Abstract

A whole self-consistent method is developed in order to analyze the influence of incident light beam polarization on an image shape recently recorded from scanning tunneling optical devices. The electromagnetic coupling between the object and a nanometer-size detector is described from a dynamic matrix, including all dipolar correlations inside the system. This matrix, expressed in terms of field propagators, permits us to analyze the physical mechanisms responsible for the conversion of evanescent waves into homogeneous propagating modes inside the detector. The numerical results are compared with those obtained for layered metallic or dielectric nanoparticles deposited upon a glass substrate. The shape and the contrast of the images are both sensitive to the field polarization and to the external frequency in the case of metallic objects. Moreover, as was observed in experimental studies, the p-polarized mode seems to give better contrast in the images.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, M. Lanz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  2. U. Ch. Fisher, D. W. Pohl, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 458 (1989); D. W. Pohl, Adv. Opt. Electron. Micros. 12, 243 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, U. Dürig, in Micron and Submicron Integrated Circuit Metrology, K. M. Monahan, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.565, 56 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  4. U. Dürig, D. W. Pohl, F. Rohner, J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3318 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Ch. Fischer, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 3, 386 (1985); J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 1239 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. Betzig, A. Harootunian, M. Isaacson, E. Kratschmer, Biophys. J. 49, 269 (1986);A. Harootunian, E. Betzig, M. Isaacson, A. Lewis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 674 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Isaacson, A. Lewis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 674 (1986); E. Betzig, M. Isaacson, A. Lewis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2088 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Reddick, R. J. Warnack, T. L. Ferrell, Phys. Rev. B 39, 767 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. Courjon, K. Sarayeddine, M. Spajer, Opt. Commun. 71, 23 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  10. F. de Fornel, J. P. Goudonnet, L. Salamon, E. Lesniewska, in Optical Storage and Scanning Technology, T. Wilson, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1139, 77 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. Courjon, J. M. Vigoureux, M. Spajer, K. Sarayeddine, S. Leblanc, Appl. Opt. 29, 3734 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. M. Guerra, Appl. Opt. 29, 3741 (1990).
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  13. N. F. Van Hulst, N. P. de Boer, B. Blger, Trans. R. Microsc. Soc. 1, 239 (1990).
  14. B. Labani, C. Girard, D. Courjon, D. Van Labeke, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 936 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. Girard, M. Spajer, Appl. Opt. 29, 3726 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. C. Girard, D. Courjon, Phys. Rev. B 42, 9340 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. M. Marvin, F. Toigo, Phys. Rev. A 25, 782 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  18. T. S. Rahman, A. A. Maradudin, Phys. Rev. B 12, 504 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  19. G. W. Ford, W. H. Weber, Phys. Rep. 113, 195 (1984), and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. Meier, A. Wokaun, F. P. Liao, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 931 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  21. A. Wokaun, Mol. Phys. 56, 1 (1985); R. Ruppin, Surf. Sci. 127, 108 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  22. T. Takemori, M. Inoue, K. Ohtaka, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 56, 1587 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  23. O. Keller, B. Sonderkaer, in Optomechanical and Electro-Optical Design of Industrial Systems, R. J. Bieringer, K. G. Harding, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.959, 344 (1988).
  24. A. Johner, R. Schaaf, A. Schmitt, J. Opt. (Paris) 19, 207 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  25. A. Johner, R. Schaaf, Phys. Rev. B 40, 10231 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  26. A. D. McLachlan, Mol. Phys. 7, 381 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  27. B. Linder, Adv. Chem. Phys. 12, 225 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  28. B. Linder, D. A. Rabenold, Adv. Quantum Chem. 6, 203 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  29. G. Korzeniewski, T. Maniv, H. Metiu, Chem. Phys. Lett. 73, 212 (1980); J. Chem. Phys. 76, 1564 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  30. H. Metiu, J. Chem. Phys. 76, 1765 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  31. L. Genzel, T. P. Martin, U. Kreibig, Z. Phys. B 21, 339 (1975); U. Kreibig, L. Genzel, Surf. Sci. 156, 678 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  32. A. Kawabata, R. Kubo, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 21, 1765 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  33. R. Ruppin, H. Yatom, Phys. Status Solidi B 74, 647 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  34. B. B. Dasgupta, R. Fuchs, Phys. Rev. B 24, 554 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  35. D. M. Wood, N. W. Ashcroft, Phys. Rev. B 25, 6255 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  36. E. Zaremba, B. N. J. Persson, Phys. Rev. B 35, 596 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  37. W. Ekardt, Phys. Rev. B 34, 526 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  38. W. Ekardt, Z. Penzar, Phys. Rev. B 34, 8444 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  39. W. Ekardt, Z. Penzar, M. Sunjic, Phys. Rev. B 33, 3702 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  40. C. Girard, F. Hache, Chem. Phys. 118, 249 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  41. P. B. Johnson, R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  42. D. Courjon, M. Spajer, A. Jalocha, S. Leblanc, “Scanned probe microscopies: STM and beyond,” presented at the Engineering Foundation Conferences, Santa Barbara, Calif. (1991).

