Abstract

Radiometrically calibrated spectroscopic techniques employing an integrating-sphere detection system have been used to determine the fluorescence quantum efficiencies for two commercially available Nd3+-doped phosphate laser glasses, LG-750 and LG-760. Quantum efficiencies and fluorescence lifetimes were measured for samples with various neodymium concentrations. It is shown that the effects of concentration quenching are accurately described when both resonant nonradiative excitation hopping (the Burshtein model) and annihilation by cross relaxation are accounted for by Förster–Dexter dipole–dipole energy-transfer theory. The Förster–Dexter critical range for nonradiative excitation hopping was found to be RDD = 11 Å, while the critical range for cross relaxation was close to RDA = 4 Å in these glasses. The quantum efficiency at low Nd3+ concentrations was (92 ± 5)%, implying a nonradiative relaxation rate of 210 ± 150 s−1 for isolated ions. Improved values for the radiative lifetimes and the stimulated emission cross sections for these glasses were also deduced from the measurements.

© 1991 Optical Society of America

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A. J. Ramponi and J. A. Caird, J. Appl. Phys. 63, 5476 (1988).
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A. J. De Vries, B. P. Minks, and G. Blasse, J. Lumin. 39, 153 (1988).
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A. Lupei, V. Lupei, S. Georgescu, C. Ionescu, and W. M. Yen, J. Lumin. 39, 35 (1987).
[Crossref]

1986 (2)

V. Lupei, A. Lupei, S. Georgescu, and C. Ionescu, Opt. Commun. 60, 59 (1986).
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M. S. Mangir and D. A. Rockwell, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 574 (1986).
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1983 (3)

D. P. Devor and L. G. DeShazer, Opt. Commun. 46, 97 (1983).
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A. I. Burshtein, Sov. Phys. JETP 57, 1165 (1983).

Yu. S. Privis, V. A. Smirnov, and I. A. Shcherbakov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 13, 868 (1983).
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1982 (4)

A. G. Avanesov, B. I. Denker, V. V. Osiko, S. S. Pirumov, V. P. Sakun, V. A. Smirnov, and I. A. Shcherbakov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 744 (1982).
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W. E. Martin and D. Milam, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1155 (1982).
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S. M. Yarema and D. Milam, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1941 (1982).
[Crossref]

P. T. Kenyon, L. Andrews, B. McCollum, and A. Lempicki, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1189 (1982).
[Crossref]

1981 (2)

B. I. Denker, V. V. Osiko, P. P. Pashinin, and A. M. Prokhorov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 11, 289 (1981).
[Crossref]

I. A. Bodnar’, A. I. Burshtein, A. V. Krutikov, L. P. Mezentseva, V. V. Osiko, V. P. Sakun, V. A. Smirnov, and I. A. Shcherbakov, Sov. Phys. JETP 54, 45 (1981).

1980 (1)

1979 (1)

G. J. Linford, R. A. Saroyan, J. B. Trenholme, and M. J. Weber, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 510 (1979).
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1978 (1)

B. I. Denker, V. V. Osiko, A. M. Prokhorov, and I. A. Shcherbakov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 8, 485 (1978).
[Crossref]

1977 (3)

A. Lempicki, Opt. Commun. 23, 376 (1977).
[Crossref]

C. Brecher, L. A. Riseberg, and M. J. Weber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 475 (1977).
[Crossref]

C. B. Layne, W. H. Lowdermilk, and M. J. Weber, Phys. Rev. B 16, 10 (1977).
[Crossref]

1976 (3)

E. M. Dianov, A. Ya. Karasik, A. A. Kut’enkov, V. B. Neustruev, and I. A. Shcherbakov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 6, 90 (1976).
[Crossref]

E. M. Dianov, A. Ya. Karasik, V. B. Neustruev, A. M. Prokhorov, and I. A. Shcherbakov, Sov. Phys. Dokl. 20, 622 (1976).

Yu. K. Voronko, T. G. Mamedov, V. V. Osiko, A. M. Prokhorov, V. P. Sakun, and I. A. Shcherbakov, Sov. Phys. JETP 44, 251 (1976).

