Abstract

The pedestal (prepulse and postpulse) associated with a chirped-pulse-amplification (CPA) laser is studied. Four components have been identified that contribute to the pedestal. Pulses are spectrally shaped by gain narrowing in a frequency-matched, regenerative amplifier, while self-phase modulation is avoided. The intensity contrast is further improved through the use of a saturable absorber, resulting in Gaussian pulses of ~0.9-ps duration with an intensity contrast exceeding 105:1. Both experimental and numerical descriptions of these processes are presented. This investigation makes possible the study of high-intensity ultrashort laser–plasma interactions with a fiber–grating CPA system.

© 1991 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and R. W. Falcone, “High-density plasmas produced by ultrafast laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 155 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. O. L. Landen, E. M. Campbell, and M. D. Perry, “X-ray characterization of picosecond laser plasmas,” Opt. Commun. 63, 253 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  3. J. A. Cobble, G. A. Kyrala, A. A. Hauer, A. J. Taylor, C. C. Gomez, N. D. Delamater, and G. T. Schappert, “Kilovolt x-ray spectroscopy of a subpicosecond-laser-excited source,” Phys. Rev. A 39, 454 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. P. Maine, D. Strickland, P. Bado, M. Pessot, and G. Mourou, “Generation of ultrahigh peak power pulses by chirped pulse amplification,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 398 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  5. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, Boston, Mass., 1989), Chaps. 4 and 6.
  6. E. B. Treacy, “Optical pulse compression with diffraction gratings,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-5, 454 (1969).
    [Crossref]
  7. M. Pessot, P. Maine, and G. Mourou, “1000 Times expansion/compression of optical pulses for chirped pulse amplification,” Opt. Commun. 62, 419 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  8. A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986), Chaps. 5, 9, and 10.
  9. R. H. Stolen, J. Botineau, and A. Ashkin, “Intensity discrimination of optical pulses with birefringent fibers,” Opt. Lett. 7, 512 (1982); B. Nikolaus, D. Grischkowsky, and A. C. Balant, “Optical pulse reshaping based on the nonlinear birefringence of single-mode optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 8, 189 (1983); N. J. Halas and D. Grischkowsky, “Simultaneous optical pulse compression and wing reduction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 823 (1986).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. H. Kubota and M. Nakazawa, “Compensation of nonlinear chirp generated by self-steepening using third order dispersion of a grating pair,” Opt. Commun. 66, 79 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  11. J. P. Heritage, R. N. Thurston, W. J. Tomlinson, A. M. Weiner, and R. H. Stolen, “Spectral windowing of frequency-modulated optical pulses in a grating compressor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 87 (1985).
    [Crossref]
  12. M. D. Perry, F. G. Patterson, and J. Weston, “Spectral shaping in chirped-pulse amplification,” Opt. Lett. 15, 381 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. J. P. Heritage, A. M. Weiner, R. J. Hawkins, and O. E. Martinez, “Stabilized pulse compression by multiple-order stimulated Raman scattering with group velocity dispersion,” Opt. Commun. 67, 367 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  14. H. Roskos, A. Seilmeier, W. Kaiser, and J. D. Harvey, “Efficient high-power optical pulse compression with logarithmic wing analysis,” Opt. Commun. 61, 81 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  15. J. S. Coe, P. Maine, and P. Bado, “Regenerative amplification of picosecond pulses in Nd:YLF: gain narrowing and gain saturation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 2560 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  16. W. J. Tomlinson, “Curious features of nonlinear pulse propagation in single-mode optical fibers,” Opt. News 15(1), 7 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  17. W. Zinth, A. Laibereau, and W. Kaiser, “Generation of chirp-free picosecond pulses,” Opt. Commun. 22, 161 (1977).
    [Crossref]
  18. J. D. McMullen, “Analysis of compression of frequency chirped optical pulses by a strongly dispersive grating pair,” Appl. Opt. 18, 737 (1979).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. O. E. Martinez, “Grating and prism compressors in the case of finite beam size,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 929 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  20. G. Albrecht, A. Antonetti, and G. Mourou, “Temporal shape analysis of Nd3+:YAG active passive mode-locked pulses,” Opt. Commun. 40, 59 (1981).
    [Crossref]
  21. B. Kopainsky, W. Kaiser, and K. H. Drexhage, “New ultrafast saturable absorbers for Nd: lasers,” Opt. Commun. 32, 451 (1980).
    [Crossref]
  22. Y. H. Chuang, J. Peatross, and D. D. Meyerhofer, “Modeling the pedestal in a chirped-pulse-amplification laser,” in Proceedings of the Short-Pulse, High-Intensity Lasers and Applications Conference, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (to be published).
  23. K.-I. Yamakawa, C. P. J. Barty, H. Shiraga, and Y. Kato, “Generation of a high-energy picosecond laser pulse with a high contrast ratio by chirped pulse amplification,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (to be published).