1990 (6)

1989 (4)

R. Reddick, R. J. Warnack, T. L. Ferrell, Phys. Rev. B 39, 767 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. Courjon, K. Sarayeddine, M. Spajer, Opt. Commun. 71, 23 (1989).
[CrossRef]

U. Ch. Fisher, D. W. Pohl, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 458 (1989); D. W. Pohl, Adv. Opt. Electron. Micros. 12, 243 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Johner, R. Schaaf, Phys. Rev. B 40, 10231 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

A. Johner, R. Schaaf, A. Schmitt, J. Opt. (Paris) 19, 207 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (3)

T. Takemori, M. Inoue, K. Ohtaka, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 56, 1587 (1987).
[CrossRef]

E. Zaremba, B. N. J. Persson, Phys. Rev. B 35, 596 (1987).
[CrossRef]

C. Girard, F. Hache, Chem. Phys. 118, 249 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (6)

U. Dürig, D. W. Pohl, F. Rohner, J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3318 (1986).
[CrossRef]

E. Betzig, A. Harootunian, M. Isaacson, E. Kratschmer, Biophys. J. 49, 269 (1986);A. Harootunian, E. Betzig, M. Isaacson, A. Lewis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 674 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. Isaacson, A. Lewis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 674 (1986); E. Betzig, M. Isaacson, A. Lewis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2088 (1987).
[CrossRef]

W. Ekardt, Phys. Rev. B 34, 526 (1986).
[CrossRef]

W. Ekardt, Z. Penzar, Phys. Rev. B 34, 8444 (1986).
[CrossRef]

W. Ekardt, Z. Penzar, M. Sunjic, Phys. Rev. B 33, 3702 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (3)

A. Wokaun, Mol. Phys. 56, 1 (1985); R. Ruppin, Surf. Sci. 127, 108 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ch. Fischer, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 3, 386 (1985); J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 1239 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. Meier, A. Wokaun, F. P. Liao, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 931 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (2)

G. W. Ford, W. H. Weber, Phys. Rep. 113, 195 (1984), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, M. Lanz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982 (3)

D. M. Wood, N. W. Ashcroft, Phys. Rev. B 25, 6255 (1982).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Marvin, F. Toigo, Phys. Rev. A 25, 782 (1982).
[CrossRef]

H. Metiu, J. Chem. Phys. 76, 1765 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

B. B. Dasgupta, R. Fuchs, Phys. Rev. B 24, 554 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (2)

G. Korzeniewski, T. Maniv, H. Metiu, Chem. Phys. Lett. 73, 212 (1980); J. Chem. Phys. 76, 1564 (1982).
[CrossRef]

T. S. Rahman, A. A. Maradudin, Phys. Rev. B 12, 504 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

R. Ruppin, H. Yatom, Phys. Status Solidi B 74, 647 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

L. Genzel, T. P. Martin, U. Kreibig, Z. Phys. B 21, 339 (1975); U. Kreibig, L. Genzel, Surf. Sci. 156, 678 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1972 (2)

B. Linder, D. A. Rabenold, Adv. Quantum Chem. 6, 203 (1972).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Johnson, R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

B. Linder, Adv. Chem. Phys. 12, 225 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

A. Kawabata, R. Kubo, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 21, 1765 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

A. D. McLachlan, Mol. Phys. 7, 381 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Ashcroft, N. W.

D. M. Wood, N. W. Ashcroft, Phys. Rev. B 25, 6255 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Betzig, E.

E. Betzig, A. Harootunian, M. Isaacson, E. Kratschmer, Biophys. J. 49, 269 (1986);A. Harootunian, E. Betzig, M. Isaacson, A. Lewis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 674 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Blger, B.