1975 (1)

C. B. Layne, W. H. Lowdermilk, and M. J. Weber, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 798 (1975).
[Crossref]

1974 (4)

S. Singh, R. G. Smith, and L. G. van Uitert, Phys. Rev. B. 10, 2566 (1974).
[Crossref]

T. T. Basiev, E. M. Dianov, A. M. Prokhorov, and I. A. Shcherbakov, Sov. Phys. Dokl. 19, 288 (1974).

E. M. Dianov, A. M. Prokhorov, V. P. Samoilov, and I. A. Shcherbakov, Sov. Phys. Dokl. 19, 219 (1974).

W. F. Krupke, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-10, 450 (1974).
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

H. G. Danielmeyer and M. Blätte, Appl. Phys. 1, 269 (1973).
[Crossref]

1972 (2)

A. I. Burshtein, Sov. Phys. JETP 35, 882 (1972).

M. V. Artamonova, Ch. M. Briskina, A. I. Burshtein, L. D. Zusman, and A. G. Skleznev, Sov. Phys. JETP 35, 457 (1972).

1971 (3)

M. J. Weber and T. E. Varitimos, J. Appl. Phys. 42, 4996 (1971).
[Crossref]

M. J. Weber, Phys. Rev. B 4, 2932 (1971).
[Crossref]

G. M. Zverev, G. Ya. Kolodnyi, and A. M. Onishchenko, Sov. Phys. JETP 33, 497 (1971).

1968 (6)

M. J. Weber, Phys. Rev. B 8, 54 (1968).
[Crossref]

M. J. Weber, Phys. Rev. 171, 283 (1968).
[Crossref]

L. A. Riseberg and H. W. Moos, Phys. Rev. 174, 429 (1968).
[Crossref]

L. A. Riseberg, H. W. Moos, and W. D. Partlow, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-4, 609 (1968).
[Crossref]

T. Kushida and J. E. Geusic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 1172(1968).
[Crossref]

T. Kushida, H. M. Marcos, and J. E. Geusic, Phys. Rev. 167, 289 (1968).
[Crossref]

1967 (2)

L. G. van Uitert, J. Chem. Phys. 46, 420 (1967).
[Crossref]

L. A. Riseberg and H. W. Moos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 19, 1423 (1967).
[Crossref]

1965 (1)

M. Inokuti and F. Hirayama, J. Chem. Phys. 43, 1978 (1965).
[Crossref]

1964 (1)

1962 (2)

J. B. Birks, Proc. Phys. Soc. London 79, 494 (1962).
[Crossref]

B. R. Judd, Phys. Re. 127, 750 (1962); G. S. Ofelt, J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511 (1962).
[Crossref]

1959 (1)

Th. Förster, Discuss. Faraday Soc. 27, 7 (1959).
[Crossref]

1954 (1)

J. B. Birks, Phys. Rev. 94, 1567 (1954).
[Crossref]

1953 (1)

D. L. Dexter, J. Chem. Phys. 21, 836 (1953).
[Crossref]

1949 (1)

Th. Förster, Z. Naturforsch. A 4, 321 (1949).

1948 (1)

T. Förster, Ann. Phys. (N.Y.) 2, 55 (1948).

Andrews, L.

P. T. Kenyon, L. Andrews, B. McCollum, and A. Lempicki, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1189 (1982).
[Crossref]

Artamonova, M. V.

M. V. Artamonova, Ch. M. Briskina, A. I. Burshtein, L. D. Zusman, and A. G. Skleznev, Sov. Phys. JETP 35, 457 (1972).

Avanesov, A. G.

A. G. Avanesov, B. I. Denker, V. V. Osiko, S. S. Pirumov, V. P. Sakun, V. A. Smirnov, and I. A. Shcherbakov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 744 (1982).
[Crossref]

Basiev, T. T.

T. T. Basiev, E. M. Dianov, A. M. Prokhorov, and I. A. Shcherbakov, Sov. Phys. Dokl. 19, 288 (1974).

Birks, J. B.

