Abstract

Laser ionization of noble gases was studied with a 1.053-μm, 1-psec Nd:glass laser. A systematic scan of intensities from mid-1013 W/cm2 to mid-1016 W/cm2 was performed, resulting in the production of charge states as high as Xe12+. Ionization occurs exclusively in the tunneling regime. We compare experimental ion production rates with those predicted by several different theories. Agreement between experimental ion-production curves and theoretical predictions is good for two theoretical models: (1) an elaboration of the Keldysh tunneling model, developed by Ammosov et al. [ Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191 ( 1986)] and (2) a much more primitive model, based on Coulomb-barrier suppression, in which tunneling and other quantum-mechanical effects are ignored completely. The success of the more primitive model suggests that a new term, barrier-suppression ionization, rather than tunneling or multiphoton ionization, may be the most appropriate at this wavelength and in this range of intensities.

© 1991 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. L. V. Keldysh, Sov. Phys. JETP,  20, 1307 (1965).
  2. G. Gibson, T. S. Luk, and C. K. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. A 41, 5049 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. T. S. Luk, U. Johann, H. Egger, H. Pummer, and C. K. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. A 32, 214 (1985).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. C. K. Rhodes, Phys. Scr. T17, 193 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  5. S. L. Chin, C. Rolland, P. B. Corkum, and P. Kelly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 153 (1988).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. M. D. Perry, O. L. Landen, A. Szöke, and E. M. Campbell, Phys. Rev. A 37, 747 (1988).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. M. D. Perry, A. Szöke, O. L. Landen, and E. M. Campbell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1270 (1988).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. A. L’Huillier, L. A. Lompré, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, J. Phys. B 16, 1363 (1983).
    [Crossref]
  9. A. Szöke, in Atomic and Molecular Processes with Short Intense Laser Pulses, A. D. Bandrauk, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1987), p. 207.
  10. F. H. M. Faisal, J. Phys. B 6, L89 (1973).
    [Crossref]
  11. H. R. Reiss, Phys. Rev. A 22, 1786 (1980).
    [Crossref]
  12. M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191 (1986).
  13. B. W. Boreham and J. L. Hughes, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 80, (1981) [Sov. Phys. JETP 53, 252 (1981)].
  14. K. G. H. Baldwin and B. W. Boreham, J. Appl. Phys. 52, 2627 (1981).
    [Crossref]
  15. F. Yergeau, S. L. Chin, and P. Lavigne, J. Phys. B 20, 723 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  16. S. L. Chin, W. Xiong, and P. Lavigne, J. Opt. Soc. Am B 4, 853 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  17. S. L. Chin and W. Xiong, in Fundamentals of Laser Interactions II, F. Ehlotzky, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), p. 80.
    [Crossref]
  18. S. Augst, D. Strickland, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. L. Chin, and J. H. Eberly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 2212 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. P. Maine, D. Strickland, P. Bado, M. Pessot, and G. Mourou, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-24, 398 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  20. O. E. Martinez, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 59 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  21. G. Albrecht, A. Antonetti, and G. Mourou, Opt. Commun. 40, 59 (1981).
    [Crossref]
  22. J. Janszky, G. Corradi, and R. N. Gyuzalian, Opt. Commun. 23, 293 (1977).
    [Crossref]
  23. F. Salin, P. Georges, G. Roger, and A. Brun, Appl. Opt. 26, 4528 (1987).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. Manual for Channelplate Charged Particle Detectors Model CP-601 and CP-602 (Comstock Inc., Oak Ridge, Tenn., 1985).
  25. D. Strickland, “Development of an ultra-bright laser and an application to multi-photon ionization,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Rochester, Rochester, N.Y., 1988).
  26. L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Quantum Mechanics (Pergamon, New York, 1965), solved the problem at end of Sec. 73.
  27. M. Brewczyk and M. Gajda, J. Phys. B 21, L383 (1988); E. J. Valeo, S. M. Susskind, and C. R. Oberman, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 34, 2099 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  28. A useful conversion formula for the electric field is ℰ(V/cm) = 27.5[I(W/cm2)]1/2.
  29. A. M. Perelomov, V. S. Popov, and M. V. Terent’ev, Sov. Phys. JETP,  23, 924 (1966).
  30. P. B. Corkum, N. H. Burnett, and F. Brunel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 1259 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

