Abstract

Second-harmonic generation was used to determine the rotational mobility of dopants in polymer hosts aligned by an electric field as a function of temperature and of dopant molecular volume. A free-volume model is used to interpret the results and to estimate the average free volume surrounding the dopants.

© 1991 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. J. Williams, in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Molecules and Crystals, D. S. Chemla and J. Zyss, eds. (Academic, New York, 1987), Vol. 1, Chap. II-7; K. D. Singer, S. L. Lalama, J. E. Sohn, and R. D. Small, in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Molecules and Crystals, D. S. Chemla and J. Zyss, eds. (Academic, New York, 1987), Vol. 1, Chap. II-8.
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  3. G. R. Meredith, J. G. Van Dusen, and D. J. Williams, Macromolecules 15, 1385 (1982); M. A. Hubbard, T. J. Marks, J. Yang, and G. K. Wong, Chem. Mat. 1, 167 (1989); H. L. Hampsch, J. M. Torkelson, S. J. Bethke, and S. G. Grubb, J. Appl. Phys. 67, 1037 (1990); M. G. Kuzyk, R. C. Moore, and L. A. King, J. Opt. Soc. B 7, 64 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Eich, A. Sen, H. Looser, D. Y. Yoon, G. C. Bjorkland, R. Twieg, and J. D. Swalen, in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.971, 128 (1988); M. Eich, H. Looser, D. Y. Yoon, R. Twieg, G. Bjorkland, and J. C. Baumert, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 1590 (1989); M. Eich, A. Sen, H. Looser, G. C. Looser, G. C. Bjorkland, J. D. Swalen, R. Twieg, and D. Y. Yoon, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 2559 (1989); M. Eich, B. Reck, D. Y. Yoon, C. G. Wilson, and G. C. Bjorkland, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3241 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Esselin, P. Le Barney, P. Robun, D. Broussoux, J. C. Dubois, J. Raffy, and J. P. Pochelle, in Nonlinear Optic Properties of Organic Materials, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.971, 120 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, and S. J. Lalama, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 248 (1986).
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  7. K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, and J. E. Sohn, J. Opt. Soc. Am B 4, 968 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. L. Hampsch, J. Yang, G. K. Wong, and J. M. Torkelson, Polym. Commun. 30, 40 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. L. Hampsch, J. Yang, G. K. Wong, and J. M. Torkelson, Macromolecules 21, 526 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. G. Victor and J. M. Torkelson, Macromolecules 20, 2241 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. G. Kuzyk, R. C. Moore, and L. A. King, in Digest of the Topical Meeting on Quantum Electronics and Laser Science (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper TuAA4; J. Opt. Soc. B 7, 64 (1990).
  12. N. Bloembergen, Nonlinear Optics (Benjamin, Reading, Mass., 1965), p. 68; L. Onsager, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 58, 1486 (1936).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. J. Lalama and A. F. Garito, Phys. Rev. A 20, 1179 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. T. Boyd, Thin Solid Films 152, 295 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. J. Williams, in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Molecules and Crystals, D. S. Chemla and J. Zyss, eds. (Academic, New York, 1987), Vol. 1, Chap. II-7.
  16. J. D. LeGrange, M. G. Kuzyk, and K. D. Singer, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 150b, 567 (1987).
  17. M. Calvin and R. E. Buckles, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 62, 3324 (1940).
    [CrossRef]
  18. (a)Y. A. Fialkov, A. P. Sevastyan, V. A. Kharanovskii, and L. M. Yagupolskii, Zh. Org. Zhim. 14, 1005 (1978); G. M. Kosolapoff, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 71, 1876 (1949).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Chemlab II is a general-purpose molecular modeling program and is the product of Chemlab Inc. licensed to Molecular Design Laboratories for exclusive worldwide distribution.
  20. J. L. Oudar, D. S. Chemla, and E. Batifol, J. Chem. Phys. 67, 1626 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. L. Oudar, J. Chem. Phys. 67, 446 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  22. G. R. Meredith, in Nonlinear Optics: Materials and Devices, C. Flytzantis and J. L. Oudar, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1985), p. 116.
  23. A. Buckley, E. Choe, R. DeMartino, T. Leslie, G. Nelson, J. Stamatoff, D. Stuetz, and H. Yoon, Proc. Am. Chem. Soc. Div. Polymer. Mater. 54, 502 (1986).
  24. F. Kajzar and J. Messier, Thin Solid Films 132, 11 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  25. T. G. Fox and P. J. Flory, J. Polym. Sci. 14, 315 (1954); R. Shima and R. F. Boyer, J. Chem. Phys. 37, 1003 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  26. W. C. Yu, C. S. P. Sung, and R. E. Robertson, Macromolecules 21, 355 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  27. R. O. Loutfy, in Fluorescence Detection, E. R. Menzel, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.743, 54 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  28. W. C. Yu and C. S. P. Sung, Macromolecules 20, 2241 (1987).
    [CrossRef]