1990 (1)

1989 (3)

M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and R. W. Falcone, “High-density plasmas produced by ultrafast laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 155 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Cobble, G. A. Kyrala, A. A. Hauer, A. J. Taylor, C. C. Gomez, N. D. Delamater, and G. T. Schappert, “Kilovolt x-ray spectroscopy of a subpicosecond-laser-excited source,” Phys. Rev. A 39, 454 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. J. Tomlinson, “Curious features of nonlinear pulse propagation in single-mode optical fibers,” Opt. News 15(1), 7 (1989).
[Crossref]

1988 (4)

J. S. Coe, P. Maine, and P. Bado, “Regenerative amplification of picosecond pulses in Nd:YLF: gain narrowing and gain saturation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 2560 (1988).
[Crossref]

P. Maine, D. Strickland, P. Bado, M. Pessot, and G. Mourou, “Generation of ultrahigh peak power pulses by chirped pulse amplification,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 398 (1988).
[Crossref]

H. Kubota and M. Nakazawa, “Compensation of nonlinear chirp generated by self-steepening using third order dispersion of a grating pair,” Opt. Commun. 66, 79 (1988).
[Crossref]

J. P. Heritage, A. M. Weiner, R. J. Hawkins, and O. E. Martinez, “Stabilized pulse compression by multiple-order stimulated Raman scattering with group velocity dispersion,” Opt. Commun. 67, 367 (1988).
[Crossref]

1987 (3)

H. Roskos, A. Seilmeier, W. Kaiser, and J. D. Harvey, “Efficient high-power optical pulse compression with logarithmic wing analysis,” Opt. Commun. 61, 81 (1987).
[Crossref]

O. L. Landen, E. M. Campbell, and M. D. Perry, “X-ray characterization of picosecond laser plasmas,” Opt. Commun. 63, 253 (1987).
[Crossref]

M. Pessot, P. Maine, and G. Mourou, “1000 Times expansion/compression of optical pulses for chirped pulse amplification,” Opt. Commun. 62, 419 (1987).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

1985 (1)

J. P. Heritage, R. N. Thurston, W. J. Tomlinson, A. M. Weiner, and R. H. Stolen, “Spectral windowing of frequency-modulated optical pulses in a grating compressor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 87 (1985).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

1981 (1)

G. Albrecht, A. Antonetti, and G. Mourou, “Temporal shape analysis of Nd3+:YAG active passive mode-locked pulses,” Opt. Commun. 40, 59 (1981).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

B. Kopainsky, W. Kaiser, and K. H. Drexhage, “New ultrafast saturable absorbers for Nd: lasers,” Opt. Commun. 32, 451 (1980).
[Crossref]

1979 (1)

1977 (1)

W. Zinth, A. Laibereau, and W. Kaiser, “Generation of chirp-free picosecond pulses,” Opt. Commun. 22, 161 (1977).
[Crossref]

1969 (1)

E. B. Treacy, “Optical pulse compression with diffraction gratings,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-5, 454 (1969).
[Crossref]

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, Boston, Mass., 1989), Chaps. 4 and 6.

Albrecht, G.

G. Albrecht, A. Antonetti, and G. Mourou, “Temporal shape analysis of Nd3+:YAG active passive mode-locked pulses,” Opt. Commun. 40, 59 (1981).
[Crossref]

Antonetti, A.

G. Albrecht, A. Antonetti, and G. Mourou, “Temporal shape analysis of Nd3+:YAG active passive mode-locked pulses,” Opt. Commun. 40, 59 (1981).
[Crossref]

Ashkin, A.