G. Gibson, T. S. Luk, and C. K. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. A 41, 5049 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1989 (2)

S. Augst, D. Strickland, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. L. Chin, and J. H. Eberly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 2212 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum, N. H. Burnett, and F. Brunel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 1259 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1988 (5)

M. Brewczyk and M. Gajda, J. Phys. B 21, L383 (1988); E. J. Valeo, S. M. Susskind, and C. R. Oberman, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 34, 2099 (1989).
[Crossref]

P. Maine, D. Strickland, P. Bado, M. Pessot, and G. Mourou, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-24, 398 (1988).
[Crossref]

S. L. Chin, C. Rolland, P. B. Corkum, and P. Kelly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 153 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Perry, O. L. Landen, A. Szöke, and E. M. Campbell, Phys. Rev. A 37, 747 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Perry, A. Szöke, O. L. Landen, and E. M. Campbell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1270 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1987 (5)

C. K. Rhodes, Phys. Scr. T17, 193 (1987).
[Crossref]

O. E. Martinez, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 59 (1987).
[Crossref]

F. Yergeau, S. L. Chin, and P. Lavigne, J. Phys. B 20, 723 (1987).
[Crossref]

S. L. Chin, W. Xiong, and P. Lavigne, J. Opt. Soc. Am B 4, 853 (1987).
[Crossref]

F. Salin, P. Georges, G. Roger, and A. Brun, Appl. Opt. 26, 4528 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191 (1986).

1985 (1)

T. S. Luk, U. Johann, H. Egger, H. Pummer, and C. K. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. A 32, 214 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

A. L’Huillier, L. A. Lompré, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, J. Phys. B 16, 1363 (1983).
[Crossref]

1981 (3)

B. W. Boreham and J. L. Hughes, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 80, (1981) [Sov. Phys. JETP 53, 252 (1981)].

K. G. H. Baldwin and B. W. Boreham, J. Appl. Phys. 52, 2627 (1981).
[Crossref]

G. Albrecht, A. Antonetti, and G. Mourou, Opt. Commun. 40, 59 (1981).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

H. R. Reiss, Phys. Rev. A 22, 1786 (1980).
[Crossref]

1977 (1)

J. Janszky, G. Corradi, and R. N. Gyuzalian, Opt. Commun. 23, 293 (1977).
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

F. H. M. Faisal, J. Phys. B 6, L89 (1973).
[Crossref]

1966 (1)

A. M. Perelomov, V. S. Popov, and M. V. Terent’ev, Sov. Phys. JETP,  23, 924 (1966).

1965 (1)

L. V. Keldysh, Sov. Phys. JETP,  20, 1307 (1965).

Albrecht, G.

G. Albrecht, A. Antonetti, and G. Mourou, Opt. Commun. 40, 59 (1981).
[Crossref]

Ammosov, M. V.

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191 (1986).

Antonetti, A.

G. Albrecht, A. Antonetti, and G. Mourou, Opt. Commun. 40, 59 (1981).
[Crossref]

Augst, S.

S. Augst, D. Strickland, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. L. Chin, and J. H. Eberly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 2212 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bado, P.

P. Maine, D. Strickland, P. Bado, M. Pessot, and G. Mourou, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-24, 398 (1988).
[Crossref]

Baldwin, K. G. H.

K. G. H. Baldwin and B. W. Boreham, J. Appl. Phys. 52, 2627 (1981).
[Crossref]

Boreham, B. W.