J. B. Birks, Proc. Phys. Soc. London 79, 494 (1962).
[Crossref]

J. B. Birks, Phys. Rev. 94, 1567 (1954).
[Crossref]

Blasse, G.

A. J. De Vries, B. P. Minks, and G. Blasse, J. Lumin. 39, 153 (1988).
[Crossref]

Blätte, M.

H. G. Danielmeyer and M. Blätte, Appl. Phys. 1, 269 (1973).
[Crossref]

Bodnar’, I. A.

I. A. Bodnar’, A. I. Burshtein, A. V. Krutikov, L. P. Mezentseva, V. V. Osiko, V. P. Sakun, V. A. Smirnov, and I. A. Shcherbakov, Sov. Phys. JETP 54, 45 (1981).

Brecher, C.

C. Brecher, L. A. Riseberg, and M. J. Weber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 475 (1977).
[Crossref]

Bridenbaugh, P. M.

Briskina, Ch. M.

M. V. Artamonova, Ch. M. Briskina, A. I. Burshtein, L. D. Zusman, and A. G. Skleznev, Sov. Phys. JETP 35, 457 (1972).

Burshtein, A. I.

A. I. Burshtein, Sov. Phys. JETP 57, 1165 (1983).

I. A. Bodnar’, A. I. Burshtein, A. V. Krutikov, L. P. Mezentseva, V. V. Osiko, V. P. Sakun, V. A. Smirnov, and I. A. Shcherbakov, Sov. Phys. JETP 54, 45 (1981).

M. V. Artamonova, Ch. M. Briskina, A. I. Burshtein, L. D. Zusman, and A. G. Skleznev, Sov. Phys. JETP 35, 457 (1972).

A. I. Burshtein, Sov. Phys. JETP 35, 882 (1972).

Caird, J. A.

A. J. Ramponi and J. A. Caird, J. Appl. Phys. 63, 5476 (1988).
[Crossref]

Danielmeyer, H. G.

H. G. Danielmeyer and M. Blätte, Appl. Phys. 1, 269 (1973).
[Crossref]

De Vries, A. J.

A. J. De Vries, B. P. Minks, and G. Blasse, J. Lumin. 39, 153 (1988).
[Crossref]

Denker, B. I.

A. G. Avanesov, B. I. Denker, V. V. Osiko, S. S. Pirumov, V. P. Sakun, V. A. Smirnov, and I. A. Shcherbakov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 744 (1982).
[Crossref]

B. I. Denker, V. V. Osiko, P. P. Pashinin, and A. M. Prokhorov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 11, 289 (1981).
[Crossref]

B. I. Denker, V. V. Osiko, A. M. Prokhorov, and I. A. Shcherbakov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 8, 485 (1978).
[Crossref]

DeShazer, L. G.

D. P. Devor and L. G. DeShazer, Opt. Commun. 46, 97 (1983).
[Crossref]

Devor, D. P.

D. P. Devor and L. G. DeShazer, Opt. Commun. 46, 97 (1983).
[Crossref]

Dexter, D. L.

D. L. Dexter, J. Chem. Phys. 21, 836 (1953).
[Crossref]

Dianov, E. M.

E. M. Dianov, A. Ya. Karasik, V. B. Neustruev, A. M. Prokhorov, and I. A. Shcherbakov, Sov. Phys. Dokl. 20, 622 (1976).

E. M. Dianov, A. Ya. Karasik, A. A. Kut’enkov, V. B. Neustruev, and I. A. Shcherbakov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 6, 90 (1976).
[Crossref]

T. T. Basiev, E. M. Dianov, A. M. Prokhorov, and I. A. Shcherbakov, Sov. Phys. Dokl. 19, 288 (1974).

E. M. Dianov, A. M. Prokhorov, V. P. Samoilov, and I. A. Shcherbakov, Sov. Phys. Dokl. 19, 219 (1974).

Förster, T.

T. Förster, Ann. Phys. (N.Y.) 2, 55 (1948).

Förster, Th.

