Abstract

The usefulness of the atomic-beam laser-rf double-resonance technique as an aid in the interpretation of complex optical spectra is investigated. A 2-Å-wide region (centered on 5441 Å) in the spectrum of Tb i is selected for the test. Some 25 atomic lines, many with severely overlapping hyperfine structure (hfs) patterns, had been observed in the region, and only a few of these had been successfully classified. The procedure followed for each line was to measure the hfs intervals of the lower level precisely and then to compare them with the known intervals of previously designated low levels. The procedure leads to a successful identification for only about half of the levels studied, owing principally to the small size of the ensemble of levels with known splittings. The method does have advantages, however, and is shown to be a useful supplement to conventional spectroscopic techniques. A number of new line classifications, level designations, and hfs intervals are reported.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. For the (4f-shell) rare-earth elements, the energy levels identified from these studies are summarized in Atomic Energy Levels, the Rare-Earth Elements, National Bureau of Standards Reference Data Service Circ. No. 60, W. C. Martin, R. Zalubas, L. Hagan eds. (U.S. GPO, Washington, D.C., 1978).
  2. See, for example, W. J. Childs, L. S. Goodman, “Double-resonance, fluorescence spectroscopy, and hyperfine structure in Pr i,” Phys. Rev. A 24, 1342–1349 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Blaise, in Gmelin Handbuch der Anorganischen Chemie, Seltenerdelemente, G. Kirschstein, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1976), Teil B4, pp. 242–255.
  4. (a)Most of the levels identified in this work are listed in Refs. 1 and 3. The original work was performed by many people. Especially important is a series of six papers by Klinkenberg and co-workers; they are referred to as Refs. 4(a)–4(f). P. F. A. Klinkenberg, “Structure of the spectrum of neutral terbium, Tb i,” Physica (Utrecht) 32, 1113–1147 (1966); (b)P. F. A. Klinkenberg, E. Meinders, “Structure of the spectrum of neutral terbium, Tb i, part II,” Physica (Utrecht) 32, 1617–1632 (1966); (c)P. F. A. Klinkenberg, “Structure of the spectrum of neutral terbium, Tb i, part III,” Physica (Utrecht) 37, 197–214 (1967); (d)E. Meinders, P. F. A. Klinkenberg, “Structure of the spectrum of neutral terbium, Tb i, part IV,” Physica (Utrecht) 38, 253–274 (1968); (e)P. F. A. Klinkenberg, E. Meinders, “Structure of the spectrum of neutral terbium, Tb i, part V,” Physica (Utrecht) 42, 213–241 (1969); (f)P. F. A. Klinkenberg, “Structure of the spectrum of neutral terbium, Tb i, part VI,” Physica (Utrecht) 57, 594–615 (1972).
  5. W. J. Childs, “Hyperfine structure of many atomic levels of 159Tb and the 159Tb nuclear electric-quadrupole moment,” Phys. Rev. A 2, 316–336 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. J. Childs, L. S. Goodman, “Assignment of unclassified lines in Tb i through high-resolution laser fluorescence measurements of hyperfine structure,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 815–819 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  7. W. J. Childs, H. Crosswhite, L. S. Goodman, V. Pfeufer, “Hyperfine structure of 4fN6s2configurations in 159Tb, 161,163Dy, and 169Tm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 1, 22–29 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  8. See in particular C. Bauche-Arnoult, J. Sinzelle, A. Bachelier, “Extensive theoretical analysis of the f6d and f8d configurations. Application to 4f85d 6s2 in Tb i,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 368–374 (1978), and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. F. A. Klinkenberg, Zeeman Laboratorium, Amsterdam, The Netherlands (personal communication, 1984).
  10. W. J. Childs, O. Poulsen, L. S. Goodman, “Laser-rf double-resonance spectroscopy in the samarium I spectrum: hyperfine structures and isotope shifts,” Phys. Rev. A 19, 160–167 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Gerstenkorn, P. Luc, Atlas du spectre d’absorption de la molecule d’iode, 14 000 cm−1–15600 cm−1 (Editions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, France, 1978); S. Gerstenkorn, P. Luc, Rev. Phys. Appl. 14, 791 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  12. The theory is summarized in many places. See, for example, W. J. Childs, “Hyperfine and Zeeman studies of metastable atomic states by atomic-beam magnetic resonance,” Case Stud. At. Phys. 3, 215–304 (1973).
  13. P. F. A. Klinkenberg, Zeeman Laboratorium, Amsterdam, The Netherlands (personal communication, 1989).