K. G. H. Baldwin and B. W. Boreham, J. Appl. Phys. 52, 2627 (1981).
[Crossref]

B. W. Boreham and J. L. Hughes, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 80, (1981) [Sov. Phys. JETP 53, 252 (1981)].

Brewczyk, M.

M. Brewczyk and M. Gajda, J. Phys. B 21, L383 (1988); E. J. Valeo, S. M. Susskind, and C. R. Oberman, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 34, 2099 (1989).
[Crossref]

Brun, A.

Brunel, F.

P. B. Corkum, N. H. Burnett, and F. Brunel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 1259 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burnett, N. H.

P. B. Corkum, N. H. Burnett, and F. Brunel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 1259 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Campbell, E. M.

M. D. Perry, A. Szöke, O. L. Landen, and E. M. Campbell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1270 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Perry, O. L. Landen, A. Szöke, and E. M. Campbell, Phys. Rev. A 37, 747 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chin, S. L.

S. Augst, D. Strickland, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. L. Chin, and J. H. Eberly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 2212 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. L. Chin, C. Rolland, P. B. Corkum, and P. Kelly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 153 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Yergeau, S. L. Chin, and P. Lavigne, J. Phys. B 20, 723 (1987).
[Crossref]

S. L. Chin, W. Xiong, and P. Lavigne, J. Opt. Soc. Am B 4, 853 (1987).
[Crossref]

S. L. Chin and W. Xiong, in Fundamentals of Laser Interactions II, F. Ehlotzky, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), p. 80.
[Crossref]

Corkum, P. B.

P. B. Corkum, N. H. Burnett, and F. Brunel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 1259 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. L. Chin, C. Rolland, P. B. Corkum, and P. Kelly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 153 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Corradi, G.

J. Janszky, G. Corradi, and R. N. Gyuzalian, Opt. Commun. 23, 293 (1977).
[Crossref]

Delone, N. B.

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191 (1986).

Eberly, J. H.

S. Augst, D. Strickland, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. L. Chin, and J. H. Eberly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 2212 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Egger, H.

T. S. Luk, U. Johann, H. Egger, H. Pummer, and C. K. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. A 32, 214 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Faisal, F. H. M.

F. H. M. Faisal, J. Phys. B 6, L89 (1973).
[Crossref]

Gajda, M.

M. Brewczyk and M. Gajda, J. Phys. B 21, L383 (1988); E. J. Valeo, S. M. Susskind, and C. R. Oberman, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 34, 2099 (1989).
[Crossref]

Georges, P.

Gibson, G.

G. Gibson, T. S. Luk, and C. K. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. A 41, 5049 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gyuzalian, R. N.

J. Janszky, G. Corradi, and R. N. Gyuzalian, Opt. Commun. 23, 293 (1977).
[Crossref]

Hughes, J. L.

B. W. Boreham and J. L. Hughes, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 80, (1981) [Sov. Phys. JETP 53, 252 (1981)].

Janszky, J.

J. Janszky, G. Corradi, and R. N. Gyuzalian, Opt. Commun. 23, 293 (1977).
[Crossref]

Johann, U.

T. S. Luk, U. Johann, H. Egger, H. Pummer, and C. K. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. A 32, 214 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Keldysh, L. V.

L. V. Keldysh, Sov. Phys. JETP,  20, 1307 (1965).

Kelly, P.

S. L. Chin, C. Rolland, P. B. Corkum, and P. Kelly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 153 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krainov, V. P.

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191 (1986).

L’Huillier, A.

A. L’Huillier, L. A. Lompré, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, J. Phys. B 16, 1363 (1983).
[Crossref]

Landau, L. D.

L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Quantum Mechanics (Pergamon, New York, 1965), solved the problem at end of Sec. 73.

Landen, O. L.

M. D. Perry, A. Szöke, O. L. Landen, and E. M. Campbell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1270 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Perry, O. L. Landen, A. Szöke, and E. M. Campbell, Phys. Rev. A 37, 747 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lavigne, P.