N. F. Van Hulst, N. P. de Boer, B. Blger, Trans. R. Microsc. Soc. 1, 239 (1990).

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson, R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Courjon, D.

B. Labani, C. Girard, D. Courjon, D. Van Labeke, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 936 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. Girard, D. Courjon, Phys. Rev. B 42, 9340 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. Courjon, J. M. Vigoureux, M. Spajer, K. Sarayeddine, S. Leblanc, Appl. Opt. 29, 3734 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Courjon, K. Sarayeddine, M. Spajer, Opt. Commun. 71, 23 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. Courjon, M. Spajer, A. Jalocha, S. Leblanc, “Scanned probe microscopies: STM and beyond,” presented at the Engineering Foundation Conferences, Santa Barbara, Calif. (1991).

Dasgupta, B. B.

B. B. Dasgupta, R. Fuchs, Phys. Rev. B 24, 554 (1981).
[CrossRef]

de Boer, N. P.

N. F. Van Hulst, N. P. de Boer, B. Blger, Trans. R. Microsc. Soc. 1, 239 (1990).

de Fornel, F.

F. de Fornel, J. P. Goudonnet, L. Salamon, E. Lesniewska, in Optical Storage and Scanning Technology, T. Wilson, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1139, 77 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Denk, W.

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, M. Lanz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, U. Dürig, in Micron and Submicron Integrated Circuit Metrology, K. M. Monahan, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.565, 56 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Dürig, U.

U. Dürig, D. W. Pohl, F. Rohner, J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3318 (1986).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, U. Dürig, in Micron and Submicron Integrated Circuit Metrology, K. M. Monahan, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.565, 56 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Ekardt, W.

W. Ekardt, Z. Penzar, Phys. Rev. B 34, 8444 (1986).
[CrossRef]

W. Ekardt, Z. Penzar, M. Sunjic, Phys. Rev. B 33, 3702 (1986).
[CrossRef]

W. Ekardt, Phys. Rev. B 34, 526 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ferrell, T. L.

R. Reddick, R. J. Warnack, T. L. Ferrell, Phys. Rev. B 39, 767 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, Y. Ch.

Y. Ch. Fischer, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 3, 386 (1985); J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 1239 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Fisher, U. Ch.

U. Ch. Fisher, D. W. Pohl, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 458 (1989); D. W. Pohl, Adv. Opt. Electron. Micros. 12, 243 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ford, G. W.

G. W. Ford, W. H. Weber, Phys. Rep. 113, 195 (1984), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Fuchs, R.

B. B. Dasgupta, R. Fuchs, Phys. Rev. B 24, 554 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Genzel, L.

L. Genzel, T. P. Martin, U. Kreibig, Z. Phys. B 21, 339 (1975); U. Kreibig, L. Genzel, Surf. Sci. 156, 678 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Girard, C.

Goudonnet, J. P.

F. de Fornel, J. P. Goudonnet, L. Salamon, E. Lesniewska, in Optical Storage and Scanning Technology, T. Wilson, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1139, 77 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Guerra, J. M.

Hache, F.

C. Girard, F. Hache, Chem. Phys. 118, 249 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Harootunian, A.

E. Betzig, A. Harootunian, M. Isaacson, E. Kratschmer, Biophys. J. 49, 269 (1986);A. Harootunian, E. Betzig, M. Isaacson, A. Lewis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 674 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, M.

T. Takemori, M. Inoue, K. Ohtaka, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 56, 1587 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Isaacson, M.

E. Betzig, A. Harootunian, M. Isaacson, E. Kratschmer, Biophys. J. 49, 269 (1986);A. Harootunian, E. Betzig, M. Isaacson, A. Lewis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 674 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. Isaacson, A. Lewis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 674 (1986); E. Betzig, M. Isaacson, A. Lewis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2088 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Jalocha, A.

D. Courjon, M. Spajer, A. Jalocha, S. Leblanc, “Scanned probe microscopies: STM and beyond,” presented at the Engineering Foundation Conferences, Santa Barbara, Calif. (1991).

Johner, A.