Th. Förster, Discuss. Faraday Soc. 27, 7 (1959).
[Crossref]

Th. Förster, Z. Naturforsch. A 4, 321 (1949).

Gapontsev, V. P.

V. P. Gapontsev, M. R. Sirtlanov, A. K. Gromov, and A. A. Isineev, in Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers ’81, C. B. Collins, ed. (STS, McLean, Va., 1981), p. 763.

Georgescu, S.

A. Lupei, V. Lupei, S. Georgescu, C. Ionescu, and W. M. Yen, J. Lumin. 39, 35 (1987).
[Crossref]

V. Lupei, A. Lupei, S. Georgescu, and C. Ionescu, Opt. Commun. 60, 59 (1986).
[Crossref]

Geusic, J. E.

T. Kushida and J. E. Geusic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 1172(1968).
[Crossref]

T. Kushida, H. M. Marcos, and J. E. Geusic, Phys. Rev. 167, 289 (1968).
[Crossref]

Gromov, A. K.

V. P. Gapontsev, M. R. Sirtlanov, A. K. Gromov, and A. A. Isineev, in Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers ’81, C. B. Collins, ed. (STS, McLean, Va., 1981), p. 763.

Hirayama, F.

M. Inokuti and F. Hirayama, J. Chem. Phys. 43, 1978 (1965).
[Crossref]

Inokuti, M.

M. Inokuti and F. Hirayama, J. Chem. Phys. 43, 1978 (1965).
[Crossref]

Ionescu, C.

A. Lupei, V. Lupei, S. Georgescu, C. Ionescu, and W. M. Yen, J. Lumin. 39, 35 (1987).
[Crossref]

V. Lupei, A. Lupei, S. Georgescu, and C. Ionescu, Opt. Commun. 60, 59 (1986).
[Crossref]

Isineev, A. A.

V. P. Gapontsev, M. R. Sirtlanov, A. K. Gromov, and A. A. Isineev, in Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers ’81, C. B. Collins, ed. (STS, McLean, Va., 1981), p. 763.

Judd, B. R.

B. R. Judd, Phys. Re. 127, 750 (1962); G. S. Ofelt, J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511 (1962).
[Crossref]

Kaminskii, A. A.

A. A. Kaminskii, Laser Crystals (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1981), Vol. 14, p. 322.

A. A. Kaminskii, Laser Crystals (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1981), Vol. 14, p. 14.

Karasik, A. Ya.

E. M. Dianov, A. Ya. Karasik, A. A. Kut’enkov, V. B. Neustruev, and I. A. Shcherbakov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 6, 90 (1976).
[Crossref]

E. M. Dianov, A. Ya. Karasik, V. B. Neustruev, A. M. Prokhorov, and I. A. Shcherbakov, Sov. Phys. Dokl. 20, 622 (1976).

Kenyon, P. T.

P. T. Kenyon, L. Andrews, B. McCollum, and A. Lempicki, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1189 (1982).
[Crossref]

Koechner, W.

W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1976), Vol. 1, p. 17.
[Crossref]

Kolodnyi, G. Ya.

G. M. Zverev, G. Ya. Kolodnyi, and A. M. Onishchenko, Sov. Phys. JETP 33, 497 (1971).

Krupke, W. F.

W. F. Krupke, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-10, 450 (1974).
[Crossref]

Krutikov, A. V.

I. A. Bodnar’, A. I. Burshtein, A. V. Krutikov, L. P. Mezentseva, V. V. Osiko, V. P. Sakun, V. A. Smirnov, and I. A. Shcherbakov, Sov. Phys. JETP 54, 45 (1981).

Kushida, T.

T. Kushida, H. M. Marcos, and J. E. Geusic, Phys. Rev. 167, 289 (1968).
[Crossref]

T. Kushida and J. E. Geusic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 1172(1968).
[Crossref]

Kut’enkov, A. A.

E. M. Dianov, A. Ya. Karasik, A. A. Kut’enkov, V. B. Neustruev, and I. A. Shcherbakov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 6, 90 (1976).
[Crossref]

Layne, C. B.