F. Yergeau, S. L. Chin, and P. Lavigne, J. Phys. B 20, 723 (1987).
[Crossref]

S. L. Chin, W. Xiong, and P. Lavigne, J. Opt. Soc. Am B 4, 853 (1987).
[Crossref]

Lifshitz, E. M.

L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Quantum Mechanics (Pergamon, New York, 1965), solved the problem at end of Sec. 73.

Lompré, L. A.

A. L’Huillier, L. A. Lompré, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, J. Phys. B 16, 1363 (1983).
[Crossref]

Luk, T. S.

G. Gibson, T. S. Luk, and C. K. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. A 41, 5049 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Luk, U. Johann, H. Egger, H. Pummer, and C. K. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. A 32, 214 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maine, P.

P. Maine, D. Strickland, P. Bado, M. Pessot, and G. Mourou, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-24, 398 (1988).
[Crossref]

Mainfray, G.

A. L’Huillier, L. A. Lompré, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, J. Phys. B 16, 1363 (1983).
[Crossref]

Manus, C.

A. L’Huillier, L. A. Lompré, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, J. Phys. B 16, 1363 (1983).
[Crossref]

Martinez, O. E.

O. E. Martinez, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 59 (1987).
[Crossref]

Meyerhofer, D. D.

S. Augst, D. Strickland, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. L. Chin, and J. H. Eberly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 2212 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mourou, G.

P. Maine, D. Strickland, P. Bado, M. Pessot, and G. Mourou, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-24, 398 (1988).
[Crossref]

G. Albrecht, A. Antonetti, and G. Mourou, Opt. Commun. 40, 59 (1981).
[Crossref]

Perelomov, A. M.

A. M. Perelomov, V. S. Popov, and M. V. Terent’ev, Sov. Phys. JETP,  23, 924 (1966).

Perry, M. D.

M. D. Perry, A. Szöke, O. L. Landen, and E. M. Campbell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1270 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Perry, O. L. Landen, A. Szöke, and E. M. Campbell, Phys. Rev. A 37, 747 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pessot, M.

P. Maine, D. Strickland, P. Bado, M. Pessot, and G. Mourou, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-24, 398 (1988).
[Crossref]

Popov, V. S.

A. M. Perelomov, V. S. Popov, and M. V. Terent’ev, Sov. Phys. JETP,  23, 924 (1966).

Pummer, H.

T. S. Luk, U. Johann, H. Egger, H. Pummer, and C. K. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. A 32, 214 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reiss, H. R.

H. R. Reiss, Phys. Rev. A 22, 1786 (1980).
[Crossref]

Rhodes, C. K.

G. Gibson, T. S. Luk, and C. K. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. A 41, 5049 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. K. Rhodes, Phys. Scr. T17, 193 (1987).
[Crossref]

T. S. Luk, U. Johann, H. Egger, H. Pummer, and C. K. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. A 32, 214 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roger, G.

Rolland, C.

S. L. Chin, C. Rolland, P. B. Corkum, and P. Kelly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 153 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Salin, F.

Strickland, D.

S. Augst, D. Strickland, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. L. Chin, and J. H. Eberly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 2212 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Maine, D. Strickland, P. Bado, M. Pessot, and G. Mourou, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-24, 398 (1988).
[Crossref]

D. Strickland, “Development of an ultra-bright laser and an application to multi-photon ionization,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Rochester, Rochester, N.Y., 1988).

Szöke, A.

M. D. Perry, A. Szöke, O. L. Landen, and E. M. Campbell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1270 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Perry, O. L. Landen, A. Szöke, and E. M. Campbell, Phys. Rev. A 37, 747 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Szöke, in Atomic and Molecular Processes with Short Intense Laser Pulses, A. D. Bandrauk, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1987), p. 207.

Terent’ev, M. V.

A. M. Perelomov, V. S. Popov, and M. V. Terent’ev, Sov. Phys. JETP,  23, 924 (1966).

Xiong, W.

