Abstract

We report experimental results for the third-order nonlinear properties of thin polymer films doped with azo dyes, which have long-lived triplet states and can undergo reversible photochromic reactions. Cast films of Disperse Red 1 and Methyl Red in polystyrene and polymethyl methacrylate were investigated by degenerate four-wave mixing with a low-power cw mode-locked laser. Polarization properties and the time dependence of the laser-induced gratings were investigated, and results were compared with those obtained for liquid solutions of the dye in the respective monomers. A phase-conjugate reflectivity of 1% was observed for Disperse Red 1 in polystyrene, with no long-term degradation under laser irradiation.

© 1991 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. A. Fisher, Optical Phase Conjugation (Academic, New York, 1983).
  2. Y. Silberberg and I. Bar-Joseph, Opt. Commun. 39, 265 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Silberberg and I. Bar-Joseph, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1967 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. A. Kramer, W. R. Tompkin, and R. W. Boyd, Phys. Rev. A 34, 2026 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. Fujimura and K. Nakagama, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 121 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Fujimura and K. Nakagama, Opt. Commun. 66, 307 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Fujimara and K. Nakagama, Opt. Commun. 55, 386 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. P. B. Moosad, T. M. Abdul Rasheed, and V. P. N. Nampoori, Opt. Eng. 29, 47 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. P. B. Moosad, T. M. Abdul Rasheed, V. P. N. Nampoori, and K. Sathianandan, Appl. Opt. 4, 449 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. Todorov, L. Nikolova, N. Tomova, and V. Dragostinova, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1226 (1986).
  11. L. Nikolova, K. Stoyanova, T. Todorov, and V. Tatanenko, Opt. Commun. 64, 75 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  12. W. R. Tompkin, M. S. Malmit, R. W. Boyd, and J. E. Sipe, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B,  6, 757 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  13. L. Nikolova, T. Todorov, N. Tomova, and V. Dragostinova, Appl. Opt. 27, 1598 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. S. M. Saltiel, B. van Wonterghem, T. E. Dutton, J. A. Hutchinson, and P. M. Rentzepis, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-24, 2302 (1988).
  15. A. von Jena and H. E. Lessing, Chem. Phys. 40, 245 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  16. W. Urbach, H. Hervet, and F. Rondelez, J. Chem. Phys. 83, 1877 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  17. G. Zimmerman, L.-Y. Chow, and U. Paik, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 80, 3528 (1958).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. Brandrup and E. H. Immergut, Polymer Handbook (Wiley, New York, 1975).
  19. B. Wherret, A. L. Smirl, and T. F. Boggess, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 680 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  20. S. Malkin and E. Fischer, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 66, 2482 (1962).

1990 (2)

K. P. B. Moosad, T. M. Abdul Rasheed, and V. P. N. Nampoori, Opt. Eng. 29, 47 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. P. B. Moosad, T. M. Abdul Rasheed, V. P. N. Nampoori, and K. Sathianandan, Appl. Opt. 4, 449 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1988 (3)

L. Nikolova, T. Todorov, N. Tomova, and V. Dragostinova, Appl. Opt. 27, 1598 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Saltiel, B. van Wonterghem, T. E. Dutton, J. A. Hutchinson, and P. M. Rentzepis, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-24, 2302 (1988).

H. Fujimura and K. Nakagama, Opt. Commun. 66, 307 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

H. Fujimura and K. Nakagama, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 121 (1987).
[CrossRef]

L. Nikolova, K. Stoyanova, T. Todorov, and V. Tatanenko, Opt. Commun. 64, 75 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

M. A. Kramer, W. R. Tompkin, and R. W. Boyd, Phys. Rev. A 34, 2026 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Todorov, L. Nikolova, N. Tomova, and V. Dragostinova, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1226 (1986).

1985 (2)

H. Fujimara and K. Nakagama, Opt. Commun. 55, 386 (1985).
[CrossRef]

W. Urbach, H. Hervet, and F. Rondelez, J. Chem. Phys. 83, 1877 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

B. Wherret, A. L. Smirl, and T. F. Boggess, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 680 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981 (2)

Y. Silberberg and I. Bar-Joseph, Opt. Commun. 39, 265 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Y. Silberberg and I. Bar-Joseph, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1967 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

A. von Jena and H. E. Lessing, Chem. Phys. 40, 245 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

S. Malkin and E. Fischer, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 66, 2482 (1962).

1958 (1)

G. Zimmerman, L.-Y. Chow, and U. Paik, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 80, 3528 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Abdul Rasheed, T. M.

K. P. B. Moosad, T. M. Abdul Rasheed, and V. P. N. Nampoori, Opt. Eng. 29, 47 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. P. B. Moosad, T. M. Abdul Rasheed, V. P. N. Nampoori, and K. Sathianandan, Appl. Opt. 4, 449 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bar-Joseph, I.