Bado, P.

J. S. Coe, P. Maine, and P. Bado, “Regenerative amplification of picosecond pulses in Nd:YLF: gain narrowing and gain saturation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 2560 (1988).
[Crossref]

P. Maine, D. Strickland, P. Bado, M. Pessot, and G. Mourou, “Generation of ultrahigh peak power pulses by chirped pulse amplification,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 398 (1988).
[Crossref]

Barty, C. P. J.

K.-I. Yamakawa, C. P. J. Barty, H. Shiraga, and Y. Kato, “Generation of a high-energy picosecond laser pulse with a high contrast ratio by chirped pulse amplification,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (to be published).

Botineau, J.

Campbell, E. M.

O. L. Landen, E. M. Campbell, and M. D. Perry, “X-ray characterization of picosecond laser plasmas,” Opt. Commun. 63, 253 (1987).
[Crossref]

Chuang, Y. H.

Y. H. Chuang, J. Peatross, and D. D. Meyerhofer, “Modeling the pedestal in a chirped-pulse-amplification laser,” in Proceedings of the Short-Pulse, High-Intensity Lasers and Applications Conference, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (to be published).

Cobble, J. A.

J. A. Cobble, G. A. Kyrala, A. A. Hauer, A. J. Taylor, C. C. Gomez, N. D. Delamater, and G. T. Schappert, “Kilovolt x-ray spectroscopy of a subpicosecond-laser-excited source,” Phys. Rev. A 39, 454 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coe, J. S.

Delamater, N. D.

J. A. Cobble, G. A. Kyrala, A. A. Hauer, A. J. Taylor, C. C. Gomez, N. D. Delamater, and G. T. Schappert, “Kilovolt x-ray spectroscopy of a subpicosecond-laser-excited source,” Phys. Rev. A 39, 454 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Drexhage, K. H.

B. Kopainsky, W. Kaiser, and K. H. Drexhage, “New ultrafast saturable absorbers for Nd: lasers,” Opt. Commun. 32, 451 (1980).
[Crossref]

Falcone, R. W.

M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and R. W. Falcone, “High-density plasmas produced by ultrafast laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 155 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gomez, C. C.

J. A. Cobble, G. A. Kyrala, A. A. Hauer, A. J. Taylor, C. C. Gomez, N. D. Delamater, and G. T. Schappert, “Kilovolt x-ray spectroscopy of a subpicosecond-laser-excited source,” Phys. Rev. A 39, 454 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harvey, J. D.

H. Roskos, A. Seilmeier, W. Kaiser, and J. D. Harvey, “Efficient high-power optical pulse compression with logarithmic wing analysis,” Opt. Commun. 61, 81 (1987).
[Crossref]

Hauer, A. A.

J. A. Cobble, G. A. Kyrala, A. A. Hauer, A. J. Taylor, C. C. Gomez, N. D. Delamater, and G. T. Schappert, “Kilovolt x-ray spectroscopy of a subpicosecond-laser-excited source,” Phys. Rev. A 39, 454 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hawkins, R. J.

J. P. Heritage, A. M. Weiner, R. J. Hawkins, and O. E. Martinez, “Stabilized pulse compression by multiple-order stimulated Raman scattering with group velocity dispersion,” Opt. Commun. 67, 367 (1988).
[Crossref]

Heritage, J. P.

J. P. Heritage, A. M. Weiner, R. J. Hawkins, and O. E. Martinez, “Stabilized pulse compression by multiple-order stimulated Raman scattering with group velocity dispersion,” Opt. Commun. 67, 367 (1988).
[Crossref]

J. P. Heritage, R. N. Thurston, W. J. Tomlinson, A. M. Weiner, and R. H. Stolen, “Spectral windowing of frequency-modulated optical pulses in a grating compressor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 87 (1985).
[Crossref]

Kaiser, W.

H. Roskos, A. Seilmeier, W. Kaiser, and J. D. Harvey, “Efficient high-power optical pulse compression with logarithmic wing analysis,” Opt. Commun. 61, 81 (1987).
[Crossref]

B. Kopainsky, W. Kaiser, and K. H. Drexhage, “New ultrafast saturable absorbers for Nd: lasers,” Opt. Commun. 32, 451 (1980).
[Crossref]

W. Zinth, A. Laibereau, and W. Kaiser, “Generation of chirp-free picosecond pulses,” Opt. Commun. 22, 161 (1977).
[Crossref]

Kapteyn, H. C.