S. L. Chin, W. Xiong, and P. Lavigne, J. Opt. Soc. Am B 4, 853 (1987).
[Crossref]

S. L. Chin and W. Xiong, in Fundamentals of Laser Interactions II, F. Ehlotzky, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), p. 80.
[Crossref]

Yergeau, F.

F. Yergeau, S. L. Chin, and P. Lavigne, J. Phys. B 20, 723 (1987).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

P. Maine, D. Strickland, P. Bado, M. Pessot, and G. Mourou, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-24, 398 (1988).
[Crossref]

O. E. Martinez, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 59 (1987).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. G. H. Baldwin and B. W. Boreham, J. Appl. Phys. 52, 2627 (1981).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am B (1)

S. L. Chin, W. Xiong, and P. Lavigne, J. Opt. Soc. Am B 4, 853 (1987).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. B (4)

F. Yergeau, S. L. Chin, and P. Lavigne, J. Phys. B 20, 723 (1987).
[Crossref]

F. H. M. Faisal, J. Phys. B 6, L89 (1973).
[Crossref]

A. L’Huillier, L. A. Lompré, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, J. Phys. B 16, 1363 (1983).
[Crossref]

M. Brewczyk and M. Gajda, J. Phys. B 21, L383 (1988); E. J. Valeo, S. M. Susskind, and C. R. Oberman, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 34, 2099 (1989).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (2)

G. Albrecht, A. Antonetti, and G. Mourou, Opt. Commun. 40, 59 (1981).
[Crossref]

J. Janszky, G. Corradi, and R. N. Gyuzalian, Opt. Commun. 23, 293 (1977).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (4)

M. D. Perry, O. L. Landen, A. Szöke, and E. M. Campbell, Phys. Rev. A 37, 747 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Gibson, T. S. Luk, and C. K. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. A 41, 5049 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. S. Luk, U. Johann, H. Egger, H. Pummer, and C. K. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. A 32, 214 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. R. Reiss, Phys. Rev. A 22, 1786 (1980).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

S. L. Chin, C. Rolland, P. B. Corkum, and P. Kelly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 153 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Perry, A. Szöke, O. L. Landen, and E. M. Campbell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1270 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Augst, D. Strickland, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. L. Chin, and J. H. Eberly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 2212 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum, N. H. Burnett, and F. Brunel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 1259 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Scr. (1)

C. K. Rhodes, Phys. Scr. T17, 193 (1987).
[Crossref]

Sov. Phys. JETP (3)

L. V. Keldysh, Sov. Phys. JETP,  20, 1307 (1965).

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191 (1986).

A. M. Perelomov, V. S. Popov, and M. V. Terent’ev, Sov. Phys. JETP,  23, 924 (1966).

Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. (1)

B. W. Boreham and J. L. Hughes, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 80, (1981) [Sov. Phys. JETP 53, 252 (1981)].

Other (6)

S. L. Chin and W. Xiong, in Fundamentals of Laser Interactions II, F. Ehlotzky, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), p. 80.
[Crossref]

A. Szöke, in Atomic and Molecular Processes with Short Intense Laser Pulses, A. D. Bandrauk, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1987), p. 207.

A useful conversion formula for the electric field is ℰ(V/cm) = 27.5[I(W/cm2)]1/2.

Manual for Channelplate Charged Particle Detectors Model CP-601 and CP-602 (Comstock Inc., Oak Ridge, Tenn., 1985).

D. Strickland, “Development of an ultra-bright laser and an application to multi-photon ionization,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Rochester, Rochester, N.Y., 1988).

