Abstract

We report results on optical phase conjugation in experimental CdSSe-doped glasses close to a quantum-confined resonance. The dispersion of the Kerr susceptibility is measured in a degenerate four-wave mixing experiment, and it is shown that the nonlinear response is quite different for experimental and commercial glasses. In particular, for the former the spectral dispersion of the nonlinearity exhibits an intensity dependence. The various results can be explained by a competition between three mechanisms corresponding to the saturation of the electronic transitions involved (volume and surface states) by taking into account the efficient trapping of carriers into deep impurity levels.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. For a review see, for instance, C. Flytzanis, F. Hache, M. C. Klein, D. Ricard, P. Roussignol, in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, New York, 1991), Vol. XXIX, p. 321.
    [CrossRef]
  2. N. Peyghambarian, B. Fluegel, D. Hulin, A. Migus, M. Joffre, A. Antonetti, S. W. Koch, M. Lindberg, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12, 2516 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. G. Bawendi, M. L. Wilson, L. Rothberg, P. J. Carroll, T. M. Jedju, M. L. Steigerwald, L. E. Brus, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1623 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. P. Roussignol, D. Ricard, C. Flytzanis, Appl. Phys. A 44, 285 (1987);G. R. Olbright, N. Peyghambarian, S. W. Koch, L. Banyai, Opt. Lett. 12, 413 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. P. Roussignol, D. Ricard, C. Flytzanis, Appl. Phys. B 51, 437 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. Hache, M. C. Klein, D. Ricard, C. Flytzanis, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1802 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. Roussignol, D. Ricard, K. C. Rustagi, C. Flytzanis, Opt. Commun. 55, 143 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. F. Hilinski, P. A. Lucas, Y. Wang, J. Chem. Phys. 89, 3435 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. P. Zheng, L. Shi, F. S. Choa, P. L. Liu, H. S. Kwok, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 643 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Tomita, T. Matsumoto, M. Matsuoka, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 165 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Wang, N. Herron, W. Mahler, A. Suna, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 808 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  12. B. van Wonterghem, S. M. Saltiel, P. M. Rentzepis, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 1823 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. Wang, A. Suna, J. McHugh, E. F. Hilinski, P. A. Lucas, R. D. Johnson, J. Chem. Phys. 92, 6927 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  14. L. Brus, Appl. Phys. A 53, 465 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. C. Klein, F. Hache, D. Ricard, C. Flytzanis, Phys. Rev. B 42, 11123 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. I. Ekimov, loffe Physicotechnical Institute, St. Petersburg 194021, Russia (personal communication);Al. L. Efros, A. V. Rodina, Solid State Commun. 72, 645 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  17. K. Misawa, H. Tao, T. Hayashi, T. Kobayashi, J. Chem. Phys. 94, 4131 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  18. P. Roussignol, M. Kull, D. Ricard, F. de Rougemont, R. Frey, C. Flytzanis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1882 (1987),erratum Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1705 (1989);J. P. Zheng, H. S. Kwok, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1 (1989).
    [CrossRef]

1991 (3)

F. Hache, M. C. Klein, D. Ricard, C. Flytzanis, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1802 (1991).
[CrossRef]

L. Brus, Appl. Phys. A 53, 465 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. Misawa, H. Tao, T. Hayashi, T. Kobayashi, J. Chem. Phys. 94, 4131 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (4)

Y. Wang, A. Suna, J. McHugh, E. F. Hilinski, P. A. Lucas, R. D. Johnson, J. Chem. Phys. 92, 6927 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Klein, F. Hache, D. Ricard, C. Flytzanis, Phys. Rev. B 42, 11123 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Bawendi, M. L. Wilson, L. Rothberg, P. J. Carroll, T. M. Jedju, M. L. Steigerwald, L. E. Brus, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1623 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Roussignol, D. Ricard, C. Flytzanis, Appl. Phys. B 51, 437 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (4)

1988 (2)

E. F. Hilinski, P. A. Lucas, Y. Wang, J. Chem. Phys. 89, 3435 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Zheng, L. Shi, F. S. Choa, P. L. Liu, H. S. Kwok, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 643 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

P. Roussignol, D. Ricard, C. Flytzanis, Appl. Phys. A 44, 285 (1987);G. R. Olbright, N. Peyghambarian, S. W. Koch, L. Banyai, Opt. Lett. 12, 413 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Roussignol, M. Kull, D. Ricard, F. de Rougemont, R. Frey, C. Flytzanis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1882 (1987),erratum Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1705 (1989);J. P. Zheng, H. S. Kwok, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

P. Roussignol, D. Ricard, K. C. Rustagi, C. Flytzanis, Opt. Commun. 55, 143 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Antonetti, A.