1989 (2)

1988 (2)

W. C. Yu, C. S. P. Sung, and R. E. Robertson, Macromolecules 21, 355 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Hampsch, J. Yang, G. K. Wong, and J. M. Torkelson, Macromolecules 21, 526 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (5)

J. G. Victor and J. M. Torkelson, Macromolecules 20, 2241 (1987).
[CrossRef]

G. T. Boyd, Thin Solid Films 152, 295 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. D. LeGrange, M. G. Kuzyk, and K. D. Singer, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 150b, 567 (1987).

W. C. Yu and C. S. P. Sung, Macromolecules 20, 2241 (1987).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, and J. E. Sohn, J. Opt. Soc. Am B 4, 968 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

A. Buckley, E. Choe, R. DeMartino, T. Leslie, G. Nelson, J. Stamatoff, D. Stuetz, and H. Yoon, Proc. Am. Chem. Soc. Div. Polymer. Mater. 54, 502 (1986).

K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, and S. J. Lalama, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 248 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

F. Kajzar and J. Messier, Thin Solid Films 132, 11 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

G. R. Meredith, J. G. Van Dusen, and D. J. Williams, Macromolecules 15, 1385 (1982); M. A. Hubbard, T. J. Marks, J. Yang, and G. K. Wong, Chem. Mat. 1, 167 (1989); H. L. Hampsch, J. M. Torkelson, S. J. Bethke, and S. G. Grubb, J. Appl. Phys. 67, 1037 (1990); M. G. Kuzyk, R. C. Moore, and L. A. King, J. Opt. Soc. B 7, 64 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

S. J. Lalama and A. F. Garito, Phys. Rev. A 20, 1179 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

(a)Y. A. Fialkov, A. P. Sevastyan, V. A. Kharanovskii, and L. M. Yagupolskii, Zh. Org. Zhim. 14, 1005 (1978); G. M. Kosolapoff, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 71, 1876 (1949).
[CrossRef]

1977 (2)

J. L. Oudar, D. S. Chemla, and E. Batifol, J. Chem. Phys. 67, 1626 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Oudar, J. Chem. Phys. 67, 446 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1954 (1)

T. G. Fox and P. J. Flory, J. Polym. Sci. 14, 315 (1954); R. Shima and R. F. Boyer, J. Chem. Phys. 37, 1003 (1962).
[CrossRef]

1940 (1)

M. Calvin and R. E. Buckles, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 62, 3324 (1940).
[CrossRef]

Batifol, E.

J. L. Oudar, D. S. Chemla, and E. Batifol, J. Chem. Phys. 67, 1626 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Bjorkland, G. C.

M. Eich, A. Sen, H. Looser, D. Y. Yoon, G. C. Bjorkland, R. Twieg, and J. D. Swalen, in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.971, 128 (1988); M. Eich, H. Looser, D. Y. Yoon, R. Twieg, G. Bjorkland, and J. C. Baumert, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 1590 (1989); M. Eich, A. Sen, H. Looser, G. C. Looser, G. C. Bjorkland, J. D. Swalen, R. Twieg, and D. Y. Yoon, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 2559 (1989); M. Eich, B. Reck, D. Y. Yoon, C. G. Wilson, and G. C. Bjorkland, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3241 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Bloembergen, N.