A. Johner, R. Schaaf, Phys. Rev. B 40, 10231 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Johner, R. Schaaf, A. Schmitt, J. Opt. (Paris) 19, 207 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson, R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Kawabata, A.

A. Kawabata, R. Kubo, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 21, 1765 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Keller, O.

O. Keller, B. Sonderkaer, in Optomechanical and Electro-Optical Design of Industrial Systems, R. J. Bieringer, K. G. Harding, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.959, 344 (1988).

Korzeniewski, G.

G. Korzeniewski, T. Maniv, H. Metiu, Chem. Phys. Lett. 73, 212 (1980); J. Chem. Phys. 76, 1564 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kratschmer, E.

E. Betzig, A. Harootunian, M. Isaacson, E. Kratschmer, Biophys. J. 49, 269 (1986);A. Harootunian, E. Betzig, M. Isaacson, A. Lewis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 674 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Kreibig, U.

L. Genzel, T. P. Martin, U. Kreibig, Z. Phys. B 21, 339 (1975); U. Kreibig, L. Genzel, Surf. Sci. 156, 678 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Kubo, R.

A. Kawabata, R. Kubo, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 21, 1765 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Labani, B.

Lanz, M.

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, M. Lanz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Leblanc, S.

D. Courjon, J. M. Vigoureux, M. Spajer, K. Sarayeddine, S. Leblanc, Appl. Opt. 29, 3734 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Courjon, M. Spajer, A. Jalocha, S. Leblanc, “Scanned probe microscopies: STM and beyond,” presented at the Engineering Foundation Conferences, Santa Barbara, Calif. (1991).

Lesniewska, E.

F. de Fornel, J. P. Goudonnet, L. Salamon, E. Lesniewska, in Optical Storage and Scanning Technology, T. Wilson, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1139, 77 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, A.

M. Isaacson, A. Lewis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 674 (1986); E. Betzig, M. Isaacson, A. Lewis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2088 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Liao, F. P.

Linder, B.

B. Linder, D. A. Rabenold, Adv. Quantum Chem. 6, 203 (1972).
[CrossRef]

B. Linder, Adv. Chem. Phys. 12, 225 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Maniv, T.

G. Korzeniewski, T. Maniv, H. Metiu, Chem. Phys. Lett. 73, 212 (1980); J. Chem. Phys. 76, 1564 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Maradudin, A. A.

T. S. Rahman, A. A. Maradudin, Phys. Rev. B 12, 504 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Martin, T. P.

L. Genzel, T. P. Martin, U. Kreibig, Z. Phys. B 21, 339 (1975); U. Kreibig, L. Genzel, Surf. Sci. 156, 678 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Marvin, A. M.

A. M. Marvin, F. Toigo, Phys. Rev. A 25, 782 (1982).
[CrossRef]

McLachlan, A. D.

A. D. McLachlan, Mol. Phys. 7, 381 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Meier, M.

Metiu, H.

H. Metiu, J. Chem. Phys. 76, 1765 (1982).
[CrossRef]

G. Korzeniewski, T. Maniv, H. Metiu, Chem. Phys. Lett. 73, 212 (1980); J. Chem. Phys. 76, 1564 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Ohtaka, K.

T. Takemori, M. Inoue, K. Ohtaka, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 56, 1587 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Penzar, Z.

W. Ekardt, Z. Penzar, M. Sunjic, Phys. Rev. B 33, 3702 (1986).
[CrossRef]

W. Ekardt, Z. Penzar, Phys. Rev. B 34, 8444 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Persson, B. N. J.

E. Zaremba, B. N. J. Persson, Phys. Rev. B 35, 596 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Pohl, D. W.

U. Ch. Fisher, D. W. Pohl, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 458 (1989); D. W. Pohl, Adv. Opt. Electron. Micros. 12, 243 (1991).
[CrossRef]

U. Dürig, D. W. Pohl, F. Rohner, J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3318 (1986).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, M. Lanz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, U. Dürig, in Micron and Submicron Integrated Circuit Metrology, K. M. Monahan, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.565, 56 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Rabenold, D. A.

B. Linder, D. A. Rabenold, Adv. Quantum Chem. 6, 203 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Rahman, T. S.

T. S. Rahman, A. A. Maradudin, Phys. Rev. B 12, 504 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Reddick, R.

R. Reddick, R. J. Warnack, T. L. Ferrell, Phys. Rev. B 39, 767 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Rohner, F.