M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and R. W. Falcone, “High-density plasmas produced by ultrafast laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 155 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kato, Y.

K.-I. Yamakawa, C. P. J. Barty, H. Shiraga, and Y. Kato, “Generation of a high-energy picosecond laser pulse with a high contrast ratio by chirped pulse amplification,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (to be published).

Kopainsky, B.

B. Kopainsky, W. Kaiser, and K. H. Drexhage, “New ultrafast saturable absorbers for Nd: lasers,” Opt. Commun. 32, 451 (1980).
[Crossref]

Kubota, H.

H. Kubota and M. Nakazawa, “Compensation of nonlinear chirp generated by self-steepening using third order dispersion of a grating pair,” Opt. Commun. 66, 79 (1988).
[Crossref]

Kyrala, G. A.

J. A. Cobble, G. A. Kyrala, A. A. Hauer, A. J. Taylor, C. C. Gomez, N. D. Delamater, and G. T. Schappert, “Kilovolt x-ray spectroscopy of a subpicosecond-laser-excited source,” Phys. Rev. A 39, 454 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Laibereau, A.

W. Zinth, A. Laibereau, and W. Kaiser, “Generation of chirp-free picosecond pulses,” Opt. Commun. 22, 161 (1977).
[Crossref]

Landen, O. L.

O. L. Landen, E. M. Campbell, and M. D. Perry, “X-ray characterization of picosecond laser plasmas,” Opt. Commun. 63, 253 (1987).
[Crossref]

Maine, P.

P. Maine, D. Strickland, P. Bado, M. Pessot, and G. Mourou, “Generation of ultrahigh peak power pulses by chirped pulse amplification,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 398 (1988).
[Crossref]

J. S. Coe, P. Maine, and P. Bado, “Regenerative amplification of picosecond pulses in Nd:YLF: gain narrowing and gain saturation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 2560 (1988).
[Crossref]

M. Pessot, P. Maine, and G. Mourou, “1000 Times expansion/compression of optical pulses for chirped pulse amplification,” Opt. Commun. 62, 419 (1987).
[Crossref]

Martinez, O. E.

J. P. Heritage, A. M. Weiner, R. J. Hawkins, and O. E. Martinez, “Stabilized pulse compression by multiple-order stimulated Raman scattering with group velocity dispersion,” Opt. Commun. 67, 367 (1988).
[Crossref]

O. E. Martinez, “Grating and prism compressors in the case of finite beam size,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 929 (1986).
[Crossref]

McMullen, J. D.

Meyerhofer, D. D.

Y. H. Chuang, J. Peatross, and D. D. Meyerhofer, “Modeling the pedestal in a chirped-pulse-amplification laser,” in Proceedings of the Short-Pulse, High-Intensity Lasers and Applications Conference, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (to be published).

Mourou, G.

P. Maine, D. Strickland, P. Bado, M. Pessot, and G. Mourou, “Generation of ultrahigh peak power pulses by chirped pulse amplification,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 398 (1988).
[Crossref]

M. Pessot, P. Maine, and G. Mourou, “1000 Times expansion/compression of optical pulses for chirped pulse amplification,” Opt. Commun. 62, 419 (1987).
[Crossref]

G. Albrecht, A. Antonetti, and G. Mourou, “Temporal shape analysis of Nd3+:YAG active passive mode-locked pulses,” Opt. Commun. 40, 59 (1981).
[Crossref]

Murnane, M. M.

M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and R. W. Falcone, “High-density plasmas produced by ultrafast laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 155 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nakazawa, M.

H. Kubota and M. Nakazawa, “Compensation of nonlinear chirp generated by self-steepening using third order dispersion of a grating pair,” Opt. Commun. 66, 79 (1988).
[Crossref]

Patterson, F. G.

Peatross, J.

Y. H. Chuang, J. Peatross, and D. D. Meyerhofer, “Modeling the pedestal in a chirped-pulse-amplification laser,” in Proceedings of the Short-Pulse, High-Intensity Lasers and Applications Conference, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (to be published).