N. Bloembergen, Nonlinear Optics (Benjamin, Reading, Mass., 1965), p. 68; L. Onsager, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 58, 1486 (1936).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, G. T.

Broussoux, D.

S. Esselin, P. Le Barney, P. Robun, D. Broussoux, J. C. Dubois, J. Raffy, and J. P. Pochelle, in Nonlinear Optic Properties of Organic Materials, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.971, 120 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Buckles, R. E.

M. Calvin and R. E. Buckles, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 62, 3324 (1940).
[CrossRef]

Buckley, A.

A. Buckley, E. Choe, R. DeMartino, T. Leslie, G. Nelson, J. Stamatoff, D. Stuetz, and H. Yoon, Proc. Am. Chem. Soc. Div. Polymer. Mater. 54, 502 (1986).

Calvin, M.

M. Calvin and R. E. Buckles, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 62, 3324 (1940).
[CrossRef]

Chemla, D. S.

J. L. Oudar, D. S. Chemla, and E. Batifol, J. Chem. Phys. 67, 1626 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Choe, E.

A. Buckley, E. Choe, R. DeMartino, T. Leslie, G. Nelson, J. Stamatoff, D. Stuetz, and H. Yoon, Proc. Am. Chem. Soc. Div. Polymer. Mater. 54, 502 (1986).

DeMartino, R.

A. Buckley, E. Choe, R. DeMartino, T. Leslie, G. Nelson, J. Stamatoff, D. Stuetz, and H. Yoon, Proc. Am. Chem. Soc. Div. Polymer. Mater. 54, 502 (1986).

Dubois, J. C.

S. Esselin, P. Le Barney, P. Robun, D. Broussoux, J. C. Dubois, J. Raffy, and J. P. Pochelle, in Nonlinear Optic Properties of Organic Materials, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.971, 120 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Eich, M.

M. Eich, A. Sen, H. Looser, D. Y. Yoon, G. C. Bjorkland, R. Twieg, and J. D. Swalen, in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.971, 128 (1988); M. Eich, H. Looser, D. Y. Yoon, R. Twieg, G. Bjorkland, and J. C. Baumert, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 1590 (1989); M. Eich, A. Sen, H. Looser, G. C. Looser, G. C. Bjorkland, J. D. Swalen, R. Twieg, and D. Y. Yoon, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 2559 (1989); M. Eich, B. Reck, D. Y. Yoon, C. G. Wilson, and G. C. Bjorkland, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3241 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Esselin, S.

S. Esselin, P. Le Barney, P. Robun, D. Broussoux, J. C. Dubois, J. Raffy, and J. P. Pochelle, in Nonlinear Optic Properties of Organic Materials, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.971, 120 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Fialkov, Y. A.

(a)Y. A. Fialkov, A. P. Sevastyan, V. A. Kharanovskii, and L. M. Yagupolskii, Zh. Org. Zhim. 14, 1005 (1978); G. M. Kosolapoff, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 71, 1876 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Flory, P. J.

T. G. Fox and P. J. Flory, J. Polym. Sci. 14, 315 (1954); R. Shima and R. F. Boyer, J. Chem. Phys. 37, 1003 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Fox, T. G.

T. G. Fox and P. J. Flory, J. Polym. Sci. 14, 315 (1954); R. Shima and R. F. Boyer, J. Chem. Phys. 37, 1003 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Garito, A. F.

S. J. Lalama and A. F. Garito, Phys. Rev. A 20, 1179 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Hampsch, H. L.

H. L. Hampsch, J. Yang, G. K. Wong, and J. M. Torkelson, Polym. Commun. 30, 40 (1989).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Hampsch, J. Yang, G. K. Wong, and J. M. Torkelson, Macromolecules 21, 526 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kajzar, F.

F. Kajzar and J. Messier, Thin Solid Films 132, 11 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Kharanovskii, V. A.

(a)Y. A. Fialkov, A. P. Sevastyan, V. A. Kharanovskii, and L. M. Yagupolskii, Zh. Org. Zhim. 14, 1005 (1978); G. M. Kosolapoff, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 71, 1876 (1949).
[CrossRef]

King, L. A.