U. Dürig, D. W. Pohl, F. Rohner, J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3318 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ruppin, R.

R. Ruppin, H. Yatom, Phys. Status Solidi B 74, 647 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Salamon, L.

F. de Fornel, J. P. Goudonnet, L. Salamon, E. Lesniewska, in Optical Storage and Scanning Technology, T. Wilson, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1139, 77 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sarayeddine, K.

Schaaf, R.

A. Johner, R. Schaaf, Phys. Rev. B 40, 10231 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Johner, R. Schaaf, A. Schmitt, J. Opt. (Paris) 19, 207 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, A.

A. Johner, R. Schaaf, A. Schmitt, J. Opt. (Paris) 19, 207 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sonderkaer, B.

O. Keller, B. Sonderkaer, in Optomechanical and Electro-Optical Design of Industrial Systems, R. J. Bieringer, K. G. Harding, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.959, 344 (1988).

Spajer, M.

D. Courjon, J. M. Vigoureux, M. Spajer, K. Sarayeddine, S. Leblanc, Appl. Opt. 29, 3734 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Girard, M. Spajer, Appl. Opt. 29, 3726 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Courjon, K. Sarayeddine, M. Spajer, Opt. Commun. 71, 23 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. Courjon, M. Spajer, A. Jalocha, S. Leblanc, “Scanned probe microscopies: STM and beyond,” presented at the Engineering Foundation Conferences, Santa Barbara, Calif. (1991).

Sunjic, M.

W. Ekardt, Z. Penzar, M. Sunjic, Phys. Rev. B 33, 3702 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Takemori, T.

T. Takemori, M. Inoue, K. Ohtaka, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 56, 1587 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Toigo, F.

A. M. Marvin, F. Toigo, Phys. Rev. A 25, 782 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Van Hulst, N. F.

N. F. Van Hulst, N. P. de Boer, B. Blger, Trans. R. Microsc. Soc. 1, 239 (1990).

Van Labeke, D.

Vigoureux, J. M.

Warnack, R. J.

R. Reddick, R. J. Warnack, T. L. Ferrell, Phys. Rev. B 39, 767 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Weber, W. H.

G. W. Ford, W. H. Weber, Phys. Rep. 113, 195 (1984), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Wokaun, A.

M. Meier, A. Wokaun, F. P. Liao, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 931 (1985).
[CrossRef]

A. Wokaun, Mol. Phys. 56, 1 (1985); R. Ruppin, Surf. Sci. 127, 108 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Wood, D. M.

D. M. Wood, N. W. Ashcroft, Phys. Rev. B 25, 6255 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Yatom, H.

R. Ruppin, H. Yatom, Phys. Status Solidi B 74, 647 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Zaremba, E.

E. Zaremba, B. N. J. Persson, Phys. Rev. B 35, 596 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Chem. Phys. (1)

B. Linder, Adv. Chem. Phys. 12, 225 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Quantum Chem. (1)

B. Linder, D. A. Rabenold, Adv. Quantum Chem. 6, 203 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, M. Lanz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. Isaacson, A. Lewis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 674 (1986); E. Betzig, M. Isaacson, A. Lewis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2088 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J. (1)

E. Betzig, A. Harootunian, M. Isaacson, E. Kratschmer, Biophys. J. 49, 269 (1986);A. Harootunian, E. Betzig, M. Isaacson, A. Lewis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 674 (1986).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Hexagonal geometry of layered nanoparticles. The spheres are schematized by large circles with oblique lines. The primitive cell is defined by the two vectors a1 and a2.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Geometry of the subwavelength detector interacting with a solid surface. The vector Rp = (Lp, Zp) represents the position of the apex of the tip with respect to an absolute frame (X, Y, Z). The microscopic centers inside the probe tip are located at the position Rk = Rp + rk. The symbol ∑ represents a surface located in the wave zone inside the detector. The vector R0 defines the position of a point of this surface with respect to the moving frame (Xp, Yp, Zp) of the tip.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Tridimensional representations of the intensity I(Rp) detected by a spherical probe tip of radius r = 5 nm. The object is a monolayer of 49 spheres of index n = 1.5 and of radius a = 20 nm. These images have been calculated in the constant-distance mode D ˜ = Zpr − 2a = 1 nm and for a weak aperture angle (α = 10°) (see Eq. (43)]: (a) p-polarized mode, (b) s-polarized mode.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Behavior of the detected intensity as a function of the frequency ω0 above a set of n gold spheres deposited upon a perfectly planar surface of index N = 1.5. The detector is placed at the position Rp = (0, 0, Zp); a = 20 nm, D ˜ = Zpr − 2a = 1 nm, and the external field is chosen in the p-polarized mode. (a) n = 1, (b) n = 9, (c) n = 25, (d) n = 49.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Frequency-dependent study of p-polarized images of gold spheres deposited upon a perfectly planar substrate of index N = 1.5. The detector is a spherical probe tip of radius r =7.5 nm, and D ˜ = 1 nm. (a) ω0 = 1.5 eV, (b) ω0 = 2.24 eV, (c) ω0 = 2.39 eV.