Y. Silberberg and I. Bar-Joseph, Opt. Commun. 39, 265 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Y. Silberberg and I. Bar-Joseph, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1967 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Boggess, T. F.

B. Wherret, A. L. Smirl, and T. F. Boggess, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 680 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, R. W.

Brandrup, J.

J. Brandrup and E. H. Immergut, Polymer Handbook (Wiley, New York, 1975).

Chow, L.-Y.

G. Zimmerman, L.-Y. Chow, and U. Paik, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 80, 3528 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Dragostinova, V.

L. Nikolova, T. Todorov, N. Tomova, and V. Dragostinova, Appl. Opt. 27, 1598 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Todorov, L. Nikolova, N. Tomova, and V. Dragostinova, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1226 (1986).

Dutton, T. E.

S. M. Saltiel, B. van Wonterghem, T. E. Dutton, J. A. Hutchinson, and P. M. Rentzepis, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-24, 2302 (1988).

Fischer, E.

S. Malkin and E. Fischer, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 66, 2482 (1962).

Fisher, R. A.

R. A. Fisher, Optical Phase Conjugation (Academic, New York, 1983).

Fujimara, H.

H. Fujimara and K. Nakagama, Opt. Commun. 55, 386 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Fujimura, H.

H. Fujimura and K. Nakagama, Opt. Commun. 66, 307 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. Fujimura and K. Nakagama, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 121 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hervet, H.

W. Urbach, H. Hervet, and F. Rondelez, J. Chem. Phys. 83, 1877 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Hutchinson, J. A.

S. M. Saltiel, B. van Wonterghem, T. E. Dutton, J. A. Hutchinson, and P. M. Rentzepis, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-24, 2302 (1988).

Immergut, E. H.

J. Brandrup and E. H. Immergut, Polymer Handbook (Wiley, New York, 1975).

Kramer, M. A.

M. A. Kramer, W. R. Tompkin, and R. W. Boyd, Phys. Rev. A 34, 2026 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lessing, H. E.

A. von Jena and H. E. Lessing, Chem. Phys. 40, 245 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Malkin, S.

S. Malkin and E. Fischer, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 66, 2482 (1962).

Malmit, M. S.

Moosad, K. P. B.

K. P. B. Moosad, T. M. Abdul Rasheed, and V. P. N. Nampoori, Opt. Eng. 29, 47 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. P. B. Moosad, T. M. Abdul Rasheed, V. P. N. Nampoori, and K. Sathianandan, Appl. Opt. 4, 449 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Nakagama, K.

H. Fujimura and K. Nakagama, Opt. Commun. 66, 307 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. Fujimura and K. Nakagama, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 121 (1987).
[CrossRef]

H. Fujimara and K. Nakagama, Opt. Commun. 55, 386 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Nampoori, V. P. N.

K. P. B. Moosad, T. M. Abdul Rasheed, and V. P. N. Nampoori, Opt. Eng. 29, 47 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. P. B. Moosad, T. M. Abdul Rasheed, V. P. N. Nampoori, and K. Sathianandan, Appl. Opt. 4, 449 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Nikolova, L.

L. Nikolova, T. Todorov, N. Tomova, and V. Dragostinova, Appl. Opt. 27, 1598 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Nikolova, K. Stoyanova, T. Todorov, and V. Tatanenko, Opt. Commun. 64, 75 (1987).
[CrossRef]

T. Todorov, L. Nikolova, N. Tomova, and V. Dragostinova, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1226 (1986).

Paik, U.

G. Zimmerman, L.-Y. Chow, and U. Paik, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 80, 3528 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Rentzepis, P. M.

S. M. Saltiel, B. van Wonterghem, T. E. Dutton, J. A. Hutchinson, and P. M. Rentzepis, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-24, 2302 (1988).

Rondelez, F.

W. Urbach, H. Hervet, and F. Rondelez, J. Chem. Phys. 83, 1877 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Saltiel, S. M.

S. M. Saltiel, B. van Wonterghem, T. E. Dutton, J. A. Hutchinson, and P. M. Rentzepis, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-24, 2302 (1988).

Sathianandan, K.

K. P. B. Moosad, T. M. Abdul Rasheed, V. P. N. Nampoori, and K. Sathianandan, Appl. Opt. 4, 449 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Silberberg, Y.

Y. Silberberg and I. Bar-Joseph, Opt. Commun. 39, 265 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Y. Silberberg and I. Bar-Joseph, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1967 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Sipe, J. E.

Smirl, A. L.

B. Wherret, A. L. Smirl, and T. F. Boggess, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 680 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Stoyanova, K.

L. Nikolova, K. Stoyanova, T. Todorov, and V. Tatanenko, Opt. Commun. 64, 75 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Tatanenko, V.

L. Nikolova, K. Stoyanova, T. Todorov, and V. Tatanenko, Opt. Commun. 64, 75 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Todorov, T.