M. G. Kuzyk, R. C. Moore, and L. A. King, in Digest of the Topical Meeting on Quantum Electronics and Laser Science (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper TuAA4; J. Opt. Soc. B 7, 64 (1990).

Kuzyk, M. G.

K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, and J. E. Sohn, J. Opt. Soc. Am B 4, 968 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. D. LeGrange, M. G. Kuzyk, and K. D. Singer, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 150b, 567 (1987).

M. G. Kuzyk, R. C. Moore, and L. A. King, in Digest of the Topical Meeting on Quantum Electronics and Laser Science (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper TuAA4; J. Opt. Soc. B 7, 64 (1990).

Lalama, S. J.

K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, and S. J. Lalama, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 248 (1986).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Lalama and A. F. Garito, Phys. Rev. A 20, 1179 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Le Barney, P.

S. Esselin, P. Le Barney, P. Robun, D. Broussoux, J. C. Dubois, J. Raffy, and J. P. Pochelle, in Nonlinear Optic Properties of Organic Materials, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.971, 120 (1988).
[CrossRef]

LeGrange, J. D.

J. D. LeGrange, M. G. Kuzyk, and K. D. Singer, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 150b, 567 (1987).

Leslie, T.

A. Buckley, E. Choe, R. DeMartino, T. Leslie, G. Nelson, J. Stamatoff, D. Stuetz, and H. Yoon, Proc. Am. Chem. Soc. Div. Polymer. Mater. 54, 502 (1986).

Looser, H.

M. Eich, A. Sen, H. Looser, D. Y. Yoon, G. C. Bjorkland, R. Twieg, and J. D. Swalen, in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.971, 128 (1988); M. Eich, H. Looser, D. Y. Yoon, R. Twieg, G. Bjorkland, and J. C. Baumert, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 1590 (1989); M. Eich, A. Sen, H. Looser, G. C. Looser, G. C. Bjorkland, J. D. Swalen, R. Twieg, and D. Y. Yoon, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 2559 (1989); M. Eich, B. Reck, D. Y. Yoon, C. G. Wilson, and G. C. Bjorkland, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3241 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Loutfy, R. O.

R. O. Loutfy, in Fluorescence Detection, E. R. Menzel, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.743, 54 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Meredith, G. R.

G. R. Meredith, J. G. Van Dusen, and D. J. Williams, Macromolecules 15, 1385 (1982); M. A. Hubbard, T. J. Marks, J. Yang, and G. K. Wong, Chem. Mat. 1, 167 (1989); H. L. Hampsch, J. M. Torkelson, S. J. Bethke, and S. G. Grubb, J. Appl. Phys. 67, 1037 (1990); M. G. Kuzyk, R. C. Moore, and L. A. King, J. Opt. Soc. B 7, 64 (1990).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Meredith, in Nonlinear Optics: Materials and Devices, C. Flytzantis and J. L. Oudar, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1985), p. 116.

Messier, J.

F. Kajzar and J. Messier, Thin Solid Films 132, 11 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Moore, R. C.

M. G. Kuzyk, R. C. Moore, and L. A. King, in Digest of the Topical Meeting on Quantum Electronics and Laser Science (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper TuAA4; J. Opt. Soc. B 7, 64 (1990).

Nelson, G.

A. Buckley, E. Choe, R. DeMartino, T. Leslie, G. Nelson, J. Stamatoff, D. Stuetz, and H. Yoon, Proc. Am. Chem. Soc. Div. Polymer. Mater. 54, 502 (1986).

Oudar, J. L.

J. L. Oudar, D. S. Chemla, and E. Batifol, J. Chem. Phys. 67, 1626 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Oudar, J. Chem. Phys. 67, 446 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Pochelle, J. P.

S. Esselin, P. Le Barney, P. Robun, D. Broussoux, J. C. Dubois, J. Raffy, and J. P. Pochelle, in Nonlinear Optic Properties of Organic Materials, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.971, 120 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Raffy, J.

