Abstract

We have measured the absolute photoluminescent efficiency of sodium salicylate from 70 to 400 eV, as well as the inelastic electron-scattering spectrum from 0 to 200 eV. We find that features in the luminescence spectrum can be described well by using a model incorporating absorptance, reflectance, carrier-diffusion length, and reduced surface-recombination velocity. We have also measured the dose (total photons/unit area) dependence of the model’s efficiency at several photon energies. Results indicate a decrease in efficiency when dose and x-ray energy are increased, which makes this material a nonideal choice for long-term stable detection of high-intensity soft x rays. The decrease in efficiency is caused by a bulk-damage process that is second order in the number of electron–hole pairs produced by the incident x rays, as well as by changes in surface-recombination velocity.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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1991 (3)

E. L. Benitez, D. E. Husk, C. Tarrio, S. E. Schnatterly, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2052–2054 (1991).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Benitez, D. E. Husk, C. Tarrio, S. E. Schnatterly, J. Appl. Phys. 70, 3256–3260 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Husk, C. Tarrio, E. L. Benitez, S. E. Schnatterly, J. Appl. Phys. 70, 3338–3344 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1988 (2)

P. Livins, T. Aton, S. E. Schnatterly, Phys. Rev. B 38, 3511 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. B. M. Klaassen, Phys. Rev. B 38, 9974–9979 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

D. W. Lindle, T. A. Ferrett, P. A. Heimann, D. A. Shieley, Phys. Rev. A. 34, 1131–1136 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Angel, J. A. R. Samson, G. Williams, Appl. Opt. 25, 3312–3316 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

F. J. Zutavern, S. E. Schnatterly, E. Kallne, C. P. Franck, T. Aton, J. Rife, Nucl. Instrum. Methods 172, 351 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

1976 (1)

A. Bril, A. W. de Jager-Veenis, J. Electrochem. Soc. 123, 396–398 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

1969 (2)

E. C. Bruner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 204–211 (1969).
[CrossRef]

H. Harrison, R. I. Schoen, R. B. Cairns, J. Chem. Phys. 50, 3930–3936 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

R. S. Sigmond, Br. J. Appl. Phys. 17, 1307–1312 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1965 (2)

J. Vilms, W. E. Spicer, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2815 (1965).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Nygaard, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 944–946 (1965).

1964 (5)

1958 (1)

E. Krokowski, Naturwissenschaften 45, 509–510 (1958).
[CrossRef]

1957 (1)

H.-U. Radtke, Z. Angew. Phys. 9, 180–183 (1957).

1956 (2)

1953 (1)

1951 (1)

Allison, R.

Angel, G. C.

Aton, T.

P. Livins, T. Aton, S. E. Schnatterly, Phys. Rev. B 38, 3511 (1988).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Zutavern, S. E. Schnatterly, E. Kallne, C. P. Franck, T. Aton, J. Rife, Nucl. Instrum. Methods 172, 351 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Benitez, E. L.

D. E. Husk, C. Tarrio, E. L. Benitez, S. E. Schnatterly, J. Appl. Phys. 70, 3338–3344 (1991).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Benitez, D. E. Husk, C. Tarrio, S. E. Schnatterly, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2052–2054 (1991).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Benitez, D. E. Husk, C. Tarrio, S. E. Schnatterly, J. Appl. Phys. 70, 3256–3260 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Berkowitz, J. K.

J. K. Berkowitz, J. A. Olsen, J. Luminescence (to be published).

Bril, A.

A. Bril, A. W. de Jager-Veenis, J. Electrochem. Soc. 123, 396–398 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Bruner, E. C.

Burns, J.

Cairns, R. B.

H. Harrison, R. I. Schoen, R. B. Cairns, J. Chem. Phys. 50, 3930–3936 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Datta, A. K.

de Jager-Veenis, A. W.

A. Bril, A. W. de Jager-Veenis, J. Electrochem. Soc. 123, 396–398 (1976).
[CrossRef]

DeVore, H. B.

H. B. DeVore, Phys. Rev. 102, 86 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Ferrett, T. A.

D. W. Lindle, T. A. Ferrett, P. A. Heimann, D. A. Shieley, Phys. Rev. A. 34, 1131–1136 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fields, J. R.