N. Peyghambarian, B. Fluegel, D. Hulin, A. Migus, M. Joffre, A. Antonetti, S. W. Koch, M. Lindberg, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12, 2516 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Bawendi, M. G.

M. G. Bawendi, M. L. Wilson, L. Rothberg, P. J. Carroll, T. M. Jedju, M. L. Steigerwald, L. E. Brus, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1623 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brus, L.

L. Brus, Appl. Phys. A 53, 465 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Brus, L. E.

M. G. Bawendi, M. L. Wilson, L. Rothberg, P. J. Carroll, T. M. Jedju, M. L. Steigerwald, L. E. Brus, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1623 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carroll, P. J.

M. G. Bawendi, M. L. Wilson, L. Rothberg, P. J. Carroll, T. M. Jedju, M. L. Steigerwald, L. E. Brus, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1623 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choa, F. S.

J. P. Zheng, L. Shi, F. S. Choa, P. L. Liu, H. S. Kwok, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 643 (1988).
[CrossRef]

de Rougemont, F.

P. Roussignol, M. Kull, D. Ricard, F. de Rougemont, R. Frey, C. Flytzanis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1882 (1987),erratum Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1705 (1989);J. P. Zheng, H. S. Kwok, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ekimov, A. I.

A. I. Ekimov, loffe Physicotechnical Institute, St. Petersburg 194021, Russia (personal communication);Al. L. Efros, A. V. Rodina, Solid State Commun. 72, 645 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Fluegel, B.

N. Peyghambarian, B. Fluegel, D. Hulin, A. Migus, M. Joffre, A. Antonetti, S. W. Koch, M. Lindberg, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12, 2516 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Flytzanis, C.

F. Hache, M. C. Klein, D. Ricard, C. Flytzanis, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1802 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. Roussignol, D. Ricard, C. Flytzanis, Appl. Phys. B 51, 437 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Klein, F. Hache, D. Ricard, C. Flytzanis, Phys. Rev. B 42, 11123 (1990).
[CrossRef]

P. Roussignol, M. Kull, D. Ricard, F. de Rougemont, R. Frey, C. Flytzanis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1882 (1987),erratum Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1705 (1989);J. P. Zheng, H. S. Kwok, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1 (1989).
[CrossRef]

P. Roussignol, D. Ricard, C. Flytzanis, Appl. Phys. A 44, 285 (1987);G. R. Olbright, N. Peyghambarian, S. W. Koch, L. Banyai, Opt. Lett. 12, 413 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Roussignol, D. Ricard, K. C. Rustagi, C. Flytzanis, Opt. Commun. 55, 143 (1985).
[CrossRef]

For a review see, for instance, C. Flytzanis, F. Hache, M. C. Klein, D. Ricard, P. Roussignol, in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, New York, 1991), Vol. XXIX, p. 321.
[CrossRef]

Frey, R.

P. Roussignol, M. Kull, D. Ricard, F. de Rougemont, R. Frey, C. Flytzanis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1882 (1987),erratum Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1705 (1989);J. P. Zheng, H. S. Kwok, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hache, F.

F. Hache, M. C. Klein, D. Ricard, C. Flytzanis, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1802 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Klein, F. Hache, D. Ricard, C. Flytzanis, Phys. Rev. B 42, 11123 (1990).
[CrossRef]

For a review see, for instance, C. Flytzanis, F. Hache, M. C. Klein, D. Ricard, P. Roussignol, in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, New York, 1991), Vol. XXIX, p. 321.
[CrossRef]

Hayashi, T.