S. Esselin, P. Le Barney, P. Robun, D. Broussoux, J. C. Dubois, J. Raffy, and J. P. Pochelle, in Nonlinear Optic Properties of Organic Materials, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.971, 120 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Robertson, R. E.

W. C. Yu, C. S. P. Sung, and R. E. Robertson, Macromolecules 21, 355 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Robun, P.

S. Esselin, P. Le Barney, P. Robun, D. Broussoux, J. C. Dubois, J. Raffy, and J. P. Pochelle, in Nonlinear Optic Properties of Organic Materials, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.971, 120 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sen, A.

M. Eich, A. Sen, H. Looser, D. Y. Yoon, G. C. Bjorkland, R. Twieg, and J. D. Swalen, in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.971, 128 (1988); M. Eich, H. Looser, D. Y. Yoon, R. Twieg, G. Bjorkland, and J. C. Baumert, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 1590 (1989); M. Eich, A. Sen, H. Looser, G. C. Looser, G. C. Bjorkland, J. D. Swalen, R. Twieg, and D. Y. Yoon, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 2559 (1989); M. Eich, B. Reck, D. Y. Yoon, C. G. Wilson, and G. C. Bjorkland, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3241 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sevastyan, A. P.

(a)Y. A. Fialkov, A. P. Sevastyan, V. A. Kharanovskii, and L. M. Yagupolskii, Zh. Org. Zhim. 14, 1005 (1978); G. M. Kosolapoff, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 71, 1876 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Singer, K. D.

J. D. LeGrange, M. G. Kuzyk, and K. D. Singer, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 150b, 567 (1987).

K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, and J. E. Sohn, J. Opt. Soc. Am B 4, 968 (1987).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, and S. J. Lalama, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 248 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Sohn, J. E.

K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, and J. E. Sohn, J. Opt. Soc. Am B 4, 968 (1987).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, and S. J. Lalama, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 248 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Stamatoff, J.

A. Buckley, E. Choe, R. DeMartino, T. Leslie, G. Nelson, J. Stamatoff, D. Stuetz, and H. Yoon, Proc. Am. Chem. Soc. Div. Polymer. Mater. 54, 502 (1986).

Stuetz, D.

A. Buckley, E. Choe, R. DeMartino, T. Leslie, G. Nelson, J. Stamatoff, D. Stuetz, and H. Yoon, Proc. Am. Chem. Soc. Div. Polymer. Mater. 54, 502 (1986).

Sung, C. S. P.

W. C. Yu, C. S. P. Sung, and R. E. Robertson, Macromolecules 21, 355 (1988).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Yu and C. S. P. Sung, Macromolecules 20, 2241 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Swalen, J. D.

M. Eich, A. Sen, H. Looser, D. Y. Yoon, G. C. Bjorkland, R. Twieg, and J. D. Swalen, in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.971, 128 (1988); M. Eich, H. Looser, D. Y. Yoon, R. Twieg, G. Bjorkland, and J. C. Baumert, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 1590 (1989); M. Eich, A. Sen, H. Looser, G. C. Looser, G. C. Bjorkland, J. D. Swalen, R. Twieg, and D. Y. Yoon, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 2559 (1989); M. Eich, B. Reck, D. Y. Yoon, C. G. Wilson, and G. C. Bjorkland, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3241 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Torkelson, J. M.

H. L. Hampsch, J. Yang, G. K. Wong, and J. M. Torkelson, Polym. Commun. 30, 40 (1989).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Hampsch, J. Yang, G. K. Wong, and J. M. Torkelson, Macromolecules 21, 526 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Victor and J. M. Torkelson, Macromolecules 20, 2241 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Twieg, R.

M. Eich, A. Sen, H. Looser, D. Y. Yoon, G. C. Bjorkland, R. Twieg, and J. D. Swalen, in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.971, 128 (1988); M. Eich, H. Looser, D. Y. Yoon, R. Twieg, G. Bjorkland, and J. C. Baumert, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 1590 (1989); M. Eich, A. Sen, H. Looser, G. C. Looser, G. C. Bjorkland, J. D. Swalen, R. Twieg, and D. Y. Yoon, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 2559 (1989); M. Eich, B. Reck, D. Y. Yoon, C. G. Wilson, and G. C. Bjorkland, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3241 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Van Dusen, J. G.