Perry, M. D.

M. D. Perry, F. G. Patterson, and J. Weston, “Spectral shaping in chirped-pulse amplification,” Opt. Lett. 15, 381 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. L. Landen, E. M. Campbell, and M. D. Perry, “X-ray characterization of picosecond laser plasmas,” Opt. Commun. 63, 253 (1987).
[Crossref]

Pessot, M.

P. Maine, D. Strickland, P. Bado, M. Pessot, and G. Mourou, “Generation of ultrahigh peak power pulses by chirped pulse amplification,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 398 (1988).
[Crossref]

M. Pessot, P. Maine, and G. Mourou, “1000 Times expansion/compression of optical pulses for chirped pulse amplification,” Opt. Commun. 62, 419 (1987).
[Crossref]

Roskos, H.

H. Roskos, A. Seilmeier, W. Kaiser, and J. D. Harvey, “Efficient high-power optical pulse compression with logarithmic wing analysis,” Opt. Commun. 61, 81 (1987).
[Crossref]

Schappert, G. T.

J. A. Cobble, G. A. Kyrala, A. A. Hauer, A. J. Taylor, C. C. Gomez, N. D. Delamater, and G. T. Schappert, “Kilovolt x-ray spectroscopy of a subpicosecond-laser-excited source,” Phys. Rev. A 39, 454 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seilmeier, A.

H. Roskos, A. Seilmeier, W. Kaiser, and J. D. Harvey, “Efficient high-power optical pulse compression with logarithmic wing analysis,” Opt. Commun. 61, 81 (1987).
[Crossref]

Shiraga, H.

K.-I. Yamakawa, C. P. J. Barty, H. Shiraga, and Y. Kato, “Generation of a high-energy picosecond laser pulse with a high contrast ratio by chirped pulse amplification,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (to be published).

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986), Chaps. 5, 9, and 10.

Stolen, R. H.

Strickland, D.

P. Maine, D. Strickland, P. Bado, M. Pessot, and G. Mourou, “Generation of ultrahigh peak power pulses by chirped pulse amplification,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 398 (1988).
[Crossref]

Taylor, A. J.

J. A. Cobble, G. A. Kyrala, A. A. Hauer, A. J. Taylor, C. C. Gomez, N. D. Delamater, and G. T. Schappert, “Kilovolt x-ray spectroscopy of a subpicosecond-laser-excited source,” Phys. Rev. A 39, 454 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thurston, R. N.

J. P. Heritage, R. N. Thurston, W. J. Tomlinson, A. M. Weiner, and R. H. Stolen, “Spectral windowing of frequency-modulated optical pulses in a grating compressor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 87 (1985).
[Crossref]

Tomlinson, W. J.

W. J. Tomlinson, “Curious features of nonlinear pulse propagation in single-mode optical fibers,” Opt. News 15(1), 7 (1989).
[Crossref]

J. P. Heritage, R. N. Thurston, W. J. Tomlinson, A. M. Weiner, and R. H. Stolen, “Spectral windowing of frequency-modulated optical pulses in a grating compressor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 87 (1985).
[Crossref]

Treacy, E. B.

E. B. Treacy, “Optical pulse compression with diffraction gratings,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-5, 454 (1969).
[Crossref]

Weiner, A. M.

J. P. Heritage, A. M. Weiner, R. J. Hawkins, and O. E. Martinez, “Stabilized pulse compression by multiple-order stimulated Raman scattering with group velocity dispersion,” Opt. Commun. 67, 367 (1988).
[Crossref]

J. P. Heritage, R. N. Thurston, W. J. Tomlinson, A. M. Weiner, and R. H. Stolen, “Spectral windowing of frequency-modulated optical pulses in a grating compressor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 87 (1985).
[Crossref]

Weston, J.

Yamakawa, K.-I.

K.-I. Yamakawa, C. P. J. Barty, H. Shiraga, and Y. Kato, “Generation of a high-energy picosecond laser pulse with a high contrast ratio by chirped pulse amplification,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (to be published).

Zinth, W.