C. B. Layne, W. H. Lowdermilk, and M. J. Weber, Phys. Rev. B 16, 10 (1977).
[Crossref]

C. B. Layne, W. H. Lowdermilk, and M. J. Weber, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 798 (1975).
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Lempicki, A.

P. T. Kenyon, L. Andrews, B. McCollum, and A. Lempicki, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1189 (1982).
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A. Lempicki, Opt. Commun. 23, 376 (1977).
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Linford, G. J.

G. J. Linford, R. A. Saroyan, J. B. Trenholme, and M. J. Weber, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 510 (1979).
[Crossref]

Lowdermilk, W. H.

C. B. Layne, W. H. Lowdermilk, and M. J. Weber, Phys. Rev. B 16, 10 (1977).
[Crossref]

C. B. Layne, W. H. Lowdermilk, and M. J. Weber, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 798 (1975).
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A. Lupei, V. Lupei, S. Georgescu, C. Ionescu, and W. M. Yen, J. Lumin. 39, 35 (1987).
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V. Lupei, A. Lupei, S. Georgescu, and C. Ionescu, Opt. Commun. 60, 59 (1986).
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Lupei, V.

A. Lupei, V. Lupei, S. Georgescu, C. Ionescu, and W. M. Yen, J. Lumin. 39, 35 (1987).
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V. Lupei, A. Lupei, S. Georgescu, and C. Ionescu, Opt. Commun. 60, 59 (1986).
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Yu. K. Voronko, T. G. Mamedov, V. V. Osiko, A. M. Prokhorov, V. P. Sakun, and I. A. Shcherbakov, Sov. Phys. JETP 44, 251 (1976).

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M. S. Mangir and D. A. Rockwell, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 574 (1986).
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T. Kushida, H. M. Marcos, and J. E. Geusic, Phys. Rev. 167, 289 (1968).
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W. E. Martin and D. Milam, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1155 (1982).
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P. T. Kenyon, L. Andrews, B. McCollum, and A. Lempicki, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1189 (1982).
[Crossref]

Mezentseva, L. P.

I. A. Bodnar’, A. I. Burshtein, A. V. Krutikov, L. P. Mezentseva, V. V. Osiko, V. P. Sakun, V. A. Smirnov, and I. A. Shcherbakov, Sov. Phys. JETP 54, 45 (1981).

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A. J. De Vries, B. P. Minks, and G. Blasse, J. Lumin. 39, 153 (1988).
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L. A. Riseberg, H. W. Moos, and W. D. Partlow, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-4, 609 (1968).
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E. M. Dianov, A. Ya. Karasik, V. B. Neustruev, A. M. Prokhorov, and I. A. Shcherbakov, Sov. Phys. Dokl. 20, 622 (1976).

E. M. Dianov, A. Ya. Karasik, A. A. Kut’enkov, V. B. Neustruev, and I. A. Shcherbakov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 6, 90 (1976).
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L. A. Riseberg, H. W. Moos, and W. D. Partlow, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-4, 609 (1968).
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B. I. Denker, V. V. Osiko, P. P. Pashinin, and A. M. Prokhorov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 11, 289 (1981).
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M. S. Mangir and D. A. Rockwell, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 574 (1986).
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A. G. Avanesov, B. I. Denker, V. V. Osiko, S. S. Pirumov, V. P. Sakun, V. A. Smirnov, and I. A. Shcherbakov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 744 (1982).
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Yu. K. Voronko, T. G. Mamedov, V. V. Osiko, A. M. Prokhorov, V. P. Sakun, and I. A. Shcherbakov, Sov. Phys. JETP 44, 251 (1976).

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E. M. Dianov, A. Ya. Karasik, A. A. Kut’enkov, V. B. Neustruev, and I. A. Shcherbakov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 6, 90 (1976).
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T. T. Basiev, E. M. Dianov, A. M. Prokhorov, and I. A. Shcherbakov, Sov. Phys. Dokl. 19, 288 (1974).