G. R. Meredith, J. G. Van Dusen, and D. J. Williams, Macromolecules 15, 1385 (1982); M. A. Hubbard, T. J. Marks, J. Yang, and G. K. Wong, Chem. Mat. 1, 167 (1989); H. L. Hampsch, J. M. Torkelson, S. J. Bethke, and S. G. Grubb, J. Appl. Phys. 67, 1037 (1990); M. G. Kuzyk, R. C. Moore, and L. A. King, J. Opt. Soc. B 7, 64 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Victor, J. G.

J. G. Victor and J. M. Torkelson, Macromolecules 20, 2241 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Williams, D. J.

G. R. Meredith, J. G. Van Dusen, and D. J. Williams, Macromolecules 15, 1385 (1982); M. A. Hubbard, T. J. Marks, J. Yang, and G. K. Wong, Chem. Mat. 1, 167 (1989); H. L. Hampsch, J. M. Torkelson, S. J. Bethke, and S. G. Grubb, J. Appl. Phys. 67, 1037 (1990); M. G. Kuzyk, R. C. Moore, and L. A. King, J. Opt. Soc. B 7, 64 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Williams, in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Molecules and Crystals, D. S. Chemla and J. Zyss, eds. (Academic, New York, 1987), Vol. 1, Chap. II-7.

D. J. Williams, in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Molecules and Crystals, D. S. Chemla and J. Zyss, eds. (Academic, New York, 1987), Vol. 1, Chap. II-7; K. D. Singer, S. L. Lalama, J. E. Sohn, and R. D. Small, in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Molecules and Crystals, D. S. Chemla and J. Zyss, eds. (Academic, New York, 1987), Vol. 1, Chap. II-8.

Wong, G. K.

H. L. Hampsch, J. Yang, G. K. Wong, and J. M. Torkelson, Polym. Commun. 30, 40 (1989).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Hampsch, J. Yang, G. K. Wong, and J. M. Torkelson, Macromolecules 21, 526 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Yagupolskii, L. M.

(a)Y. A. Fialkov, A. P. Sevastyan, V. A. Kharanovskii, and L. M. Yagupolskii, Zh. Org. Zhim. 14, 1005 (1978); G. M. Kosolapoff, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 71, 1876 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

H. L. Hampsch, J. Yang, G. K. Wong, and J. M. Torkelson, Polym. Commun. 30, 40 (1989).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Hampsch, J. Yang, G. K. Wong, and J. M. Torkelson, Macromolecules 21, 526 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, D. Y.

M. Eich, A. Sen, H. Looser, D. Y. Yoon, G. C. Bjorkland, R. Twieg, and J. D. Swalen, in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.971, 128 (1988); M. Eich, H. Looser, D. Y. Yoon, R. Twieg, G. Bjorkland, and J. C. Baumert, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 1590 (1989); M. Eich, A. Sen, H. Looser, G. C. Looser, G. C. Bjorkland, J. D. Swalen, R. Twieg, and D. Y. Yoon, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 2559 (1989); M. Eich, B. Reck, D. Y. Yoon, C. G. Wilson, and G. C. Bjorkland, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3241 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, H.

A. Buckley, E. Choe, R. DeMartino, T. Leslie, G. Nelson, J. Stamatoff, D. Stuetz, and H. Yoon, Proc. Am. Chem. Soc. Div. Polymer. Mater. 54, 502 (1986).

Yu, W. C.