W. Zinth, A. Laibereau, and W. Kaiser, “Generation of chirp-free picosecond pulses,” Opt. Commun. 22, 161 (1977).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. P. Heritage, R. N. Thurston, W. J. Tomlinson, A. M. Weiner, and R. H. Stolen, “Spectral windowing of frequency-modulated optical pulses in a grating compressor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 87 (1985).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

P. Maine, D. Strickland, P. Bado, M. Pessot, and G. Mourou, “Generation of ultrahigh peak power pulses by chirped pulse amplification,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 398 (1988).
[Crossref]

E. B. Treacy, “Optical pulse compression with diffraction gratings,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-5, 454 (1969).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Commun. (8)

G. Albrecht, A. Antonetti, and G. Mourou, “Temporal shape analysis of Nd3+:YAG active passive mode-locked pulses,” Opt. Commun. 40, 59 (1981).
[Crossref]

B. Kopainsky, W. Kaiser, and K. H. Drexhage, “New ultrafast saturable absorbers for Nd: lasers,” Opt. Commun. 32, 451 (1980).
[Crossref]

H. Kubota and M. Nakazawa, “Compensation of nonlinear chirp generated by self-steepening using third order dispersion of a grating pair,” Opt. Commun. 66, 79 (1988).
[Crossref]

W. Zinth, A. Laibereau, and W. Kaiser, “Generation of chirp-free picosecond pulses,” Opt. Commun. 22, 161 (1977).
[Crossref]

J. P. Heritage, A. M. Weiner, R. J. Hawkins, and O. E. Martinez, “Stabilized pulse compression by multiple-order stimulated Raman scattering with group velocity dispersion,” Opt. Commun. 67, 367 (1988).
[Crossref]

H. Roskos, A. Seilmeier, W. Kaiser, and J. D. Harvey, “Efficient high-power optical pulse compression with logarithmic wing analysis,” Opt. Commun. 61, 81 (1987).
[Crossref]

M. Pessot, P. Maine, and G. Mourou, “1000 Times expansion/compression of optical pulses for chirped pulse amplification,” Opt. Commun. 62, 419 (1987).
[Crossref]

O. L. Landen, E. M. Campbell, and M. D. Perry, “X-ray characterization of picosecond laser plasmas,” Opt. Commun. 63, 253 (1987).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. News (1)

W. J. Tomlinson, “Curious features of nonlinear pulse propagation in single-mode optical fibers,” Opt. News 15(1), 7 (1989).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

J. A. Cobble, G. A. Kyrala, A. A. Hauer, A. J. Taylor, C. C. Gomez, N. D. Delamater, and G. T. Schappert, “Kilovolt x-ray spectroscopy of a subpicosecond-laser-excited source,” Phys. Rev. A 39, 454 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and R. W. Falcone, “High-density plasmas produced by ultrafast laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 155 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (4)

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986), Chaps. 5, 9, and 10.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, Boston, Mass., 1989), Chaps. 4 and 6.

Y. H. Chuang, J. Peatross, and D. D. Meyerhofer, “Modeling the pedestal in a chirped-pulse-amplification laser,” in Proceedings of the Short-Pulse, High-Intensity Lasers and Applications Conference, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (to be published).