Equations (45)

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E 0 x ( r , ω ) = π E 0 exp ( - K z ) [ δ ( ω - ω 0 ) T × exp ( - i k · l ) + δ ( ω + ω 0 ) T * exp ( i k · l ) ] , E 0 y ( r , ω ) = E 0 z ( r , ω ) = 0
E 0 y ( r , ω ) = π E 0 exp ( - K z ) [ δ ( ω - ω 0 ) T δ c × exp ( - i k · l ) + δ ( ω + ω 0 ) T * δ c * exp ( i k · l ) ] , E 0 z ( r , ω ) = - π E 0 exp ( - K z ) δ s [ δ ( ω - ω 0 ) T × exp ( - i k · l ) + δ ( ω + ω 0 ) T * exp ( i k · l ) , E 0 x ( r , ω ) = 0 ,
K = k 0 ( sin 2 θ 0 - sin 2 θ 1 ) 1 / 2 ,             k 0 = ω 0 / c ;
δ s = ( sin θ 0 ) / ( sin θ 1 ) ,             δ c = i K / ( k 0 sin θ 1 ) ,
k = ( 0 , k 0 sin θ 0 ) ,
E ( r , ω ) = S α ( r , r , ω ) · m ( ω ) ,
E ( R i , ω ) = E 0 ( R i , ω ) + j = 1 n + m S s ( R i , R j , ω ) · α j ( ω ) · E ( R j , ω ) + j 1 S 0 ( R i , R j , ω ) · α j ( ω ) · E ( R j , ω ) .
F 0 ( ω ) = [ E 0 ( R 1 , ω ) , E 0 ( R 2 , ω ) , , E 0 ( R n , ω ) , ,             E 0 ( R n + m , ω ) ] ,
F ( ω ) = [ E ( R 1 , ω ) , E ( R 2 , ω ) , , E ( R n , ω ) , , E ( R n + m , ω ) ] .
F ( ω ) = F 0 ( ω ) + B ( ω ) · F ( ω ) ,
B ( ω ) = ( B p r ( ω ) B p o ( ω ) B o p ( ω ) B o b ( ω ) ) .
B p r ( ω ) = [ S 11 ( s ) H 12 H 1 n H 21 S 22 ( s ) H n 1 S n n ( s ) ] · α p ( ω ) ,
S i j ( s ) = S s ( R i , R j , ω ) ,             H i j = S 0 ( R i , R j , ω ) + S s ( R i , R j , ω ) .
B o b ( ω ) = [ S n + 1 , n + 1 ( s ) H n + 1 , n + 2 H n + 1 , n + m H n + 2 , n + 1 S n + 2 , n + 2 ( s ) H n + m , n + 1 S n + m , n + m ( s ) ] · α s ( ω ) .
B p o ( ω ) = [ H 1 , n + 1 H 1 , n + m H 2 , n + 1 H n , n + 1 H n , n + m ] · α s ( ω ) ,
B o p ( ω ) = [ H n + 1 , 1 H n + 1 , n H n + 2 , 1 H n + m , 1 H n + m , n ] · α p ( ω ) .
F ( ω ) = M ( ω ) · F 0 ( ω ) ,
M ( ω ) = [ I - B ( ω ) ] - 1 .
F ( ω ) = B ( ω ) · F ( ω ) .
D ( R p , ω ) = det [ I - B ( ω ) ] = 0 ,
α s ( ω ) = a 3 [ 1 - F 1 ( a , ω ) / a 2 F 1 ( a , ω ) / a + 1 ] ,
F 1 ( a , ω ) = 2 a k j 1 2 ( k a ) k - 2 j 1 2 ( k a ) - j 2 ( k a ) j 0 ( k a ) m - 1 ( ω , k ) ,