W. C. Yu, C. S. P. Sung, and R. E. Robertson, Macromolecules 21, 355 (1988).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Yu and C. S. P. Sung, Macromolecules 20, 2241 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, and S. J. Lalama, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 248 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

M. Calvin and R. E. Buckles, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 62, 3324 (1940).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (2)

J. L. Oudar, D. S. Chemla, and E. Batifol, J. Chem. Phys. 67, 1626 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Oudar, J. Chem. Phys. 67, 446 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am B (1)

K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, and J. E. Sohn, J. Opt. Soc. Am B 4, 968 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Polym. Sci. (1)

T. G. Fox and P. J. Flory, J. Polym. Sci. 14, 315 (1954); R. Shima and R. F. Boyer, J. Chem. Phys. 37, 1003 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Macromolecules (5)

W. C. Yu, C. S. P. Sung, and R. E. Robertson, Macromolecules 21, 355 (1988).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Yu and C. S. P. Sung, Macromolecules 20, 2241 (1987).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Meredith, J. G. Van Dusen, and D. J. Williams, Macromolecules 15, 1385 (1982); M. A. Hubbard, T. J. Marks, J. Yang, and G. K. Wong, Chem. Mat. 1, 167 (1989); H. L. Hampsch, J. M. Torkelson, S. J. Bethke, and S. G. Grubb, J. Appl. Phys. 67, 1037 (1990); M. G. Kuzyk, R. C. Moore, and L. A. King, J. Opt. Soc. B 7, 64 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Hampsch, J. Yang, G. K. Wong, and J. M. Torkelson, Macromolecules 21, 526 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Victor and J. M. Torkelson, Macromolecules 20, 2241 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (1)

J. D. LeGrange, M. G. Kuzyk, and K. D. Singer, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 150b, 567 (1987).

Phys. Rev. A (1)

S. J. Lalama and A. F. Garito, Phys. Rev. A 20, 1179 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Polym. Commun. (1)

H. L. Hampsch, J. Yang, G. K. Wong, and J. M. Torkelson, Polym. Commun. 30, 40 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Am. Chem. Soc. Div. Polymer. Mater. (1)

A. Buckley, E. Choe, R. DeMartino, T. Leslie, G. Nelson, J. Stamatoff, D. Stuetz, and H. Yoon, Proc. Am. Chem. Soc. Div. Polymer. Mater. 54, 502 (1986).

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Zh. Org. Zhim. (1)

(a)Y. A. Fialkov, A. P. Sevastyan, V. A. Kharanovskii, and L. M. Yagupolskii, Zh. Org. Zhim. 14, 1005 (1978); G. M. Kosolapoff, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 71, 1876 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Other (9)

Chemlab II is a general-purpose molecular modeling program and is the product of Chemlab Inc. licensed to Molecular Design Laboratories for exclusive worldwide distribution.

D. J. Williams, in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Molecules and Crystals, D. S. Chemla and J. Zyss, eds. (Academic, New York, 1987), Vol. 1, Chap. II-7; K. D. Singer, S. L. Lalama, J. E. Sohn, and R. D. Small, in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Molecules and Crystals, D. S. Chemla and J. Zyss, eds. (Academic, New York, 1987), Vol. 1, Chap. II-8.

D. J. Williams, in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Molecules and Crystals, D. S. Chemla and J. Zyss, eds. (Academic, New York, 1987), Vol. 1, Chap. II-7.

M. G. Kuzyk, R. C. Moore, and L. A. King, in Digest of the Topical Meeting on Quantum Electronics and Laser Science (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper TuAA4; J. Opt. Soc. B 7, 64 (1990).

N. Bloembergen, Nonlinear Optics (Benjamin, Reading, Mass., 1965), p. 68; L. Onsager, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 58, 1486 (1936).
[CrossRef]

M. Eich, A. Sen, H. Looser, D. Y. Yoon, G. C. Bjorkland, R. Twieg, and J. D. Swalen, in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.971, 128 (1988); M. Eich, H. Looser, D. Y. Yoon, R. Twieg, G. Bjorkland, and J. C. Baumert, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 1590 (1989); M. Eich, A. Sen, H. Looser, G. C. Looser, G. C. Bjorkland, J. D. Swalen, R. Twieg, and D. Y. Yoon, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 2559 (1989); M. Eich, B. Reck, D. Y. Yoon, C. G. Wilson, and G. C. Bjorkland, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3241 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. Esselin, P. Le Barney, P. Robun, D. Broussoux, J. C. Dubois, J. Raffy, and J. P. Pochelle, in Nonlinear Optic Properties of Organic Materials, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.971, 120 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Meredith, in Nonlinear Optics: Materials and Devices, C. Flytzantis and J. L. Oudar, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1985), p. 116.