1984 (1)

1981 (1)

See, for example, W. J. Childs, L. S. Goodman, “Double-resonance, fluorescence spectroscopy, and hyperfine structure in Pr i,” Phys. Rev. A 24, 1342–1349 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1979 (2)

W. J. Childs, O. Poulsen, L. S. Goodman, “Laser-rf double-resonance spectroscopy in the samarium I spectrum: hyperfine structures and isotope shifts,” Phys. Rev. A 19, 160–167 (1979).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Childs, L. S. Goodman, “Assignment of unclassified lines in Tb i through high-resolution laser fluorescence measurements of hyperfine structure,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 815–819 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

1973 (1)

The theory is summarized in many places. See, for example, W. J. Childs, “Hyperfine and Zeeman studies of metastable atomic states by atomic-beam magnetic resonance,” Case Stud. At. Phys. 3, 215–304 (1973).

1970 (1)

W. J. Childs, “Hyperfine structure of many atomic levels of 159Tb and the 159Tb nuclear electric-quadrupole moment,” Phys. Rev. A 2, 316–336 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

(a)Most of the levels identified in this work are listed in Refs. 1 and 3. The original work was performed by many people. Especially important is a series of six papers by Klinkenberg and co-workers; they are referred to as Refs. 4(a)–4(f). P. F. A. Klinkenberg, “Structure of the spectrum of neutral terbium, Tb i,” Physica (Utrecht) 32, 1113–1147 (1966); (b)P. F. A. Klinkenberg, E. Meinders, “Structure of the spectrum of neutral terbium, Tb i, part II,” Physica (Utrecht) 32, 1617–1632 (1966); (c)P. F. A. Klinkenberg, “Structure of the spectrum of neutral terbium, Tb i, part III,” Physica (Utrecht) 37, 197–214 (1967); (d)E. Meinders, P. F. A. Klinkenberg, “Structure of the spectrum of neutral terbium, Tb i, part IV,” Physica (Utrecht) 38, 253–274 (1968); (e)P. F. A. Klinkenberg, E. Meinders, “Structure of the spectrum of neutral terbium, Tb i, part V,” Physica (Utrecht) 42, 213–241 (1969); (f)P. F. A. Klinkenberg, “Structure of the spectrum of neutral terbium, Tb i, part VI,” Physica (Utrecht) 57, 594–615 (1972).

Bachelier, A.

Bauche-Arnoult, C.

Blaise, J.

J. Blaise, in Gmelin Handbuch der Anorganischen Chemie, Seltenerdelemente, G. Kirschstein, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1976), Teil B4, pp. 242–255.

Childs, W. J.

W. J. Childs, H. Crosswhite, L. S. Goodman, V. Pfeufer, “Hyperfine structure of 4fN6s2configurations in 159Tb, 161,163Dy, and 169Tm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 1, 22–29 (1984).
[CrossRef]

See, for example, W. J. Childs, L. S. Goodman, “Double-resonance, fluorescence spectroscopy, and hyperfine structure in Pr i,” Phys. Rev. A 24, 1342–1349 (1981).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Childs, L. S. Goodman, “Assignment of unclassified lines in Tb i through high-resolution laser fluorescence measurements of hyperfine structure,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 815–819 (1979).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Childs, O. Poulsen, L. S. Goodman, “Laser-rf double-resonance spectroscopy in the samarium I spectrum: hyperfine structures and isotope shifts,” Phys. Rev. A 19, 160–167 (1979).
[CrossRef]

The theory is summarized in many places. See, for example, W. J. Childs, “Hyperfine and Zeeman studies of metastable atomic states by atomic-beam magnetic resonance,” Case Stud. At. Phys. 3, 215–304 (1973).