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Yu. S. Privis, V. A. Smirnov, and I. A. Shcherbakov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 13, 868 (1983).
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G. J. Linford, R. A. Saroyan, J. B. Trenholme, and M. J. Weber, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 510 (1979).
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A. Lupei, V. Lupei, S. Georgescu, C. Ionescu, and W. M. Yen, J. Lumin. 39, 35 (1987).
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Yu. K. Voronko, T. G. Mamedov, V. V. Osiko, A. M. Prokhorov, V. P. Sakun, and I. A. Shcherbakov, Sov. Phys. JETP 44, 251 (1976).

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M. V. Artamonova, Ch. M. Briskina, A. I. Burshtein, L. D. Zusman, and A. G. Skleznev, Sov. Phys. JETP 35, 457 (1972).

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The time that it takes for the fluorescence intensity to drop by a factor of e(= 2.72).

W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1976), Vol. 1, p. 17.
[Crossref]

A. A. Kaminskii, Laser Crystals (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1981), Vol. 14, p. 14.

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S. E. Stokowski, R. A. Saroyan, and M. J. Weber, “Nd:doped laser glass spectroscopic and physical properties,” 2nd rev., (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1981).

Data from Labsphere Inc., P.O. Box 70, North Sutton, N.H. 03260.

A. A. Kaminskii, Laser Crystals (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1981), Vol. 14, p. 322.

V. P. Gapontsev, M. R. Sirtlanov, A. K. Gromov, and A. A. Isineev, in Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers ’81, C. B. Collins, ed. (STS, McLean, Va., 1981), p. 763.

Schott Glass Technologies Inc., Duryea, Pa. 18642

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Four major relaxation processes for neodymium-doped laser materials. (a) Radiative decay: the spontaneous emission of photons accompanies transitions from the 4F3/2(R) metastable state to lower-lying energy levels. (b) Multiphonon emission: an isolated Nd3+ ion in the 4F3/2(R) upper laser level decays through interaction with the host material, producing high-energy phonons. (c) Cross relaxation: an excited Nd3+ ion shares its energy with a neighboring Nd3+ ion. (d) Excitation migration: the excitation energy moves (hops) from one Nd3+ ion to another.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the integrating-sphere quantum efficiency measurement apparatus. The pump source is an argon-ion laser (1). The calibration source is a tungsten–halogen lamp (2), spectrally filtered with interference filters (3). An interchangeable mirror or lens (4) relays the selected source to the rotatable mirror (5), which directs the source to the sample (6) in the sphere (7) or, when rotated 90° (dashed orientation), to the thermopile power monitor (8). The other system components are the following: lenses (9’s), field stops (10’s), mirror (11), shutter (12), short-wavelength cutoff filter (13), iris (14), dry-ice-cooled S-1 photomultiplier tube (15), picoammeter (16),and light-tight enclosure (17).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Typical sphere–detector spectral response function K(λ). The calibration is established for a fixed voltage on the phototube and a fixed detection system configuration. The stability of the system response at the peak wavelength is also checked periodically. One of the calibration points (indicated) was obtained with a Nd:YAG laser as a source rather than the tungsten–halogen lamp of Fig. 2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Normalized extrinsic emission spectra for LG-750 samples of constant shape and size vary with Nd3+ concentration owing to reabsorption of RZ band luminescence. The extrinsic branching ratios for these samples were obtained by the integration of these curves between appropriate limits.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Extrinsic branching ratios for LG-750 samples from Fig. 4 and Table 2 plotted as a function of concentration. All the samples had approximately the same physical dimensions (1 mm × 2 mm × 2 mm). A quadratic least-squares fit to the concentration dependence was used to extrapolate to zero concentration, yielding the intrinsic branching ratios listed in Table 1.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Intrinsic fluorescence quantum efficiencies for LG-750 and LG-760 samples plotted versus neodymium concentration. The solid curves are the calculated values based on the model described in Subsection 4.B.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Emission cross sections for LG-750 and LG-760 laser glass as a function of wavelength determined from Eq. (8) with normalized emission spectra for lightly doped samples. LG-760 exhibits somewhat sharper emission bands, which, along with a higher spontaneous emission rate, are responsible for its higher peak cross section.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Absorption and emission spectra for LG-750 and LG-760 in the wavelength region where their overlap leads to nonradiative migration or excitation hopping.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Donor–donor resonance transfer integrand σ D em σ D abs and its integral value plotted as a function of wavelength for LG-750 and LG-760. A slightly larger critical hopping range for LG-760 is calculated from Eq. (18), as indicated in Table 1.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Quantum efficiency data and model for LG-750 (from Fig. 6) compared with calculations that leave out either the migration-enabled decay (by setting W ¯ = 0) or the static disordered Förster decay (by setting γ = 0).