J. R. Fields, “Inelastic electron scattering in lithium fluoride,” Ph.D. dissertation (Princeton University, Princeton, N. J., 1975).

Franck, C. P.

F. J. Zutavern, S. E. Schnatterly, E. Kallne, C. P. Franck, T. Aton, J. Rife, Nucl. Instrum. Methods 172, 351 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Haddad, G. N.

Harrison, H.

H. Harrison, R. I. Schoen, R. B. Cairns, J. Chem. Phys. 50, 3930–3936 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Heimann, P. A.

D. W. Lindle, T. A. Ferrett, P. A. Heimann, D. A. Shieley, Phys. Rev. A. 34, 1131–1136 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Husk, D. E.

E. L. Benitez, D. E. Husk, C. Tarrio, S. E. Schnatterly, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2052–2054 (1991).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Benitez, D. E. Husk, C. Tarrio, S. E. Schnatterly, J. Appl. Phys. 70, 3256–3260 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Husk, C. Tarrio, E. L. Benitez, S. E. Schnatterly, J. Appl. Phys. 70, 3338–3344 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Husk, S. E. Schnatterly, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2226–2228 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Husk, C. Tarrio, S. E. Schnatterly, “Soft x-ray damage of sodium salicylate,” presented at the American Physical Society Meeting, March 1991, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Inn, E. C. Y.

Johnson, F. S.

Kallne, E.

F. J. Zutavern, S. E. Schnatterly, E. Kallne, C. P. Franck, T. Aton, J. Rife, Nucl. Instrum. Methods 172, 351 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Klaassen, D. B. M.

D. B. M. Klaassen, Phys. Rev. B 38, 9974–9979 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Knapp, R. A.

Krokowski, E.

E. Krokowski, Naturwissenschaften 45, 509–510 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, V.

Lindle, D. W.

D. W. Lindle, T. A. Ferrett, P. A. Heimann, D. A. Shieley, Phys. Rev. A. 34, 1131–1136 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Livins, P.

P. Livins, T. Aton, S. E. Schnatterly, Phys. Rev. B 38, 3511 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Nygaard, K. J.

K. J. Nygaard, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 944–946 (1965).

K. J. Nygaard, Br. J. Appl. Phys. 15, 597–599 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Olsen, J. A.

J. K. Berkowitz, J. A. Olsen, J. Luminescence (to be published).

Radtke, H.-U.

H.-U. Radtke, Z. Angew. Phys. 9, 180–183 (1957).

Rife, J.

F. J. Zutavern, S. E. Schnatterly, E. Kallne, C. P. Franck, T. Aton, J. Rife, Nucl. Instrum. Methods 172, 351 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Samson, J. A. R.

Schnatterly, S. E.

E. L. Benitez, D. E. Husk, C. Tarrio, S. E. Schnatterly, J. Appl. Phys. 70, 3256–3260 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Husk, C. Tarrio, E. L. Benitez, S. E. Schnatterly, J. Appl. Phys. 70, 3338–3344 (1991).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Benitez, D. E. Husk, C. Tarrio, S. E. Schnatterly, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2052–2054 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Husk, S. E. Schnatterly, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2226–2228 (1990).
[CrossRef]

P. Livins, T. Aton, S. E. Schnatterly, Phys. Rev. B 38, 3511 (1988).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Zutavern, S. E. Schnatterly, E. Kallne, C. P. Franck, T. Aton, J. Rife, Nucl. Instrum. Methods 172, 351 (1980).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Schnatterly, in Solid State Physics, H. Ehrenreich, F. Seitz, D. Turnbull, eds. (Academic, New York, 1979), Vol. 34.
[CrossRef]

D. E. Husk, C. Tarrio, S. E. Schnatterly, “Soft x-ray damage of sodium salicylate,” presented at the American Physical Society Meeting, March 1991, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Schoen, R. I.

H. Harrison, R. I. Schoen, R. B. Cairns, J. Chem. Phys. 50, 3930–3936 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Shieley, D. A.

D. W. Lindle, T. A. Ferrett, P. A. Heimann, D. A. Shieley, Phys. Rev. A. 34, 1131–1136 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sigmond, R. S.