K. Misawa, H. Tao, T. Hayashi, T. Kobayashi, J. Chem. Phys. 94, 4131 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Herron, N.

Hilinski, E. F.

Y. Wang, A. Suna, J. McHugh, E. F. Hilinski, P. A. Lucas, R. D. Johnson, J. Chem. Phys. 92, 6927 (1990).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Hilinski, P. A. Lucas, Y. Wang, J. Chem. Phys. 89, 3435 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Hulin, D.

N. Peyghambarian, B. Fluegel, D. Hulin, A. Migus, M. Joffre, A. Antonetti, S. W. Koch, M. Lindberg, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12, 2516 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Jedju, T. M.

M. G. Bawendi, M. L. Wilson, L. Rothberg, P. J. Carroll, T. M. Jedju, M. L. Steigerwald, L. E. Brus, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1623 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joffre, M.

N. Peyghambarian, B. Fluegel, D. Hulin, A. Migus, M. Joffre, A. Antonetti, S. W. Koch, M. Lindberg, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12, 2516 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, R. D.

Y. Wang, A. Suna, J. McHugh, E. F. Hilinski, P. A. Lucas, R. D. Johnson, J. Chem. Phys. 92, 6927 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Klein, M. C.

F. Hache, M. C. Klein, D. Ricard, C. Flytzanis, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1802 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Klein, F. Hache, D. Ricard, C. Flytzanis, Phys. Rev. B 42, 11123 (1990).
[CrossRef]

For a review see, for instance, C. Flytzanis, F. Hache, M. C. Klein, D. Ricard, P. Roussignol, in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, New York, 1991), Vol. XXIX, p. 321.
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, T.

K. Misawa, H. Tao, T. Hayashi, T. Kobayashi, J. Chem. Phys. 94, 4131 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Koch, S. W.

N. Peyghambarian, B. Fluegel, D. Hulin, A. Migus, M. Joffre, A. Antonetti, S. W. Koch, M. Lindberg, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12, 2516 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kull, M.

P. Roussignol, M. Kull, D. Ricard, F. de Rougemont, R. Frey, C. Flytzanis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1882 (1987),erratum Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1705 (1989);J. P. Zheng, H. S. Kwok, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kwok, H. S.

J. P. Zheng, L. Shi, F. S. Choa, P. L. Liu, H. S. Kwok, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 643 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Lindberg, M.

N. Peyghambarian, B. Fluegel, D. Hulin, A. Migus, M. Joffre, A. Antonetti, S. W. Koch, M. Lindberg, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12, 2516 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Liu, P. L.

J. P. Zheng, L. Shi, F. S. Choa, P. L. Liu, H. S. Kwok, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 643 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Lucas, P. A.

Y. Wang, A. Suna, J. McHugh, E. F. Hilinski, P. A. Lucas, R. D. Johnson, J. Chem. Phys. 92, 6927 (1990).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Hilinski, P. A. Lucas, Y. Wang, J. Chem. Phys. 89, 3435 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Mahler, W.

Matsumoto, T.

Matsuoka, M.

McHugh, J.

Y. Wang, A. Suna, J. McHugh, E. F. Hilinski, P. A. Lucas, R. D. Johnson, J. Chem. Phys. 92, 6927 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Migus, A.

N. Peyghambarian, B. Fluegel, D. Hulin, A. Migus, M. Joffre, A. Antonetti, S. W. Koch, M. Lindberg, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12, 2516 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Misawa, K.

K. Misawa, H. Tao, T. Hayashi, T. Kobayashi, J. Chem. Phys. 94, 4131 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

N. Peyghambarian, B. Fluegel, D. Hulin, A. Migus, M. Joffre, A. Antonetti, S. W. Koch, M. Lindberg, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12, 2516 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Rentzepis, P. M.

Ricard, D.