L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Quantum Mechanics (Pergamon, New York, 1965), solved the problem at end of Sec. 73.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Helium ion-production rate as a function of peak laser intensity. The theoretical curves are from the BSI model with no shift in intensity. P = 5 × 10−6 Torr.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Neon ion-production rate as a function of peak laser intensity. The theoretical curves are from the BSI model with no shift in intensity. P = 2.5 × 10−6 Torr.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Argon ion-production rate as a function of peak laser intensity. The theoretical curves are from the BSI model with no shift in intensity. P = 5 × 10−6 Torr.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Krypton ion-production rate as a function of peak laser intensity. The theoretical curves are from the BSI model with no shift in intensity. P = 5 × 10−6 Torr.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Xenon ion-production rate as a function of peak laser intensity. The theoretical curves are from the BSI model with no shift in intensity. P = 5 × 10−6 Torr.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Keldysh’s γ parameter at the appearance intensity for each of the charge states. In each case γ < 1, which indicates that ionization occurs in the tunneling regime.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Effective principal quantum number n* versus the sequential ionization potential for each of the charge states seen. ADK theory is expected to be valid for n* ≫ 1.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Comparison of xenon ion production and that predicted by ADK theory. The theoretical curves have no shift in intensity.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Comparison of xenon ion production and that predicted by Keldysh’s model. The theoretical curves are shifted lower in intensity by a factor of 0.7.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Comparison of xenon ion production and that predicted by KFR theory. The theoretical curves are shifted lower in intensity by a factor of 0.63.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Comparison of helium ion production and that predicted by KFR theory. The theoretical curves have no shift in intensity.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Comparison of xenon ion production and that predicted by Szöke’s modification to KFR theory. The theoretical curves are shifted higher in intensity by a factor of 4.2.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Shift in Theoretical Curves Needed to Match Experimental Dataa

Equations (16)

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γ = ( E 2 Φ ) 1 / 2 ,
Φ = E 2 4 ω 2 , Φ ( eV ) = ( 9.33 × 10 - 14 ) I ( W / cm 2 ) λ 2 ( μ m ) .
Volume = π z R w 0 2 { 4 ( c 1 - c 2 ) 3 + 2 ( c 1 3 - c 2 3 ) 9 - 4 3 [ tan - 1 ( c 1 ) - tan - 1 ( c 2 ) ] } ,
V ( x ) = - Z x - E x .
E = E 2 4 Z .
I th = E 4 16 Z 2 , I th ( W / cm 2 ) = 4.00 × 10 9 E 4 ( eV ) Z 2 .
n * = n - δ l = Z ( 2 E ) 1 / 2 ,
W = ω A C n * l 2 f ( l , m ) E ( 3 E π ( 2 E ) 3 / 2 ) 1 / 2 × [ 2 E ( 2 E ) 3 / 2 ] 2 n * - m - 1 exp [ - 2 3 E ( 2 E ) 3 / 2 ] ,
f ( l , m ) = ( 2 l + 1 ) ( l + m ) ! 2 m ( m ) ! ( l + m ) !
C n , l = ( 2 e n * ) n * 1 ( 2 π n * ) 1 / 2 ,
W = 4 ω A ( 2 E ) 5 / 2 E exp [ - 2 ( 2 E ) 3 / 2 3 E ] .
W = ω A ( 6 π ) 1 / 2 2 5 / 4 E [ E ( 2 E ) 3 / 2 ] 1 / 2 exp [ - 2 ( 2 E ) 3 / 2 3 E ] .
ϕ ( p ) = 8 ( π a 0 3 ) 1 / 2 ( 1 + p 2 a 0 2 ) 2 ,
W = 32 ω L n b 5 / 2 n = N 0 ( n - n osc - n b ) 1 / 2 ( n - n osc ) 2 × 0 1 J n 2 ( n f , - 1 2 n osc ) d μ ,
W exp [ - 2 ( 2 E ) 3 / 2 3 E ] ,
W = 32 ω L n b 5 / 2 n = N 0 n 2 ( n - n b - n osc ) ( n - n osc ) 1 / 2 ( n + n b - n osc ) 4 × 0 1 J n 2 ( n f , - 1 2 n osc ) d μ ,

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