W. J. Childs, “Hyperfine structure of many atomic levels of 159Tb and the 159Tb nuclear electric-quadrupole moment,” Phys. Rev. A 2, 316–336 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Crosswhite, H.

Gerstenkorn, S.

S. Gerstenkorn, P. Luc, Atlas du spectre d’absorption de la molecule d’iode, 14 000 cm−1–15600 cm−1 (Editions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, France, 1978); S. Gerstenkorn, P. Luc, Rev. Phys. Appl. 14, 791 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, L. S.

W. J. Childs, H. Crosswhite, L. S. Goodman, V. Pfeufer, “Hyperfine structure of 4fN6s2configurations in 159Tb, 161,163Dy, and 169Tm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 1, 22–29 (1984).
[CrossRef]

See, for example, W. J. Childs, L. S. Goodman, “Double-resonance, fluorescence spectroscopy, and hyperfine structure in Pr i,” Phys. Rev. A 24, 1342–1349 (1981).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Childs, L. S. Goodman, “Assignment of unclassified lines in Tb i through high-resolution laser fluorescence measurements of hyperfine structure,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 815–819 (1979).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Childs, O. Poulsen, L. S. Goodman, “Laser-rf double-resonance spectroscopy in the samarium I spectrum: hyperfine structures and isotope shifts,” Phys. Rev. A 19, 160–167 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Klinkenberg, P. F. A.

(a)Most of the levels identified in this work are listed in Refs. 1 and 3. The original work was performed by many people. Especially important is a series of six papers by Klinkenberg and co-workers; they are referred to as Refs. 4(a)–4(f). P. F. A. Klinkenberg, “Structure of the spectrum of neutral terbium, Tb i,” Physica (Utrecht) 32, 1113–1147 (1966); (b)P. F. A. Klinkenberg, E. Meinders, “Structure of the spectrum of neutral terbium, Tb i, part II,” Physica (Utrecht) 32, 1617–1632 (1966); (c)P. F. A. Klinkenberg, “Structure of the spectrum of neutral terbium, Tb i, part III,” Physica (Utrecht) 37, 197–214 (1967); (d)E. Meinders, P. F. A. Klinkenberg, “Structure of the spectrum of neutral terbium, Tb i, part IV,” Physica (Utrecht) 38, 253–274 (1968); (e)P. F. A. Klinkenberg, E. Meinders, “Structure of the spectrum of neutral terbium, Tb i, part V,” Physica (Utrecht) 42, 213–241 (1969); (f)P. F. A. Klinkenberg, “Structure of the spectrum of neutral terbium, Tb i, part VI,” Physica (Utrecht) 57, 594–615 (1972).

P. F. A. Klinkenberg, Zeeman Laboratorium, Amsterdam, The Netherlands (personal communication, 1984).

P. F. A. Klinkenberg, Zeeman Laboratorium, Amsterdam, The Netherlands (personal communication, 1989).

Luc, P.

S. Gerstenkorn, P. Luc, Atlas du spectre d’absorption de la molecule d’iode, 14 000 cm−1–15600 cm−1 (Editions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, France, 1978); S. Gerstenkorn, P. Luc, Rev. Phys. Appl. 14, 791 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Pfeufer, V.

Poulsen, O.

W. J. Childs, O. Poulsen, L. S. Goodman, “Laser-rf double-resonance spectroscopy in the samarium I spectrum: hyperfine structures and isotope shifts,” Phys. Rev. A 19, 160–167 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Sinzelle, J.