F. Hache, M. C. Klein, D. Ricard, C. Flytzanis, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1802 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. Roussignol, D. Ricard, C. Flytzanis, Appl. Phys. B 51, 437 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Klein, F. Hache, D. Ricard, C. Flytzanis, Phys. Rev. B 42, 11123 (1990).
[CrossRef]

P. Roussignol, M. Kull, D. Ricard, F. de Rougemont, R. Frey, C. Flytzanis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1882 (1987),erratum Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1705 (1989);J. P. Zheng, H. S. Kwok, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1 (1989).
[CrossRef]

P. Roussignol, D. Ricard, C. Flytzanis, Appl. Phys. A 44, 285 (1987);G. R. Olbright, N. Peyghambarian, S. W. Koch, L. Banyai, Opt. Lett. 12, 413 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Roussignol, D. Ricard, K. C. Rustagi, C. Flytzanis, Opt. Commun. 55, 143 (1985).
[CrossRef]

For a review see, for instance, C. Flytzanis, F. Hache, M. C. Klein, D. Ricard, P. Roussignol, in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, New York, 1991), Vol. XXIX, p. 321.
[CrossRef]

Rothberg, L.

M. G. Bawendi, M. L. Wilson, L. Rothberg, P. J. Carroll, T. M. Jedju, M. L. Steigerwald, L. E. Brus, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1623 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roussignol, P.

P. Roussignol, D. Ricard, C. Flytzanis, Appl. Phys. B 51, 437 (1990).
[CrossRef]

P. Roussignol, D. Ricard, C. Flytzanis, Appl. Phys. A 44, 285 (1987);G. R. Olbright, N. Peyghambarian, S. W. Koch, L. Banyai, Opt. Lett. 12, 413 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Roussignol, M. Kull, D. Ricard, F. de Rougemont, R. Frey, C. Flytzanis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1882 (1987),erratum Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1705 (1989);J. P. Zheng, H. S. Kwok, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1 (1989).
[CrossRef]

P. Roussignol, D. Ricard, K. C. Rustagi, C. Flytzanis, Opt. Commun. 55, 143 (1985).
[CrossRef]

For a review see, for instance, C. Flytzanis, F. Hache, M. C. Klein, D. Ricard, P. Roussignol, in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, New York, 1991), Vol. XXIX, p. 321.
[CrossRef]

Rustagi, K. C.

P. Roussignol, D. Ricard, K. C. Rustagi, C. Flytzanis, Opt. Commun. 55, 143 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Saltiel, S. M.

Shi, L.

J. P. Zheng, L. Shi, F. S. Choa, P. L. Liu, H. S. Kwok, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 643 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Steigerwald, M. L.

M. G. Bawendi, M. L. Wilson, L. Rothberg, P. J. Carroll, T. M. Jedju, M. L. Steigerwald, L. E. Brus, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1623 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suna, A.

Y. Wang, A. Suna, J. McHugh, E. F. Hilinski, P. A. Lucas, R. D. Johnson, J. Chem. Phys. 92, 6927 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, N. Herron, W. Mahler, A. Suna, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 808 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Tao, H.

K. Misawa, H. Tao, T. Hayashi, T. Kobayashi, J. Chem. Phys. 94, 4131 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tomita, M.

van Wonterghem, B.

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, A. Suna, J. McHugh, E. F. Hilinski, P. A. Lucas, R. D. Johnson, J. Chem. Phys. 92, 6927 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, N. Herron, W. Mahler, A. Suna, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 808 (1989).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Hilinski, P. A. Lucas, Y. Wang, J. Chem. Phys. 89, 3435 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, M. L.

M. G. Bawendi, M. L. Wilson, L. Rothberg, P. J. Carroll, T. M. Jedju, M. L. Steigerwald, L. E. Brus, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1623 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheng, J. P.

J. P. Zheng, L. Shi, F. S. Choa, P. L. Liu, H. S. Kwok, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 643 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A (2)

P. Roussignol, D. Ricard, C. Flytzanis, Appl. Phys. A 44, 285 (1987);G. R. Olbright, N. Peyghambarian, S. W. Koch, L. Banyai, Opt. Lett. 12, 413 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Brus, Appl. Phys. A 53, 465 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

P. Roussignol, D. Ricard, C. Flytzanis, Appl. Phys. B 51, 437 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. P. Zheng, L. Shi, F. S. Choa, P. L. Liu, H. S. Kwok, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 643 (1988).
[CrossRef]