r = ( 2 a ) k j 1 ( k r ) j 1 ( k a ) [ k 2 ( j 1 2 ( k a ) - j 2 ( k a ) j 0 ( k a ) ] - 1 ,
α s ( ω ) = a 3 ( n 2 - 1 n 2 + 2 ) ,
F ( t ) = 1 2 π F ( ω ) exp ( i ω t ) d ω .
F ( t ) = Re [ exp ( i ω 0 t ) M ( ω 0 ) · V 0 ] ,
V 0 = E 0 T [ exp ( - K Z 1 - i k · L 1 ) , 0 , 0 ; exp ( - K Z 2 - i k · L 2 ) , 0 , 0 ; ; exp ( - K Z n + m - i k · L n + m ) , 0 , 0 ] .
V 0 = E 0 T [ 0 , δ c exp ( K Z 1 - i k · L 1 + i π / 2 ) , - δ s exp ( - K Z 1 - i k · L 1 ) ; ; 0 , δ c × exp ( - K Z n + m - i k · L n + m + i π / 2 ) , - δ s exp ( - K Z n + m - i k · L n + m ) ] .
μ α ( R k , t ) = α p ( ω 0 ) Re [ exp ( i ω 0 t ) V k , α ( ω 0 ) ] ,
V k , α ( ω ) = j , β M k , α ; j , β ( ω 0 ) V 0 j , β
R k = R p + r k .
B k ( t ) = 1 c 2 R 0 k 2 [ μ ¨ ( R k , t ) R 0 k ] ,
μ ¨ ( R k , t ) = m ( 1 ) ( R k ) cos ( ω 0 t ) + m ( 2 ) ( R k ) sin ( ω 0 t ) .
m α ( 1 ) ( R k ) = - ω 0 2 Re ( V k , α ) α p ( ω 0 ) ,
m α ( 2 ) ( R k ) = ω 0 2 Im ( V k , α ) α p ( ω 0 ) .
Φ ( R 0 ) = 1 4 c 3 ω 0 R 0 R 0 { [ k m ( 1 ) ( R k ) R 0 k R 0 k 2 ] 2 + [ k m ( 2 ) ( R k ) R 0 k R 0 k 2 ] 2 } .
R 0 ( n 1 , n 2 ) = n 1 b 1 + n 2 b 2 + R r u ^ z ,             n 1 b 1 + n 2 b 2 R a ,
b 1 = b ( 1 , 0 ) ,             b 2 = b ( 0 , 1 ) ,
I ( R p ) = b 2 4 c 3 ω 0 n 1 , n 2 R 0 ( n 1 , n 2 ) · u ^ z R 0 ( n 1 , n 2 ) × [ T ( 1 ) ( n 1 , n 2 ) + T ( 2 ) ( n 1 , n 2 ) ] ,
T ( γ ) ( n 1 , n 2 ) = [ k m ( γ ) ( R k ) ( R 0 - r k ) R 0 - r k 2 ] 2 ,             γ = 1 or 2.
α p ( ω ) = r 3 ( n p 2 - 1 ) / ( n p 2 + 2 ) ,
I ( R p ) = b 2 4 c 3 ω 0 n 1 , n 2 u ^ z · R 0 ( n 1 , n 2 ) R 0 5 ( n 1 , n 2 ) { [ m ( 1 ) ( R p ) R 0 ( n 1 , n 2 ) ] 2 + [ m ( 2 ) ( R p ) R 0 ( n 1 , n 2 ) ] 2 } .
R a / R 0 = tan α 1 ,
I ( R p ) = R a 2 α s 2 ( ω 0 ) ω 0 5 16 π c 3 R 0 2 { Re 2 [ V 1 , x ( ω 0 ) ] + Re 2 [ V 1 , y ( ω 0 ) ] + Im 2 [ V 1 , x ( ω 0 ) ] + Im 2 [ V 1 , y ( ω 0 ) ] } .
( ω 0 ) = 1 + β [ 1 - ( ω 0 / Ω ) 2 ] - 1 .

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