Case Stud. At. Phys. (1)

The theory is summarized in many places. See, for example, W. J. Childs, “Hyperfine and Zeeman studies of metastable atomic states by atomic-beam magnetic resonance,” Case Stud. At. Phys. 3, 215–304 (1973).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Phys. Rev. A (3)

See, for example, W. J. Childs, L. S. Goodman, “Double-resonance, fluorescence spectroscopy, and hyperfine structure in Pr i,” Phys. Rev. A 24, 1342–1349 (1981).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Childs, “Hyperfine structure of many atomic levels of 159Tb and the 159Tb nuclear electric-quadrupole moment,” Phys. Rev. A 2, 316–336 (1970).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Childs, O. Poulsen, L. S. Goodman, “Laser-rf double-resonance spectroscopy in the samarium I spectrum: hyperfine structures and isotope shifts,” Phys. Rev. A 19, 160–167 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Physica (Utrecht) (1)

(a)Most of the levels identified in this work are listed in Refs. 1 and 3. The original work was performed by many people. Especially important is a series of six papers by Klinkenberg and co-workers; they are referred to as Refs. 4(a)–4(f). P. F. A. Klinkenberg, “Structure of the spectrum of neutral terbium, Tb i,” Physica (Utrecht) 32, 1113–1147 (1966); (b)P. F. A. Klinkenberg, E. Meinders, “Structure of the spectrum of neutral terbium, Tb i, part II,” Physica (Utrecht) 32, 1617–1632 (1966); (c)P. F. A. Klinkenberg, “Structure of the spectrum of neutral terbium, Tb i, part III,” Physica (Utrecht) 37, 197–214 (1967); (d)E. Meinders, P. F. A. Klinkenberg, “Structure of the spectrum of neutral terbium, Tb i, part IV,” Physica (Utrecht) 38, 253–274 (1968); (e)P. F. A. Klinkenberg, E. Meinders, “Structure of the spectrum of neutral terbium, Tb i, part V,” Physica (Utrecht) 42, 213–241 (1969); (f)P. F. A. Klinkenberg, “Structure of the spectrum of neutral terbium, Tb i, part VI,” Physica (Utrecht) 57, 594–615 (1972).

Other (5)

For the (4f-shell) rare-earth elements, the energy levels identified from these studies are summarized in Atomic Energy Levels, the Rare-Earth Elements, National Bureau of Standards Reference Data Service Circ. No. 60, W. C. Martin, R. Zalubas, L. Hagan eds. (U.S. GPO, Washington, D.C., 1978).

J. Blaise, in Gmelin Handbuch der Anorganischen Chemie, Seltenerdelemente, G. Kirschstein, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1976), Teil B4, pp. 242–255.

S. Gerstenkorn, P. Luc, Atlas du spectre d’absorption de la molecule d’iode, 14 000 cm−1–15600 cm−1 (Editions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, France, 1978); S. Gerstenkorn, P. Luc, Rev. Phys. Appl. 14, 791 (1979).
[CrossRef]

P. F. A. Klinkenberg, Zeeman Laboratorium, Amsterdam, The Netherlands (personal communication, 1984).

P. F. A. Klinkenberg, Zeeman Laboratorium, Amsterdam, The Netherlands (personal communication, 1989).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Portions of typical laser scans through the region centered on 5441.500 Å. The scan range shown is only approximately 10% of the 2.2-Å region studied. For the stronger lines, each designated by λλ followed by the central wavelength, the four diagonal (ΔF = ΔJ) hfs components are indicated. For scan (a), the laser power was 1 mW and the fluorescence was collected through a 4200-Å passband filter. Scans (b) and (c) were performed with 30 mW of laser power; the filter passbands were 4300 Å for (b) and 5200 Å for (c). The complexity of the spectrum is clear.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical laser-rf double-resonance spectrum. The resonant increase in fluorescence as the rf is swept through the region centered on a lower-level hfs interval is clear. The line center corresponds to the interval F = 3–F = 2 for the lower level of the line λλ5441.483.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Classification of Tb i Lines in the 5441-Å Region

Tables Icon

Table 2 Hfs Intervals Δν Measured in the Present Studya

Tables Icon

Table 3 Results of Fits of the Theory to the Lower-Level hfs Intervals Found for the Line λλ5441.440a

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