L. Nikolova, T. Todorov, N. Tomova, and V. Dragostinova, Appl. Opt. 27, 1598 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Nikolova, K. Stoyanova, T. Todorov, and V. Tatanenko, Opt. Commun. 64, 75 (1987).
[CrossRef]

T. Todorov, L. Nikolova, N. Tomova, and V. Dragostinova, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1226 (1986).

Tomova, N.

L. Nikolova, T. Todorov, N. Tomova, and V. Dragostinova, Appl. Opt. 27, 1598 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Todorov, L. Nikolova, N. Tomova, and V. Dragostinova, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1226 (1986).

Tompkin, W. R.

Urbach, W.

W. Urbach, H. Hervet, and F. Rondelez, J. Chem. Phys. 83, 1877 (1985).
[CrossRef]

van Wonterghem, B.

S. M. Saltiel, B. van Wonterghem, T. E. Dutton, J. A. Hutchinson, and P. M. Rentzepis, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-24, 2302 (1988).

von Jena, A.

A. von Jena and H. E. Lessing, Chem. Phys. 40, 245 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Wherret, B.

B. Wherret, A. L. Smirl, and T. F. Boggess, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 680 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Zimmerman, G.

G. Zimmerman, L.-Y. Chow, and U. Paik, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 80, 3528 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

K. P. B. Moosad, T. M. Abdul Rasheed, V. P. N. Nampoori, and K. Sathianandan, Appl. Opt. 4, 449 (1990).
[CrossRef]

L. Nikolova, T. Todorov, N. Tomova, and V. Dragostinova, Appl. Opt. 27, 1598 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chem. Phys. (1)

A. von Jena and H. E. Lessing, Chem. Phys. 40, 245 (1979).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (4)

S. M. Saltiel, B. van Wonterghem, T. E. Dutton, J. A. Hutchinson, and P. M. Rentzepis, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-24, 2302 (1988).

T. Todorov, L. Nikolova, N. Tomova, and V. Dragostinova, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1226 (1986).

Y. Silberberg and I. Bar-Joseph, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1967 (1981).
[CrossRef]

B. Wherret, A. L. Smirl, and T. F. Boggess, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 680 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2)

S. Malkin and E. Fischer, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 66, 2482 (1962).

G. Zimmerman, L.-Y. Chow, and U. Paik, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 80, 3528 (1958).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

W. Urbach, H. Hervet, and F. Rondelez, J. Chem. Phys. 83, 1877 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Commun. (4)

H. Fujimura and K. Nakagama, Opt. Commun. 66, 307 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. Fujimara and K. Nakagama, Opt. Commun. 55, 386 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Y. Silberberg and I. Bar-Joseph, Opt. Commun. 39, 265 (1981).
[CrossRef]

L. Nikolova, K. Stoyanova, T. Todorov, and V. Tatanenko, Opt. Commun. 64, 75 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

K. P. B. Moosad, T. M. Abdul Rasheed, and V. P. N. Nampoori, Opt. Eng. 29, 47 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

M. A. Kramer, W. R. Tompkin, and R. W. Boyd, Phys. Rev. A 34, 2026 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

R. A. Fisher, Optical Phase Conjugation (Academic, New York, 1983).

J. Brandrup and E. H. Immergut, Polymer Handbook (Wiley, New York, 1975).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Transmission of DR1–PS film as a function of the laser intensity. The solid line corresponds to the case without bleaching.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Phase-conjugate signal of DR1–PS film as a function of the delay time between the forward pump and the probe pulses.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Temporal behavior of the phase-conjugate signal (DR1–PS) for 1-ms forward pump and probe pulses (30-Hz repetition rate): a, cw backward pump, 10 ms/division; b, 3-ms, 30-Hz backward pump pulses, 20 ms/division; c, fast scan of the leading edge of the phase-conjugate signal, which is used to estimate its decay time. Time scale, 1 ms/division.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Temporal behavior of the phase-conjugate signal in DR1–PS film for long illumination pulses (0.5–1 s): a, polarization case C, no modulation of the interacting beams; b, polarization case C, forward pump and probe beams modulated, 2.5-ms pulses at 30 Hz, cw back ward pump; c, same as a but for polarization case A; d, same as b but for polarization case A (see Table 1). Time scale, 100 ms/division.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Temporal behavior of the phase-conjugate signal from MR-PS film for long illumination pulses, 0.5–1 s, polarization case A: a, no modulation of the interacting beams; b, forward pump and probe modulated, 2.5-ms pulses at 30 Hz, cw backward pump. Time scale, 100 ms/division.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Simplified energy-level diagram, showing the relevent optical transitions in trans and cis isomers of azo dyes such as DR1 and MR.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Phase-conjugate signal as a function of the forward pump-beam intensity. The solid line illustrates quadratic dependence. ■, case A; ●, case C.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Overview of the Four Polarization Situations Studieda

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