R. S. Sigmond, Br. J. Appl. Phys. 17, 1307–1312 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Smith, A. M.

Spicer, W. E.

J. Vilms, W. E. Spicer, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2815 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Tarrio, C.

E. L. Benitez, D. E. Husk, C. Tarrio, S. E. Schnatterly, J. Appl. Phys. 70, 3256–3260 (1991).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Benitez, D. E. Husk, C. Tarrio, S. E. Schnatterly, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2052–2054 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Husk, C. Tarrio, E. L. Benitez, S. E. Schnatterly, J. Appl. Phys. 70, 3338–3344 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Husk, C. Tarrio, S. E. Schnatterly, “Soft x-ray damage of sodium salicylate,” presented at the American Physical Society Meeting, March 1991, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Thurnau, D. H.

Tousey, R.

Tuzzolino, A. J.

Vilms, J.

J. Vilms, W. E. Spicer, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2815 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, K.

Williams, G.

Zutavern, F. J.

F. J. Zutavern, S. E. Schnatterly, E. Kallne, C. P. Franck, T. Aton, J. Rife, Nucl. Instrum. Methods 172, 351 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

E. L. Benitez, D. E. Husk, C. Tarrio, S. E. Schnatterly, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2052–2054 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Br. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

R. S. Sigmond, Br. J. Appl. Phys. 17, 1307–1312 (1966).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Nygaard, Br. J. Appl. Phys. 15, 597–599 (1964).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

E. L. Benitez, D. E. Husk, C. Tarrio, S. E. Schnatterly, J. Appl. Phys. 70, 3256–3260 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Husk, C. Tarrio, E. L. Benitez, S. E. Schnatterly, J. Appl. Phys. 70, 3338–3344 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Vilms, W. E. Spicer, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2815 (1965).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

H. Harrison, R. I. Schoen, R. B. Cairns, J. Chem. Phys. 50, 3930–3936 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

A. Bril, A. W. de Jager-Veenis, J. Electrochem. Soc. 123, 396–398 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (9)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Naturwissenschaften (1)

E. Krokowski, Naturwissenschaften 45, 509–510 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods (1)

F. J. Zutavern, S. E. Schnatterly, E. Kallne, C. P. Franck, T. Aton, J. Rife, Nucl. Instrum. Methods 172, 351 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

H. B. DeVore, Phys. Rev. 102, 86 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A. (1)

D. W. Lindle, T. A. Ferrett, P. A. Heimann, D. A. Shieley, Phys. Rev. A. 34, 1131–1136 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

D. B. M. Klaassen, Phys. Rev. B 38, 9974–9979 (1988).
[CrossRef]

P. Livins, T. Aton, S. E. Schnatterly, Phys. Rev. B 38, 3511 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Z. Angew. Phys. (1)

H.-U. Radtke, Z. Angew. Phys. 9, 180–183 (1957).

Other (6)

CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 58th ed. (CRC, Cleveland, Ohio, 1978).

S. E. Schnatterly, in Solid State Physics, H. Ehrenreich, F. Seitz, D. Turnbull, eds. (Academic, New York, 1979), Vol. 34.
[CrossRef]

J. R. Fields, “Inelastic electron scattering in lithium fluoride,” Ph.D. dissertation (Princeton University, Princeton, N. J., 1975).

J. A. R. Samson, Techniques of Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectroscopy (Wiley, New York, 1967).

J. K. Berkowitz, J. A. Olsen, J. Luminescence (to be published).

D. E. Husk, C. Tarrio, S. E. Schnatterly, “Soft x-ray damage of sodium salicylate,” presented at the American Physical Society Meeting, March 1991, Cincinnati, Ohio.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Absorption coefficient of sodium salicylate.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Absolute quantum efficiency of sodium salicylate (squares) shown with model (line). The plot of the model ends at 250 eV.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Digitized data showing published relative quantum-efficiency data and damage for sodium salicylate.1,3,14 The plots have been offset by 0.2 from each other for clarity. The numbers at the end of each plot are estimated reduced surface-recombination velocities.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The plot of bulk-damage coefficients versus energy for sodium salicylate.

Equations (1)

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y = η 0 E ( 1 - R ) 1 1 + 1 S { 1 S + 1 / [ 1 + α L cos ( ϕ ) ] } .

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