Tables (4)

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Table 1 Radiative Spectroscopic Properties of Neodymium-Doped LG-750 and LG-760 Phosphate Laser Glasses

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Table 2 Summary of Quantum Efficiency, Branching Ratio, and Lifetime Measurements for Neodymium-Doped LG-750 and LG-760 Phosphate Laser Glasses

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Table 3 Radiative and Nonradiative Relaxation Rates for the R Level of Nd3+ in Samples of Neodymium-Doped LG-750 and LG-760 Phosphate Laser Glasses

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Table 4 Nonradiative Spectroscopic Parameters for Neodymium-Doped LG-750 and LG-760 Phosphate Laser Glasses

Equations (27)

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n f = I f / ϕ abs K ( λ ) g ( λ ) d λ ,
K ( λ ) = I p / ϕ T ( λ ) R S ,
P abs = P in ( 1 - R ) { 1 - exp [ - α ( λ ) l ] } 1 - R exp [ - α ( λ ) l ] ,
g ( λ ) = I ( λ ) 0 I ( λ ) d λ ,
R X + R W I ( λ ) d λ R Y I ( λ ) d λ = β R X + β R W β R Y = 0.2.
g ( λ ) = I ( λ ) R Z + R Y + R X + R W I ( λ ) d λ = I ( λ ) R Z I ( λ ) d λ + 1.2 R Y I ( λ ) d λ .
A r = η f W f .
σ em ( λ ) = ( λ 2 A r / 8 π n 2 ) g ( ν ) = ( λ 4 A r / 8 π c n 2 ) g ( λ ) ,
W nr = ( 1 - η f ) W f
I ( t ) = I ( 0 ) exp ( - A r t - W 0 t - γ t - W ¯ t ) ,
ζ = A r ( R DA 6 / R 6 ) ,
γ = 4 3 π 3 / 2 n A R DA 3 A r .
τ 0 - 1 = ( 2 π / 3 ) 3 n D 2 R DD 6 A r ,
W ¯ = γ π / 4 τ 0 = π ( 2 π / 3 ) 5 / 2 R DA 3 R DD 3 n A n D A r ,
η f = 0 I ( t ) d t 0 I ( 0 ) exp ( - A r t ) d t = A r 0 exp ( - A r t - W 0 t - γ t - W ¯ t ) d t .
η f = ( A r / W ) { 1 - π x exp ( x 2 ) [ 1 - erf ( x ) ] } ,
R DX 6 = 3 4 π ( h c n ) 4 F D em ( E ) σ X abs ( E ) E 4 d E ,
R DX 6 = 3 c 8 π 4 n 2 A r σ D em ( λ ) σ X abs ( λ ) d λ .
C DA = A r R DA 6 ,             C DD = A r R DD 6 .
η f = η f - η f f β R Z + η f 2 f β R Z - ( η f f β R Z ) 2 + ,
η f = η f [ 1 - f β R Z ( 1 - η f + η f f β R Z + ) ] .
η f = η f / [ 1 - f β R Z ( 1 - η f ) ] .
β R Y = A r β R Y A r ( β R W + β R X + β R Y + β R Z - f β R Z ) = β R Y 1 - f β R Z ,
f β R Z = 1 - β R Y / β R Y .
A r = η f W f eff .
W f eff = W f eff - A r f β R Z ,
τ f eff = τ f eff ( 1 - η f f β R Z ) ,

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