P. Roussignol, M. Kull, D. Ricard, F. de Rougemont, R. Frey, C. Flytzanis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1882 (1987),erratum Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1705 (1989);J. P. Zheng, H. S. Kwok, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1 (1989).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

N. Peyghambarian, B. Fluegel, D. Hulin, A. Migus, M. Joffre, A. Antonetti, S. W. Koch, M. Lindberg, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12, 2516 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (3)

E. F. Hilinski, P. A. Lucas, Y. Wang, J. Chem. Phys. 89, 3435 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, A. Suna, J. McHugh, E. F. Hilinski, P. A. Lucas, R. D. Johnson, J. Chem. Phys. 92, 6927 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. Misawa, H. Tao, T. Hayashi, T. Kobayashi, J. Chem. Phys. 94, 4131 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (4)

Opt. Commun. (1)

P. Roussignol, D. Ricard, K. C. Rustagi, C. Flytzanis, Opt. Commun. 55, 143 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. C. Klein, F. Hache, D. Ricard, C. Flytzanis, Phys. Rev. B 42, 11123 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

M. G. Bawendi, M. L. Wilson, L. Rothberg, P. J. Carroll, T. M. Jedju, M. L. Steigerwald, L. E. Brus, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1623 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

For a review see, for instance, C. Flytzanis, F. Hache, M. C. Klein, D. Ricard, P. Roussignol, in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, New York, 1991), Vol. XXIX, p. 321.
[CrossRef]

A. I. Ekimov, loffe Physicotechnical Institute, St. Petersburg 194021, Russia (personal communication);Al. L. Efros, A. V. Rodina, Solid State Commun. 72, 645 (1989).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Modulus of the Kerr susceptibility (a) and ratio of the modulus of the Kerr susceptibility to the absorption coefficient (b) versus wavelength for an experimental RG 630 glass (mean particle radius is 3.2 nm and sample thickness is 0.3 mm) measured for three different laser pulse energies: dotted-dashed curve and open triangles, 7 μJ; solid curve and dots, 20 μJ; dashed curve and open squares, 50 μJ. The absorption spectrum is also shown; the measurements were made at room temperature. Typical error bars are indicated; the determination of χ(3)/α is noisier when α decreases.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Modulus of the Kerr susceptibility versus wavelength for an experimental RG 630 glass (mean particle radius, 4.2 nm; sample thickness, 0.3 mm) measured for two different laser pulse energies: solid curve and dots, 25 μJ; dashed curve and open squares, 50 μJ. The absorption spectrum and the positions of the volume V and surface S peaks are also shown; the measurements were made at liquid-nitrogen temperature. A typical error bar is indicated.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Resonant Raman excitation spectrum for an experimental RG 630 glass (mean particle radius, 4.4 nm; sample thickness, 0.3 mm) measured at liquid-nitrogen temperature with a cw dye laser. The absorption spectrum and the positions of the volume V and surface S peaks are also shown. A typical error bar is indicated.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Electronic levels used in the model calculations, τS(τV) denotes the relaxation time from surface (volume) states toward deep traps; the double arrows represent the absorption processes.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Calculated modulus of the Kerr susceptibility versus photon energy for an experimental RG 630 glass for different values of the intensity normalized to the saturation intensity of the volume two-level system: open triangles, 0.05; dots, 0.45; open squares, 0.85. (a) Mean particle radius of 3.2 nm and room temperature; (b) mean particle radius of 4.2 nm and liquid-nitrogen temperature. These curves are to be qualitatively compared with Figs. 1(a) and 2.

Equations (1)

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d N L 1 d t = ( N L 1 N L 2 ) α L I ω + ( N L 1 0 N L 1 ) N T 1 τ L , d N L 2 d t = + ( N L 1 N L 2 ) α L I ω ( N T 2 0 N T 2 ) N L 2 τ L , d N T 1 d t = ( N V 1 0 N V 1 ) N T 1 τ V ( N S 1 0 N S 1 ) N T 1 τ S , d N T 2 d t = + ( N T 2 0 N T 2 ) N V 2 τ V + ( N T 2 0 N T 2 ) N S 2 τ S ,

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