R. O. Loutfy, in Fluorescence Detection, E. R. Menzel, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.743, 54 (1987).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup: P’s, Glan–Thompson polarizers; FR, Fresnel rhomb; NDF, neutral-density filter; CF’s, color filters; L1, cylindrical focusing lens; L2, imaging lens; M, monochromator; PMT, photomultiplier tube; C, computer data-acquisition system with PMT, temperature (T), current (I), and voltage (V) inputs. Sample holder S is equipped with a temperature controlled heater (H). A quartz crystal (Q) replaces the sample holder for SHG referencing.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured mobility parameter ρ ¯ = 〈cos3(θ)〉/〈cos3(θ)〉free as a function of temperature at constant applied field for dye-doped PC. The glass transition temperature (Tg) is indicated.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Ratio of SHG signal at room temperature (I1) to that measured above Tg(I2) for doped polymer films baked or unbaked above Tg.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured mobility parameter ρ ¯ at room temperature for doped PMMA (open circles) and PC (filled circles) films as a function of dopant molecular volume.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Calculated mobility parameter ρ as a function of rotational limit Δ.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Average volume swept by dopant V ¯ s by rotating ± Δ ¯ at room temperature in polymer host PMMA (open circles) or PC (filled circles) as a function of v′, the volume swept per unit angle of rotation. The points for DR1 in PC are marked (C) and (E), indicating a calculation of v′ assuming rotation about the dopant center of charge, (C), or the end point of its long axis, (E).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Mobility parameter, calculated using the elastic restoring force approach, as a function of 2kT/kθ, where kT is the dipole thermal energy and kθ is the effective spring constant.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Polymer Hosts and Dopant Guest Molecules Used in this Experimenta

Equations (10)

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χ x x x ( 2 ) = N f x 2 ( ω ) f x ( 2 ω ) [ β cos 3 ( θ ) + γ f x ( 0 ) E 0 x cos 4 ( θ ) ] , χ x y y ( 2 ) = N f y 2 ( ω ) f x ( 2 ω ) [ β cos ( θ ) - cos 3 ( θ ) + γ f x ( 0 ) E 0 x cos 2 ( θ ) sin 2 ( θ ) ] / 2 ,
I x x ( 2 ω ) χ x x x ( 2 ) 2 I x 2 ( ω ) , I x y ( 2 ω ) χ x y y ( 2 ) 2 I y 2 ( ω ) ,
ρ ¯ ( T ) cos 3 ( θ ) T cos 3 ( θ ) free ,
[ I x x , 2 ω ( T 1 ) / I x x , 2 ω ( T 2 > T g ) ] 1 / 2 = cos 3 ( θ ) T 1 β + γ E 0 x f x ( 0 ) / 5 μ E 0 x f x ( 0 ) β / 5 k T 2 + γ E 0 x f x ( 0 ) / 5 ,
ρ ¯ ( T 1 ) = [ I x x , 2 ω ( T 1 ) / I x x , 2 ω ( T 2 > T g ) ] 1 / 2 ( T 1 / T 2 + δ ) - δ ,
R = ( I x y I x x ) 1 / 2 f x 2 ( ω ) f y 2 ( ω ) ( 1 + δ / ρ ¯ ) - δ / 3 ρ ¯ .
h ( θ , ϕ ) Δ , = 1 4 π 0 2 π d ϕ 0 0 π sin ( θ 0 ) d θ 0 × { ϕ 0 - ϕ 0 + d ϕ θ 0 - Δ θ 0 + Δ h ( θ , ϕ ) exp [ a cos ( θ ) ] sin ( θ ) d θ ϕ 0 - ϕ 0 + d ϕ θ 0 - Δ θ 0 + Δ exp [ a cos ( θ ) ] sin ( θ ) d θ } .
ρ = cos 3 ( θ ) Δ cos 3 ( θ ) π
ρ ¯ = 0 N ( V e ) ρ ( Δ = V e / 2 v ) d V e ,
ρ = cos 3 ( θ ) k θ cos 3 ( θ ) 0 ,

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