to the appropriate hyperfine transitions. The dashed lines indicate the spectral features associated with crossover resonances. The even isotopes have been identified on the upper trace.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Saturated absorption spectrum of the 648.9-nm Yb 6 P 3 0 - 7 S 3 1 transition. The frequency markers are 300 MHz apart.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Saturated absorption spectrum of the 666.8-nm Yb 6 1P1∘–6 1D2 transition for a sample with a natural isotopic abundance. The frequency markers are 300 MHz apart. The dashed lines indicate crossover resonances.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Relative Isotope Shifts for Transitions in Yb and Yb+ (GHz)

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Table 2 Hyperfine Energy-Level Splitting Relative to Line Centera

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Table 3 Hyperfine Constants of Yb

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Table 4 Isotope Shifts Δν (I − 172) (GHz)

Equations (1)

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E F = E J + A J K 2 + B J 8 I ( 2 I - 1 ) J ( 2 J - 1 ) 3 K ( K + 1 ) - 4 I ( I + 1 ) J ( J + 1 ) ,

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