K.-I. Yamakawa, C. P. J. Barty, H. Shiraga, and Y. Kato, “Generation of a high-energy picosecond laser pulse with a high contrast ratio by chirped pulse amplification,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (to be published).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the current CPA laser system. (a) Pulse-preparation stage. The regenerative amplifier serves to amplify and to shape the laser pulse. (b) Amplifier chain and compression stage.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Autocorrelator. The wedged beam splitter and slits are used to prevent all étalon reflections from reaching the photomultiplier. The P-I-N diode detects shot-to-shot laser energy fluctuations. This setup becomes a single-shot autocorrelator when the slits are removed and the photomultiplier is replaced by a linear-array detector.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Autocorrelation traces of the compressed pulse with various contributions to the pedestal. (a) A compressed pulse with the regenerative amplifier operating at saturation shows the overwhelming background pedestal. (b) Below saturation other pedestal structures are shown; the Gaussian-curve fits show the ideal pulses. Each data point represents the average of 10 shots.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Spectrum of the chirped pulse leaving the fiber, FWHM 37 Å. (b) Autocorrelation trace of the compressed pulse without amplification, FWHM 1.6 ps, assuming a Gaussian profile. This figure shows that the pulse wings and the satellite pulses are the results of imperfect fiber chirping.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Spectrum of the pulse leaving the regenerative amplifier, FWHM 13.5 Å. The spectral line center is the same as in Fig. 4(a). (b) Autocorrelation trace of the compressed pulse, FWHM 1.6 ps, assuming a Gaussian profile.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Spectrum of the pulse with a saturable absorber in the system, FWHM 36 Å. (b) Autocorrelation trace of the compressed pulse, FWHM 0.9 ps, assuming a Gaussian profile. The baseline represents the noise level of our detector and data-acquisition system. The intensity contrast is now greater than 105, the limit of our autocorrelator dynamic range.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Rescaled view of Fig. 6(b). A detailed autocorrelation trace of a 0.9-ps pulse with a Gaussian fit is shown.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Model calculations, showing the frequency spectrum and compressed-pulse shape (a), (b) before and (c), (d) after gain narrowing in the regenerative amplifier. The initial bandwidth is 37 Å with a chirped-pulse duration of (a), (b) 150 ps, stretched to (c), (d) 300 ps before amplification.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Effect of frequency mismatch (Δλ) and SPM(B) on the compressed pulse shown in Fig. 8. (a) Δλ = 0 Å, B = 2, (b) Δλ = 4 Å, B = 0.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Calculated compressed pulse with conditions similar to those of the pulse shown in Fig. 3(a). The initial pulse, with a chirped-frequency bandwidth of 20 Å and a duration of 150 ps, is amplified with a frequency mismatch of 4 Å at B = 5.0.

Equations (12)

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E 0 ( z , t ) δ z = α ( ω i ) 2 E 0 ( z , t ) - i β 2 2 E 0 2 E 0 ( z , t ) ,
E 0 ( z , t ) = E 0 ( 0 , t ) exp [ α ( t ) z 2 ] exp [ - i ϕ SPM ( z , t ) ] ,
ϕ SPM ( z , t ) = 1 / 2 [ β 2 / α ( t ) ] E 0 ( 0 , t ) 2 { exp [ α ( t ) z ] - 1 } ,
E 0 ( t ) = E 0 ( 0 , t ) [ R G ( t ) ] M / 2 exp [ - i ϕ SPM ( t ) ] ,
ϕ SPM ( t ) = 1 2 β 2 α ( t ) E 0 ( 0 , t ) 2 [ G ( t ) - 1 ] [ R G ( t ) ] M - 1 R G ( t ) - 1 .
E ( 0 , t ) = A 1 exp [ - 1 2 ( t τ ) 2 m ] × exp { i [ ω 0 t + 1 2 b ( t τ ) 2 + ϕ NL ( t ) ] } ,
E ( t ) = A 2 exp [ - 1 2 ( t τ ) 2 m - 1 2 ( t τ eff ) 2 ] × exp { i [ ω 0 t + 1 2 b ( t τ ) 2 + ϕ NL ( t ) - ϕ SPM ( t ) ] } ,
M α 0 L > ( Δ ω a / Δ ω L ) 2 ,
Δ ω SPM = 0.74 [ m + ( τ τ eff ) 2 ] exp [ - ( τ τ eff ) 2 ] Φ max τ ,
G ( t ) = G 0 M exp [ - M α L 2 ( b t τ 2 + ω 0 - ω a ) 2 ] = G 0 M exp [ - ( t - t 0 ) 2 τ eff 2 ] ,
A ( t ) exp { i [ ω 0 t + 1 2 b ( t τ ) 2 ] } exp ( - i ω t ) d t = exp ( - i ω 2 t 2 2 b ) A ( t ) exp [ i ( b 2 ) ( t τ - ω τ b ) 2 ] d t ,
E ( t ) = ( i b 2 π τ 2 ) 1 / 2 exp [ - i 1 2 b ( t τ ) 2 ] exp ( i ω 0 ) t × A 2 exp [ - 1 2 ( t τ ) 2 m - 1 2 ( t τ eff ) 2 ] × exp { i [ Φ NL ( t ) - ϕ SPM ( t ) ] } exp ( i b t t τ 2 ) d t .

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